4 results for Jackson, Nicola, Thesis

  • 10 Year Analysis of Environmental Footprint Photo Monitoring at Scott Base, Antarctica

    Jackson, Nicola (2005)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Since 1994 Antarctica New Zealand has conducted fixed point photo monitoring at Scott Base as a part of their overall monitoring programme. This has been carried out in an attempt to monitor anthropogenic change within the environment and specifically to help determine whether the footprint of activities at Scott Base has been changing. This study is an analysis of these monitoring photos, which has shown that in general the footprint has not changed since 1994. It has been shown that characteristics and the intensity of the footprint have altered with time, such as through the development of new buildings and a general tidying up of the base. The study has also highlighted some of the limits of current photo monitoring, which have meant that in some cases less than 1,4 of a photo has been used in the analysis due to photographers using different photographing techniques.

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  • Heritage Conservation Planning in the Ross Sea Region, Antarctica

    Jackson, Nicola (2003)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The Draft Shackleton's Hut Conservation Plan (SHCP) is the first Of four conservation plans being prepared as part of a much larger restoration project being undertaken by the Antalx:tic Heritage Trust (AHT).The need for a coordinated restoration project for the historic huts has been signalled for some time. Conservation plans are important heritage planning tools that explain why a site is significant and how that significance will be retained in any future use, alteration, development or repair of the place. There are numerous guidelines and models available internationally on how to construct a conservation plan but they ale all similar being based on the same heritage principles. The Antarctic context also provides unique challenges in terms of logistical arrangements for conservation planning and work, and with regard to, at times, difficult climatic factors. The SHCP is the resulting work of a large multidisciplinary team of professionals, the coordination of which has been project managed by a consultant. The draft document is comprehensive and portrays generally accepted and contemporary heritage conservation principles. However, several key issues of debate arise from the plan with respect to the restoration of the hut and its environs. These issues include restoration to a specific time period, the reconstruction of missing parts Of the accessory structures, and the leplication Of artefacts. The Draft Shackleton's Hut Conservation Plan (SHCP) is the first Of four conservation plans being prepared as part of a much larger restoration project being undertaken by the Antalx:tic Heritage Trust (AHT).The need for a coordinated restoration project for the historic huts has been signalled for some time. Conservation plans are important heritage planning tools that explain why a site is significant and how that significance will be retained in any future use, alteration, development or repair of the place. There are numerous guidelines and models available internationally on how to construct a conservation plan but they ale all similar being based on the same heritage principles. The Antarctic context also provides unique challenges in terms of logistical arrangements for conservation planning and work, and with regard to, at times, difficult climatic factors. The SHCP is the resulting work of a large multidisciplinary team of professionals, the coordination of which has been project managed by a consultant. The draft document is comprehensive and portrays generally accepted and contemporary heritage conservation principles. However, several key issues of debate arise from the plan with respect to the restoration of the hut and its environs. These issues include restoration to a specific time period, the reconstruction of missing parts Of the accessory structures, and the leplication Of artefacts.

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  • Comparative Critique for the Dry Valley Drilling Project (DVDP) and the Antarctic Drilling Project (ANDRILL)

    Jackson, Nicola (2005)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The International Geophysical Year (IGY) was extremely imponant to Antarctica and Antarctic science for initiating the pattern Of international cooperation that is now so distinctive to this region. Scientific projects involving international cooperation are a necessity for research in Antarctica due to its isolation and the extreme conditions experienced when working there. The financial cost associated with any large projects also encourages this trend for projects supported by multiple countries. The years since the IGY have seen several of these large international projects develop, particularly in the McMurdo Sound Region where drilling has become increasingly important (McGinnis, 1981. ) The McMurdo Sound Region is Of panicular significance to researchers as evidence suggests that it should be able to provide a continuous sedimentary record. This will allow for correlations to be made between continental, volcanic, and marine environments, as well as providing information from the Cenozoic era, which immediately precedes today's record (McGinnis, 1981; Mudrey & McGinnis, 1975.) Before drilling began in this region information was gained from easily accessible surface materials, providing only a limited glimpse at the past. Drilling has allowed a new window to be opened, through which both Antarctic and global history can be discovered (Environmental Appraisal for the DVDP, Phases III- V, 1973-75.) This report will look at two multi-national drilling projects from the McMurdo Sound Region, comparing the Dry Valley Drilling Project (DVDP) of the 1970s to the ANtarctic DRILLing Project (ANDRILL) Of today. As ANDRILL is currently in the planning stages, only the document(s) for each project relating to the protection of the Antarctic environment will be considered in this comparison, The International Geophysical Year (IGY) was extremely imponant to Antarctica and Antarctic science for initiating the pattern Of international cooperation that is now so distinctive to this region. Scientific projects involving international cooperation are a necessity for research in Antarctica due to its isolation and the extreme conditions experienced when working there. The financial cost associated with any large projects also encourages this trend for projects supported by multiple countries. The years since the IGY have seen several of these large international projects develop, particularly in the McMurdo Sound Region where drilling has become increasingly important (McGinnis, 1981. ) The McMurdo Sound Region is Of panicular significance to researchers as evidence suggests that it should be able to provide a continuous sedimentary record. This will allow for correlations to be made between continental, volcanic, and marine environments, as well as providing information from the Cenozoic era, which immediately precedes today's record (McGinnis, 1981; Mudrey & McGinnis, 1975.) Before drilling began in this region information was gained from easily accessible surface materials, providing only a limited glimpse at the past. Drilling has allowed a new window to be opened, through which both Antarctic and global history can be discovered (Environmental Appraisal for the DVDP, Phases III- V, 1973-75.) This report will look at two multi-national drilling projects from the McMurdo Sound Region, comparing the Dry Valley Drilling Project (DVDP) of the 1970s to the ANtarctic DRILLing Project (ANDRILL) Of today. As ANDRILL is currently in the planning stages, only the document(s) for each project relating to the protection of the Antarctic environment will be considered in this comparison,

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  • The role of the neighbourhood in adolescent alcohol use

    Jackson, Nicola (2016)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Background In Aotearoa New Zealand, adolescents experience disproportionately more harm from their drinking when compared to older drinkers. The social gradient in adolescent drinking and harm presents important implications for health equity, underscoring the need to identify and address the social determinants of adolescent alcohol use, including the physical and social features of the neighbourhood environment. The overarching aim of this research was to identify salient neighbourhood exposures associated with adolescent drinking and subgroups of adolescents who may have heightened vulnerability to their effects. Methods This thesis comprises one systematic review of the literature and four studies utilising data from the Youth’07 and Youth’12 nationally-representative surveys of secondary school students in Aotearoa New Zealand: a) Systematic review: Multilevel studies of neighbourhood effects (excluding alcohol outlet density) on adolescent alcohol use were identified and synthesised. b) Adolescent drinking typologies: Latent Class Analysis (LCA) was undertaken to identify drinking typologies among current drinkers in the Youth’07 survey. Proximal predictors of each drinking typology were identified so that potential mediators on the pathway(s) of neighbourhood effects could be further investigated. c) Changes in drinking between 2007 and 2012: Changes in drinking were examined among demographic subgroups characterised by age, sex, and household and neighbourhood socioeconomic position (SEP). d) Neighbourhood typologies and adolescent alcohol use: Ten indicators of the neighbourhood socio-economic, social, and physical environment were utilised in a LCA to identify neighbourhood typologies. Associations between neighbourhood typology and alcohol use were examined using multilevel modelling. e) Pathways of neighbourhood effects: Multilevel path analysis was used to examine the direct and indirect pathways of neighbourhood disadvantage, physical disorder, collective efficacy, and alcohol outlet density on drinking behaviours. Results Systematic review: 30 multilevel studies examining 12 neighbourhood-level exposures were identified. The majority of studies found no associations between measures of adolescent drinking and residential mobility, neighbourhood disorder or crime, employment or job availability, neighbourhood attitudes to drinking, social capital, and collective efficacy. Inconsistent results were found across studies examining the effects of neighbourhood-level socio-economic disadvantage. High levels of both adult and adolescent alcohol use in the neighbourhood showed positive associations with adolescent alcohol use whilst protective effects were found for enforcement of liquor laws. Adolescent drinking typologies: LCA revealed four drinking typologies amongst drinkers, reflecting an overall linear relationship between levels of consumption and alcohol-related harms. One class was an exception to this pattern, with moderate consumption associated with disproportionately high levels of alcohol-related harms. Having a positive attitude to regular alcohol use, buying own alcohol, peers using alcohol, and obtaining alcohol from friends and/or other adults were found to be the strongest predictors of belonging to high-risk drinking typologies. Changes in drinking between 2007 and 2012: Aggregate data for students in all groups characterised by age, sex, household SEP, and neighbourhood SEP showed declines in the prevalence and frequency of drinking. Reductions in the typical quantity of alcohol consumed by drinkers were only apparent among young males (<16 years), but predicted increased risky drinking and current drinking in older adolescents (≥16 years). Alcohol outlet density was not implicated in the collective efficacy pathway, but showed direct relationships with drinking in both age groups. Among older adolescents, off-licence density was significantly associated with increased binge drinking and current drinking. Among younger adolescents, club density was positively associated with high typical quantities and current drinking. Conclusion An adolescent’s place of residence is often beyond their control, yet the findings from this thesis indicate that the neighbourhood can be an important influence on their alcohol use. In particular, exposure to area-level socio-economic disadvantage, physical disorder, alcohol outlets, and low collective efficacy may give rise to experiencing inequalities in harmful alcohol use. The interrelated nature of neighbourhood characteristics and variations in effects based on age point to the need for future research to employ developmentally-appropriate innovative methods that can better capture relevant exposures, pathways, and interactions of adolescents with their neighbourhood environments.

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