126 results for Lowe, David J., Journal article

  • Assessing drivers of plantation forest productivity on eroded and non-eroded soils in hilly land, eastern North Island, New Zealand

    Heaphy, Marie; Lowe, David J.; Palmer, David John; Jones, Hayden S.; Gielen, Gerty J. H. P.; Oliver, Graeme R.; Pearce, Stephen H. (2014-07-02)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    Methods: The impact of soil erosion by mass movement on forest productivity was investigated in a paired plot trial in a planted forest in a mainly hilly to steepland catchment (Pakuratahi) near Napier, eastern North Island, New Zealand. Tree growth and form were measured and soil properties analysed to compare productivity and productivity drivers in adjacent non-eroded and eroded plots. Background: The effect of soil erosion on New Zealand production forestry is not well known and there has been no research prior to our study into the relationship between soil nutrient status and planted forests growing in eroded soils in steeplands. Results: Regression analysis showed that the decreased soil total nitrogen, total carbon, total phosphorus, and soil organic matter content in eroded plots had a negative impact on tree volume, resulting in a 10% decrease in measured tree volume. Based on an assessment of log quality, trees in the eroded plots were forecast to produce 16% less volume from high-quality pruned logs (with associated reduction in revenue of around $4000 per hectare), than trees in non-eroded plots. The total recoverable volume (TRV), estimated (for a 25-year rotation) from the measured Pinus radiata D. Don trees growing on the eroded sites, was valued at $68,500, about 9% less than the estimated TRV from trees measured on non-eroded plots ($76,000). Tree form and mean tree height in eroded and non-eroded plots were not significantly different. Conclusions: Soil erosion impacts production in planted forests. Afforestation of erodible land provides a valuable ecosystem service through land and soil stabilisation but this service is currently not reflected in the market prices for timber in New Zealand. Maintaining the productive capacity of erodible soils through practices such as fertilisation or continuous-cover forestry can add further costs to production forestry. To ensure that sustainable forest practices are carried out to protect the productivity of soils, financial incentives may be justified.

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  • INTREPID Tephra-II: - 1307F

    Lowe, David J. (2013)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    The INTREPID Tephra project, “Enhancing tephrochronology as a global research tool through improved fingerprinting and correlation techniques and uncertainty modelling”, was an overarching project of the international community of tephrochronologists of the International Focus Group on Tephrochronology and Volcanism (INTAV), which in turn lies under the auspices of INQUA’s Stratigraphy and Chronology Commission (SACCOM). INTREPID’s main aim has been to advance our understanding and efficacy in fingerprinting, correlating, and dating techniques, and to evaluate and quantify uncertainty in tephrochronology, and thus enhance our ability to provide the best possible linking, dating and synchronising tool for a wide range of Quaternary research projects around the world. A second aim has been to re-build the global capability of tephrochronology for future research endeavours through mentoring and encouragement of emerging researchers in the discipline.

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  • Colin George Vucetich (1918–2007)—pioneering New Zealand tephrochronologist

    Lowe, David J.; Tonkin, Philip J.; Neall, Vincent E.; Palmer, Alan S.; Alloway, Brent V.; Froggatt, Paul C. (2008)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    Many Quaternarists, tephrochronologists, and soil scientists mourned the passing in New Zealand of Colin Vucetich—gentle mentor, pedologist, and pioneering tephrochronologist—on 25 April (Anzac Day), 2007. Colin was in his 89th year. As well as forming a 25-year partnership with W.A. “Alan” Pullar, with whom he published three classic papers on tephrostratigraphy based on field work undertaken by the pair largely in their own time, Colin inspired and mentored numerous postgraduates in his later career as an academic at Victoria University of Wellington. There he taught pedology, soil stratigraphy, and tephrochronology until his retirement as Reader (Associate Professor) in 1982. In retirement he was an honorary lecturer and supervisor at Massey University (Palmerston North) until 1991 (Fig. 1, Fig. 2 and Fig. 3).

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  • Measuring radiation in the environment following the Fukushima nuclear disaster, Japan

    Lowe, David J. (2012)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    A group of scientists and technical staff from Toshiba Company, including Dr Hirokazu Kanai, undertook field trials at the station using a newly-developed, portable, two-dimensional gamma-ray visualization system known as a “Gamma Camera”.

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  • The Anthropocene: an Australasian perspective and survey.

    Lowe, David J.; Bostock, Helen C. (2015-06-02)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    In 2000, Crutzen and Stoermer suggested that the Holocene (the geological period of time since 11,700 years ago: Walker et al., 2009) had finished and that humanity had now entered the “Anthropocene”. As summarised by Steffen et al. (2011) and Wolfe et al. (2013), these scientists were referring to the Anthropocene as the interval of demonstrable human alteration of global biogeochemical cycles, beginning subtly in the late 18th Century following James Watt’s invention of the coal-fired steam engine, and accelerating markedly in the mid-20th Century (called “The Great Acceleration”).

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  • Dissolution and depletion of ferromagnesian minerals from Holocene tephra layers in an acid bog, New Zealand, and implications for tephra correlation

    Hodder, A.P.W.; de Lange, P.J.; Lowe, David J. (1991)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    This study examines the depletion of ferromagnesian silicate minerals from a sequence of thin, distal, mainly rhyolitic tephra layers of Holocene age preserved in an acid peat bog (Kopouatai), North Island, New Zealand. The rate of such depletion has been fast, as indicated by the complete loss of biotite from one tephra layer (Kaharoa Tephra), in which it is normally dominant, in only ca. 770 yr. Chemical dissolution is advocated as the likely cause for the depletion, with amphiboles and other mineral grains commonly showing etch pits, microcaves, and other characteristic surface solution features. Theoretical thermodynamic and kinetic models show a marked increase in the rate of dissolution of all ferromagnesian minerals under conditions of low pH (< 4), but that where silica concentrations in solution are high the relative proportions of minerals remaining are unaffected. However, where concentrations of dissolved silica are low, as in most bog environments, the relative proportions of ferromagnesian minerals are affected as well as absolute amounts being decreased. Amphiboles are depleted relative to pyroxenes, consistent with kinetic studies. The results show that the identification and correlation of tephras on the basis of relative abundances of ferromagnesian minerals alone may be unreliable, and emphasise the need to use multiple criteria in such studies.

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  • Don Hogg: soil chemist and gentleman

    Lowe, David J. (1997)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    Donald Elvery Hogg, a former member of the New Zealand Society of Soil Science, died on 21 November 1996. This obituary is a tribute to Don and to some of the contributions he made to soil science during his thirty-year career as a soil chemist at Ruakura Agricultural Research Centre, Hamilton.

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  • Late Quaternary volcanism in New Zealand: Towards an integrated record using distal airfall tephras in lakes and bogs

    Lowe, David J. (1988)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    Studies on distal airfall tephra layers preserved in lake sediments and peats in northern New Zealand have documented the stratigraphic, chronologic, and compositional relationships of 46 eruptives, aged c. 17000–700yr BP, which originated from six North Island volcanic centres: Taupo (9 tephras), Okataina (8), Maroa (1) (rhyolitic); Mayor Island (2) (peralkaline); Tongariro (11), Egmont (15) (andesitic). Sources were distinguished by mineralogy and composition, field relations, and 14C chronology. All known rhyolitic tephra-producing eruptions from Taupo, Okataina, and Maroa volcanoes since c. 17000yr BP are represented, but only a small proportion of the known tephras erupted from Tongariro, Egmont, or Mayor Island volcanoes is recorded. The distal tephras from these latter volcanic centres may thus reflect atypically powerful (or oblique) eruptions, or dispersal by strong winds. An improved record of volcanism for the Tongariro, Egmont, and Mayor Island centres might be obtainable from suitable lakes or bogs more proximal to them.

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  • Application of new technology liquid scintillation spectrometry to radiocarbon dating of tephra deposits, New Zealand

    Lowe, David J.; Hogg, Alan G. (1992)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    Two major technological advances in the radiocarbon dating method have recently enhanced its potential application to tephra studies: the advent of accelerator mass spectrometry and the development of new technology liquid scintillation (LS) spectrometry. The new technology LS spectrometer represents a significant refinement of the conventional dating method based on liquid scintillation counting of benzene. It improves upon conventional LS counting by allowing spectral analysis, and by providing a high degree of counting stability and efficiency in an ultra low-level background radiation environment. These attributes enable radiocarbon dating with greater accuracy and statistical precision, and also allow the determination of both smaller and older samples than previously possible by conventional radiometric methods. The new Wallac Oy ‘Quantulus’ LS spectrometer has been in operation at the University of Waikato Radiocarbon Dating Laboratory since 1988. The instrument achieves ultra-low background levels by both passive and active forms of shielding. The shielding comprises a massive asymmetric passive lead shield surrounding an aticoincident liquid scintillation guard. In addition, the Quantulus contains dual multichannel analyzers which allow spectral analysis and ‘windowless’ data acquisition. The Quantulus LS spectrometers at the Waikato laboratory have been used to date a variety of carbonaceous materials associated with tephra deposits in New Zealand, ranging in age from ca. 0.1–55 ka. In particular, we have tested the capability of the Quantulus for determining ages of samples that are typically more difficult or impossible to date by conventional methods: (1) very young samples (e.g. Tarawera Tephra, erupted ca. 100 years ago); (2) older samples (e.g. Mangaone Tephra, erupted ca. 30 ka); and (3) samples containing only sparse carbon (e.g. lake sediments associated with tephra layers aged ca. 20 ka or less). The Quantulus LS spectrometer is both more accurate and precise (statistical counting errors are reduced) than conventional instruments, is capable of extending the limits of detection at both ends of the age scale, and has a smaller sample handling ability. Analyses can be obtained at comparatively low cost. Such advances are potentially beneficial to tephrochronology and volcanology and a wide range of applications in Quaternary research.

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  • Holocene vegetation and volcanic activity, Auckland Isthmus, New Zealand

    Newnham, Rewi M.; Lowe, David J. (1991)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    A 12 000 to 4000 yr BP pollen and tephra-bearing profile from Auckland, New Zealand, provides insights into the vegetation history and evidence for early Holocene volcanic activity in this area centred on the Mount Wellington basaltic volcano. Possibly 500 yr separated initial scoriaceous ash deposition (ca. 9500 yr ago) and subsequent major lava flows (ca. 9000 yr ago) from Mount Wellington. The local vegelation, topography, and drainage patterns were substantially modified during this time, and damming by the lava flows resulted in the formation of Lake Waiatarua in a shallow valley head ca. 9000 yr ago. Diatom evidence indicates that this lake was initially deep (> 5 m) but was shallowing around 4000 yr ago. In contrast to the Mount Wellington eruptions, tephra deposition resulting from distant rhyolitic volcanic activity of the central North Island and Mayor Island has had little effect on the Auckland vegetation during this time interval (12 000–4000 yr ago). Between ca. 12 000 and 10 000 yr ago, conifer-angiosperm forest was the predominant vegetation cover on Auckland Isthmus, but during the early Holocene, forest dominated by Metrosideros expanded, probably on to fresh volcanic surfaces resulting from the Mount Wellington eruptions. At this time, swamp forest communities developed in Waiatarua valley basin, and included species indicative of moist, mild, relatively frost-free climates. Some taxa show histories consistent with other records from the northern New Zealand region, including the rise of Ascarina lucida ca. 11 000 to 9000 yr ago, and its subsequent decline, and the expansion of Agathis australis (kauri) forest communities from ca. 6000 yr ago. Taken together the history of local and regional vegetation points to a mild, moist and weakly seasonal early Holocene climate, which subsequently became drier with greater seasonal temperature extremes.

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  • Tephras and New Zealand archaeology

    Lowe, David J.; Newnham, Rewi M.; McFadgen, Bruce G.; Higham, Thomas F.G. (2000)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    Establishing an accurate date for earliest Polynesian settlement in New Zealand is essential for understanding patterns of settlement and associated environmental impacts, and the processes and rates of cultural change in Eastern Polynesia. Tephra deposits from five volcanic centres, together with exotic sea-rafted pumice, provide isochronous constraints on the timing of earliest settlement and human impacts in northern New Zealand. A local basaltic tephra from Rangitoto Island (Auckland) and locally distributed andesitic tephras from Egmont volcano directly date human occupation to c. AD 1400–1450. Distal andesitic tephras (Tufa Trig Formation) from Mt Ruapehu, Tongariro volcanic centre, help constrain the timing of earliest anthropogenic deforestation signals in Hawke's Bay. Sea-rafted Loisels Pumice(s), although of uncertain stratigraphic reliability in places, overlies cultural remains that can be no younger than c. AD 1350 along the east coast, North Island. The regionally extensive rhyolitic Kaharoa Tephra, which erupted from Okataina volcano between c. AD 1300–1390, is the critical “settlement layer” datum for dating prehistory in the North Island: no human artefacts are recorded beneath it and the earliest inferred environmental impacts by humans are dated to c. AD 1280, just prior to its deposition. This maximum date matches the earliest radiocarbon dates derived for both settlement and human impacts from archaeological and natural sites (c. AD 1250), and implies that the onset of deforestation was essentially contemporaneous with initial settlement. The widespread rhyolitic Taupo Tephra, which erupted from Taupo volcano c. AD 200, provides an isochronous benchmark well before earliest settlement. The tephra may coincide approximately with a putative earlier transient contact in New Zealand based on Pacific rat-bone (Rattus exulans) dates. More precise calendrical dates on the tephras—via dendrochronology or ice-core records or other dating methods—would help refine assessment of the timing of earliest settlement, while extending the distributional range of critical tephra layers, through application of crypto-tephra analysis, could lead to a greater understanding of settlement patterns.

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  • Quaternary environmental change in New Zealand: a review

    Newnham, Rewi M.; Lowe, David J.; Williams, Paul W. (1999)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    The discovery that orbital variations are the driving force behind Quaternary climate change provides an impetus to set local and regional records of environmental change into the global context, a principle that has been strongly embraced by Quaternary scientists working in New Zealand. Their major achievements and significant current initiatives are reviewed here. The importance of the New Zealand Quaternary stems from its geographical context: a climatically sensitive, remote oceanic, southern location spanning 17 degrees of the mid-latitudes; an obliquely convergent plate boundary setting resulting in a high mountain range athwart the prevailing westerlies, active volcanism, a youthful and dynamic landscape, and mountains high enough to maintain glaciers today; and a remarkably short prehistory. The resultant records show marked environmental changes due not only to climatic oscillations but also to vigorous, active tectonism and volcanism. The Taupo Volcanic Zone, containing the world's strongest concentration of youthful rhyolitic volcanoes, has produced at least 10 000 km3 of magma in the last 2 Ma. Climatic interpretations of records from marine sediments in the New Zealand region, together with several long sequences of alternating marine and terrestrial sediments, indicate broad synchrony with Northern Hemisphere events (within limitations of dating), although there are differences in detail for shorter-term climatic events. It is not yet certain that glacial advances coincided precisely with those in the Northern Hemisphere or were of similar duration. Late Cainozoic glaciation commenced c. 2.6-2.4 Ma but the record of glacial deposits is fragmentary and poorly dated except for the most recent events. The Last (Otira) Glaciation, from c. 100-10 ka, was characterized by at least five glacial advances including during the Last Glacial Maximum from 25 to 15 ka, when snowlines fell by 600-800 m. New Zealand evidence for cooling during the Younger Dryas stade is equivocal whilst isotopic records from speleothems, and other data, indicate warmer and wetter conditions from 10-7 ka, broadly conforming with records from mid-latitude Northern Hemisphere locations. Future advances will require sampling at shorter timescales, improvements in the accuracy and precision of existing dating methods and the development of new ones, extension of palaeoecological techniques to cover the full potential of New Zealand's diverse biota, and a stronger emphasis on quantification of palaeoclimatic parameters.

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  • Discriminant function analysis and correlation of Late Quaternary rhyolitic tephra deposits from Taupo and Okataina volcanoes, New Zealand, using glass shard major element composition

    Stokes, Stephen; Lowe, David J.; Froggatt, Paul C. (1992)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    Discriminant function analysis (DFA) is a multivariate statistical technique that provides a non-subjective means of correlating tephra deposits based on compositional or other variable characteristics. Using microprobe-determined glass shard major element composition, two DFA classification models were developed to separate (distinguish) individual tephra deposits erupted since ca. 22 ka from each of the rhyolitic Okataina and Taupo volcanoes, North Island, New Zealand. In an iterative approach, those tephras easily classified in the first DFA are removed from the dataset before applying the second DFA, hence generally improving the separation of the remaining tephras that are more closely alike. The first two canonical functions accounted for ca. 85% of variance within the Okataina dataset, and ca. 80% within the Taupo dataset. Using the first two canonical variates, we correctly classified 5 (Kaharoa, Rotoma, Waiohau, Rotorua, Te Rere) of the Okataina, and 4 (Taupo, Hatepe, Whakaipo, Karapiti) of the Taupo deposits under study, at efficiency levels of 70–100%. The incorporation of a third canonical variate, and additional sompositional data, would further improve our DFA models, which should ideally be used in conjunction with stratigraphic and other characteristic indices, where available, to facilitate accurate correlation. The Mahalanobis distance statistic (D²), a statistical measure of the multidimensional spacing of individual analyses, or groups of analyses, provides a better measure of likeness than the frequently used but subjective similarity coefficients technique.

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  • Testing the synchroneity of pollen signals using tephrostratigraphy

    Newnham, Rewi M.; Lowe, David J. (1999)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    Since the advent of radiocarbon dating, the concept of synchronous pollen-vegetation events extending across broad regions such as the British Isles, which had emerged from earlier pollen-stratigraphic studies, has been largely refuted. Nevertheless the assumption that pollen profiles within a geographically coherent area should exhibit broadly comparable and synchronous pollen signals still holds currency among some palynologists. This assumption is tested here by comparing pollen spectra between lateglacial and postglacial sites in northern New Zealand, until recently unaffected by human activity, where independent correlations are obtained by tephrochronology. At sites of similar size, morphology, and depositional environment within the same phytogeomorphic region, it is possible to achieve accurate palynological correlations, provided local taxa and those representing ecologically disparate source species are omitted from the pollen datasets. However, anomalous correlations may still occur and are more likely when sites with different depositional environments or at greater distances are compared. These results suggest that the concept of synchronous pollen signals, even between nearby sites with similar depositional setting, is not universally applicable and it is possible that erroneous palynostratigraphic correlations have been made in the past.

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  • Unravelling upbuilding pedogenesis in tephra and loess sequences in New Zealand using tephrochronology

    Lowe, David J.; Tonkin, Philip J. (2010)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    The genesis of soils developed in either tephra or loess on stable sites differs markedly from that of soils developed on rock because classical topdown processes operate in conjuction with geological processes whereby material is added to the land surface so that the soils form by upbuilding pedogenesis. Understanding the genesis of such soils (typically Andisols and Alfisols, respectively) often requires a stratigraphic approach combined with an appreciation of buried soil horizons and polygenesis. In New Zealand, calendrically-dated tephras provide an advantage for assessing rates of upbuilding through chronostratigraphy. Many Andisol profiles form by upbuilding pedogenesis as younger tephra materials are deposited on top of older ones. The resultant profile character reflects interplay between the rate at which tephras are added to the land surface and topdown processes that produce andic materials and horizons. In loess terrains, upbuilding pedogenesis since c. 25,000 years ago is associated with maximum rates of loess accumulation c. 3 10 mm per century, sufficiently slow for soil-forming processes to continue to operate as the land surface gradually rises. Thus, Alfisol subsoil features are only weakly developed and Bw or B(x) horizons typically are formed. In contrast, topdown pedogenesis is associated with minimal or zero loess accumulation, the land surface elevation remains essentially constant, and subsoil features become more strongly developed and Bg, Bt, or Bx horizons typically are formed.

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  • Preface: Enhancing tephrochronology and its application (INTREPID project): Hiroshi Machida commemorative volume

    Lowe, David J.; Davies, Siwan M.; Moriwaki, Hiroshi; Pearce, Nicholas J.G.; Suzuki, Takehiko (2011)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    Tephrochronology is the characterization and use of tephras – the explosively-erupted, unconsolidated, pyroclastic products of volcanic eruptions – or cryptotephras (glass-shard and/or crystal concentrations not visible as layers) as a unique stratigraphic linking, synchronizing, and dating tool. The word ‘tephra’ is derived directly from the Greek word tephra meaning ‘ashes’. Although the method is founded in stratigraphy, tephrochronology relies also on characterizing or ‘fingerprinting’ inherent tephra-derived components using laboratory-based analysis to complement field-based evidence. Such analysis includes the petrographic identification of mineral assemblages and the geochemical assay of glass shards, melt inclusions, or crystals (minerals including plagioclase, olivine, pyroxenes, amphiboles, biotite, or Fe–Ti oxides such as titanomagnetite) using the electron microprobe and other instruments including laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) ( [Lowe, 2011] and [1] ). These data are supported by the derivation of numerical ages on tephras/cryptotephras using a range of techniques including radiometric (e.g., radiocarbon, fission track, luminescence), incremental (e.g., layering in ice cores, varves, dendrochronology), age-equivalence (e.g., orbital tuning, magnetopolarity, palynostratigraphy), relative dating (e.g., obsidan hydration), and historical observation. Ages are also obtained using Bayesian-based flexible depositional modelling and wiggle matching (e.g., [Lowe et al., 2007] and Lowe et al., 2008 D.J. Lowe, P.A.R. Shane, B.V. Alloway and R.M. Newnham, Fingerprints and age models for widespread New Zealand tephra marker beds erupted since 30,000 years ago: a framework for NZ-INTIMATE.. Quaternary Science Reviews, 27 (2008), pp. 95–126. [Lowe et al., 2008] ).

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  • Kainui silt loam: how the lepard changed its spots

    Lowe, David J. (1991)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    The Kainui silt loam occurs on low rolling hills in the northern part of the Hamilton Basin, and is well expressed in Hamilton City.

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  • Niwashi - a new tool for pedology and cover-bed stratigraphy in New Zealand

    Lowe, David J. (2000)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    The Japanese Niwashi - literally 'garden master' - is a new field tool for dressing soil profiles or cleaning down stratigraphic sections comprising sottish or unconsolidated cover-bed deposits. Used for many years by Japanese pedologists, tephrochronologists, and volcanologists, the Niwashi has now become available in New Zealand. We have tried it out on a range of soils and various deposits and found it to be an excellent tool for field work in many situations.

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  • Towards a climate-event stratigraphy for New Zealand for the past 30,000 years - An evaluation of the 2005 NZ-INTIMATE meeting

    Lowe, David J. (2005)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    More than 30 geoscientists representing a range of disciplines met at the Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences (GNS) Rafter Laboratory in Lower Hutt in early July to present new developments in the quest to prepare a definitive climate-event stratigraphy for the New Zealand (NZ) region since 30 ka (all ages in calendar years unless noted otherwise). The meeting, ably convened by Brent Alloway (GNS) and Jamie Shulmeister (Canterbury University), was the second to be held by the NZ-INTIMATE (NZ-INT) palaeoclimate community.

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  • The working life of John McCraw (1925-2014): a remarkable New Zealand pedologist and Earth scientist

    Nelson, Campbell S.; Lowe, David J.; Tonkin, Philip J. (2015)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    John McCraw was an Earth scientist who began working as a pedologist with Soil Bureau, DSIR, then became the Foundation Professor of Earth Sciences at the University of Waikato in Hamilton, inspiring a new generation to study and work in Earth sciences, a discipline he introduced into the tertiary education system in New Zealand. In retirement, he was an author and historian with a special emphasis on Central Otago as well as the Waikato region. Throughout his career, marked especially by meritorious leadership, accomplished administration, and commitment to his staff and students at the University of Waikato, John McCraw also contributed widely to the communities in which he lived through public service organizations and as a public speaker. He received a number of awards including an MBE, fellowship, and companionship, and, uniquely, is commemorated also with a glacier, a fossil, and a museum-based research room named for him. The Earth sciences programme today as an integral part of the School of Science at the University of Waikato is stronger than ever. In the past few years several new staff have been appointed, both academic and technical, giving the largest-ever Earth sciences team of about 30 staff. As well as research-led teaching, Earth sciences has strong research groups, at the cores of which are doctoral and masterate students, and postdoctoral fellows, to carry on the work envisaged by John McCraw all those years ago. This thriving continuation of our discipline, which has always had strong multidisciplinary linkages with other sciences, is − alongside the countless students he has taught and inspired − surely his greatest legacy.

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