5 results for Pandy, MG

  • Subject-specific knee joint geometry improves predictions of medial tibiofemoral contact forces.

    Gerus, P; Sartori, M; Besier, Thor; Fregly, BJ; Delp, SL; Banks, SA; Pandy, MG; D'Lima, DD; Lloyd, DG (2013-11)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Estimating tibiofemoral joint contact forces is important for understanding the initiation and progression of knee osteoarthritis. However, tibiofemoral contact force predictions are influenced by many factors including muscle forces and anatomical representations of the knee joint. This study aimed to investigate the influence of subject-specific geometry and knee joint kinematics on the prediction of tibiofemoral contact forces using a calibrated EMG-driven neuromusculoskeletal model of the knee. One participant fitted with an instrumented total knee replacement walked at a self-selected speed while medial and lateral tibiofemoral contact forces, ground reaction forces, whole-body kinematics, and lower-limb muscle activity were simultaneously measured. The combination of generic and subject-specific knee joint geometry and kinematics resulted in four different OpenSim models used to estimate muscle-tendon lengths and moment arms. The subject-specific geometric model was created from CT scans and the subject-specific knee joint kinematics representing the translation of the tibia relative to the femur was obtained from fluoroscopy. The EMG-driven model was calibrated using one walking trial, but with three different cost functions that tracked the knee flexion/extension moments with and without constraint over the estimated joint contact forces. The calibrated models then predicted the medial and lateral tibiofemoral contact forces for five other different walking trials. The use of subject-specific models with minimization of the peak tibiofemoral contact forces improved the accuracy of medial contact forces by 47% and lateral contact forces by 7%, respectively compared with the use of generic musculoskeletal model.

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  • Integrating modelling, motion capture and x-ray fluoroscopy to investigate patellofemoral function during dynamic activity.

    Fernandez, Justin; Akbarshahi, M; Kim, HJ; Pandy, MG (2008-02)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Accurate measurement of knee-joint kinematics is critical for understanding the biomechanical function of the knee in vivo. Measurements of the relative movements of the bones at the knee are often used in inverse dynamics analyses to estimate the net muscle torques exerted about the joint, and as inputs to finite-element models to accurately assess joint contact. The fine joint translations that contribute to patterns of joint stress are impossible to measure accurately using traditional video-based motion capture techniques. Sub-millimetre changes in joint translation can mean the difference between contact and no contact of the cartilage tissue, leading to incorrect predictions of joint loading. This paper describes the use of low-dose X-ray fluoroscopy, an in vivo dynamic imaging modality that is finding increasing application in human joint motion measurement. Specifically, we describe a framework that integrates traditional motion capture, X-ray fluoroscopy and anatomically-based finite-element modelling for the purpose of assessing joint function during dynamic activity. We illustrate our methodology by applying it to study patellofemoral joint function, wherein the relative movements of the patella are predicted and the corresponding joint-contact stresses are calculated for a step-up task.

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  • Non-invasive assessment of soft-tissue artifact and its effect on knee joint kinematics during functional activity.

    Akbarshahi, M; Schache, AG; Fernandez, Justin; Baker, R; Banks, S; Pandy, MG (2010-05-07)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    The soft-tissue interface between skin-mounted markers and the underlying bones poses a major limitation to accurate, non-invasive measurement of joint kinematics. The aim of this study was twofold: first, to quantify lower limb soft-tissue artifact in young healthy subjects during functional activity; and second, to determine the effect of soft-tissue artifact on the calculation of knee joint kinematics. Subject-specific bone models generated from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were used in conjunction with X-ray images obtained from single-plane fluoroscopy to determine three-dimensional knee joint kinematics for four separate tasks: open-chain knee flexion, hip axial rotation, level walking, and a step-up. Knee joint kinematics was derived using the anatomical frames from the MRI-based, 3D bone models together with the data from video motion capture and X-ray fluoroscopy. Soft-tissue artifact was defined as the degree of movement of each marker in the anteroposterior, proximodistal and mediolateral directions of the corresponding anatomical frame. A number of different skin-marker clusters (total of 180) were used to calculate knee joint rotations, and the results were compared against those obtained from fluoroscopy. Although a consistent pattern of soft-tissue artifact was found for each task across all subjects, the magnitudes of soft-tissue artifact were subject-, task- and location-dependent. Soft-tissue artifact for the thigh markers was substantially greater than that for the shank markers. Markers positioned in the vicinity of the knee joint showed considerable movement, with root mean square errors as high as 29.3mm. The maximum root mean square errors for calculating knee joint rotations occurred for the open-chain knee flexion task and were 24.3 degrees , 17.8 degrees and 14.5 degrees for flexion, internal-external rotation and abduction-adduction, respectively. The present results on soft-tissue artifact, based on fluoroscopic measurements in healthy adult subjects, may be helpful in developing location- and direction-specific weighting factors for use in global optimization algorithms aimed at minimizing the effects of soft-tissue artifact on calculations of knee joint rotations.

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  • Evaluation of predicted knee-joint muscle forces during gait using an instrumented knee implant.

    Kim, HJ; Fernandez, Justin; Akbarshahi, M; Walter, JP; Fregly, BJ; Pandy, MG (2009-10)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Musculoskeletal modeling and optimization theory are often used to determine muscle forces in vivo. However, convincing quantitative evaluation of these predictions has been limited to date. The present study evaluated model predictions of knee muscle forces during walking using in vivo measurements of joint contact loading acquired from an instrumented implant. Joint motion, ground reaction force, and tibial contact force data were recorded simultaneously from a single subject walking at slow, normal, and fast speeds. The body was modeled as an 8-segment, 21-degree-of-freedom articulated linkage, actuated by 58 muscles. Joint moments obtained from inverse dynamics were decomposed into leg-muscle forces by solving an optimization problem that minimized the sum of the squares of the muscle activations. The predicted knee muscle forces were input into a 3D knee implant contact model to calculate tibial contact forces. Calculated and measured tibial contact forces were in good agreement for all three walking speeds. The average RMS errors for the medial, lateral, and total contact forces over the entire gait cycle and across all trials were 140 +/- 40 N, 115 +/- 32 N, and 183 +/- 45 N, respectively. Muscle coordination predicted by the model was also consistent with EMG measurements reported for normal walking. The combined experimental and modeling approach used in this study provides a quantitative framework for evaluating model predictions of muscle forces in human movement.

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  • Integrating modelling and experiments to assess dynamic musculoskeletal function in humans.

    Fernandez, Justin; Pandy, MG (2006-03)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Magnetic resonance imaging, bi-plane X-ray fluoroscopy and biomechanical modelling are enabling technologies for the non-invasive evaluation of muscle, ligament and joint function during dynamic activity. This paper reviews these various technologies in the context of their application to the study of human movement. We describe how three-dimensional, subject-specific computer models of the muscles, ligaments, cartilage and bones can be developed from high-resolution magnetic resonance images; how X-ray fluoroscopy can be used to measure the relative movements of the bones at a joint in three dimensions with submillimetre accuracy; how complex 3-D dynamic simulations of movement can be performed using new computational methods based on non-linear control theory; and how musculoskeletal forces derived from such simulations can be used as inputs to elaborate finite-element models of a joint to calculate contact stress distributions on a subject-specific basis. A hierarchical modelling approach is highlighted that links rigid-body models of limb segments with detailed finite-element models of the joints. A framework is proposed that integrates subject-specific musculoskeletal computer models with highly accurate in vivo experimental data.

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