14 results for Pearce, N

  • OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE TO ELF-MF AND ELECTRIC SHOCKS AND MOTOR NEURONE DISEASE

    Chen, GX; McLean, D; van den Berg, L; 't Mannetje, A; Pearce, N; Kromhout, H; D'Souza, W; McConnell, M; Douwes, J

    Poster
    Massey University

    View record details
  • Hauora: Maori standards of health III: a study of the years 1970-1991

    Pomare, E; Keefe-Ormsby, V; Ormsby, C; Pearce, N; Reid, Mary-Jane; Robson, B; Watene-Haydon, N (1995)

    Report
    The University of Auckland Library

    View record details
  • Risk of stomach cancer in Aotearoa/New Zealand: A M(a)over-barori population based case-control study

    Ellison-Loschmann, L; Sporle, A; Corbin, M; Cheng, S; Harawira, P; Gray, M; Whaanga, T; Guilford, P; Koea, J; Pearce, N

    Journal article
    Massey University

    Published

    View record details
  • Wood Dust in Joineries and Furniture Manufacturing: An Exposure Determinant and Intervention Study.

    Douwes, J; Cheung, K; Prezant, B; Sharp, M; Corbin, M; McLean, D; 't Mannetje, A; Schlunssen, V; Sigsgaard, T; Kromhout, H; LaMontagne, AD; Pearce, N; McGlothlin, JD

    Journal article
    Massey University

    Objectives: To assess wood dust exposures and determinants in joineries and furniture manufacturing and to evaluate the efficacy of specific interventions on dust emissions under laboratory conditions. Also, in a subsequent follow-up study in a small sample of joinery workshops, we aimed to develop, implement, and evaluate a cost-effective and practicable intervention to reduce dust exposures. Methods: Personal inhalable dust (n = 201) was measured in 99 workers from 10 joineries and 3 furniture-making factories. To assess exposure determinants, full-shift video exposure monitoring (VEM) was conducted in 19 workers and task-based VEM in 32 workers (in 7 joineries and 3 furniture factories). We assessed the efficacy of vacuum extraction on hand tools and the use of vacuum cleaners instead of sweeping and dry wiping under laboratory conditions. These measures were subsequently implemented in three joinery workshops with 'high' (>4 mg m-3) and one with 'low' (< 0.001) dust concentration compared to low exposure tasks (e.g. gluing), while the use of hand tools showed 3.0- to 11.0-fold higher (P < 0.001) exposures. In furniture makers, we found a 5.4-fold higher exposure (P < 0.001) with using a table/circular saw. Laboratory efficiency experiments showed a 10-fold decrease in exposure (P < 0.001) when using a vacuum cleaner. Vacuum extraction on hand tools combined with a downdraft table reduced exposures by 42.5% for routing (P < 0.1) and 85.5% for orbital sanding (P < 0.001). Following intervention measures in joineries, a borderline statistically significant (P < 0.10) reduction in exposure of 30% was found in workshops with 'high' baseline exposures, but no reduction was shown in the workshop with 'low' baseline exposures. Conclusions: Wood dust exposure is high in joinery workers and (to a lesser extent) furniture makers with frequent use of hand tools and cleaning being key drivers of exposure. Vacuum extraction on hand tools and alternative cleaning methods reduced workplace exposures substantially, but may be insufficient to achieve compliance with current occupational exposure limits.

    View record details
  • Stratigraphy, age and correlation of middle Pleistocene silicic tephras in the Auckland region, New Zealand: A prolific distal record of Taupo Volcanic Zone volcanism

    Alloway, Brent; Westgate, J; Pillans, B; Pearce, N; Newnham, R; Byrami, M; Aarburg, S (2004)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Coastal sections in the Auckland region reveal highly carbonaceous and/or highly weathered clay???dominated cover???bed successions with numerous discrete distal volcanic ash (tephra) layers, fluvially reworked siliciclastic (tephric) deposits, and two widely distributed pyroclastic density current (PDC) deposits generated from explosive silicic volcanism within the Taupo Volcanic Zone (TVZ). The younger of the two PDC deposits (informally named Waiuku tephra) is glass???isothermal plateau fission???track (ITPFT) dated at 1.00 ?? 0.03 Ma and occurs in a normal polarity interval interpreted as the Jaramillo Subchron. Waiuku tephra is correlated with Unit E sourced from the Mangakino Volcanic Centre of the TVZ. Waiuku tephra can be subdivided into two distinctive units enabling unequivocal field correlation: a lower stratified unit (dominantly pyroclastic surge with fall component) and an upper massive to weakly stratified unit (pyroclastic flow). At many sites in south Auckland, Waiuku tephra retains basal ???surge???like??? beds (<1.4 m thickness). This provides clear evidence for primary emplacement and is an exceptional feature considering the c. 200 km this PDC has travelled from its TVZ source area. However, at many other Auckland sites, Waiuku tephra displays transitional sedimentary characteristics indicating lateral transformation from hot, gas???supported flow/surge into water???supported mass flow and hyperconcentrated flow (HCF) deposits. The older PDC deposit is dated at 1.21 ?? 0.09 Ma, is enveloped by tephras that are ITPFT???dated at 1.14 ?? 0.06 Ma (above) and 1.21 ?? 0.06 Ma (below), respectively, and occurs below a short normal polarity interval (Cobb Mountain Subchron) at c. 1.19 Ma. This PDC deposit, correlated with Ongatiti Ignimbrite sourced from the Mangakino Volcanic Centre of TVZ, has laterally transformed from a gas???supported, fine???grained pyroclastic flow deposit at Oruarangi, Port Waikato, into a water???supported volcaniclastic mass flow deposit farther north at Glenbrook Beach. The occurrence of Ongatiti Ignimbrite in Auckland significantly extends its northward distribution. Large numbers of post??? and pre???Ongatiti rhyolitic tephra layers, ranging in age from c. 1.31 to 0.53 Ma, are also recognised in the region, with some up to 0.5 m in compacted fallout thickness. Although some tephras can be attributed to known TVZ eruptions (e.g., Ahuroa/Unit D), many have yet to be identified in proximal source areas and remain uncorrelated. However, some can be reliably correlated to tephra layers occurring in marine to nearshore sequences of Wanganui Basin and deep???sea cores retrieved east of North Island. The identification of previously unrecognised mid???Pleistocene TVZ???sourced tephra deposits in the Auckland region, and their correlation to the offshore marine record, represent an advance in the construction of a higher resolution history for the TVZ where, close to eruptive source, the record is fragmentary and obscured by deep burial, or erosion, or both.

    View record details
  • Prostate cancer screening in New Zealand

    Logan, R; Fougere, G; Hague, K; Holloway, L; Kiro, Cynthia; Moore, A; Page-Curruth, A; Pearce, N; Sullivan, L; Stewart, L; Talemaitoga, A; Tepania-Palmer, G (2004)

    Report
    The University of Auckland Library

    Advice to the Minister of Health on the issues and latest evidence concerning prostate cancer screening. The National Health Committee (NHC) first reviewed the possibility of population screening for prostate cancer using the Prostate Specific Antigen or PSA test, in 1996. At that time, it recommended against population screening. Due to high public interest in prostate cancer screening and increasing use of the test, the NHC reviewed its earlier advice and published its findings in 2004. The NHC undertook its second review because it felt health care practitioners, men and the wider public needed up-to-date information based on the best available evidence to help them make decisions. It used the screening assessment criteria it had developed in 2003 (Screening to Improve Health in New Zealand) to assess prostate cancer screening in New Zealand. Consultation with organisations and individuals with an interest in prostate screening was undertaken to inform the report ??? see Summary of submissions in response to National Health Committee consultation paper on prostate cancer screening in New Zealand, January 2004. The NHC???s 2004 report notes there continues to be no conclusive evidence that undergoing the PSA test or digital rectal examination (DRE) for prostate cancer reduces mortality or morbidity associated with prostate cancer. The report further notes the PSA test is not completely reliable and can miss some cancers or alternatively, may set in train a cascade of interventions offering little benefit and potentially, significant harm. But, the NHC believes, concern over potential harms of screening is not sufficient reason to deny a man the test if he is fully informed and requests it. Men considering the PSA test are entitled to detailed information about its limitations, the possible diagnostic and treatment choices and outcomes and the fact that PSA screening is not recommended in New Zealand. The NHC recommends the benefits and potential for harm from prostate screening should continue to be reviewed as new evidence emerges. It recommends the Ministry of Health monitor the advances in diagnosis and treatment of prostate cancer.

    View record details
  • Global map of the prevalence of symptoms of rhinoconjunctivitis in children: The International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood Phase Three

    A??t-Khaled, N; Pearce, N; Anderson, HR; Ellwood, Philippa; Montefort, S; and the ISAAC Phase Three Study Group; Shah, J; Clayton, Tadd; Mitchell, Edwin; Stewart, AW; Asher, Monica Innes (2009)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Background: Phase One of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) measured the global patterns of prevalence and severity of symptoms of rhinoconjunctivitis in children in 1993???1997. Methods: International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood Phase Three was a cross-sectional survey performed 5???10 years after Phase One using the same methodology. Phase Three covered all of the major regions of the world and involved 1 059 053 children of 2 age groups from 236 centres in 98 countries. Results: The average overall prevalence of current rhinoconjunctivitis symptoms was 14.6% for the 13- to 14-year old children (range 1.0???45%). Variation in the prevalence of severe rhinoconjunctivitis symptoms was observed between centres (range 0.0???5.1%) and regions (range 0.4% in western Europe to 2.3% in Africa), with the highest prevalence being observed mainly in the centres from middle and low income countries, particularly in Africa and Latin America. Co-morbidity with asthma and eczema varied from 1.6% in the Indian sub-continent to 4.7% in North America. For 6- to 7-year old children, the average prevalence of rhinoconjunctivitis symptoms was 8.5%, and large variations in symptom prevalence were also observed between regions, countries and centres. Conclusions: Wide global variations exist in the prevalence of current rhinoconjunctivitis symptoms, being higher in high vs low income countries, but the prevalence of severe symptoms was greater in less affluent countries. Co-morbidity with asthma is high particularly in Africa, North America and Oceania. This global map of symptom prevalence is of clinical importance for health professionals.

    View record details
  • Worldwide trends in the prevalence of asthma symptoms: phase III of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC)

    Pearce, N; Ait-Khaled, N; Beasley, R; Mallol, J; Keil, U; Mitchell, EA; Robertson, C; ISAAC Phase Three Study Group; Ellwood, Philippa; Clayton, Tadd; Stewart, AW; Asher, Monica Innes (2007-05)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Background: Phase I of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) was designed to allow worldwide comparisons of the prevalence of asthma symptoms. In phase III the phase I survey was repeated in order to assess changes over time. Methods: The phase I survey was repeated after an interval of 5???10 years in 106 centres in 56 countries in children aged 13???14 years (n = 304 679) and in 66 centres in 37 countries in children aged 6???7 years (n = 193 404). Results: The mean symptom prevalence of current wheeze in the last 12 months changed slightly from 13.2% to 13.7% in the 13???14 year age group (mean increase of 0.06% per year) and from 11.1% to 11.6% in the 6???7 year age group (mean increase of 0.13% per year). There was also little change in the mean symptom prevalence of severe asthma or the symptom prevalence measured with the asthma video questionnaire. However, the time trends in asthma symptom prevalence showed different regional patterns. In Western Europe, current wheeze decreased by 0.07% per year in children aged 13???14 years but increased by 0.20% per year in children aged 6???7 years. The corresponding findings per year for the other regions in children aged 13???14 years and 6???7 years, respectively, were: Oceania (???0.39% and ???0.21%); Latin America (+0.32% and +0.07%); Northern and Eastern Europe (+0.26% and +0.05%); Africa (+0.16% and +0.10%); North America (+0.12% and +0.32%); Eastern Mediterranean (???0.10% and +0.79%); Asia-Pacific (+0.07% and ???0.06%); and the Indian subcontinent (+0.02% and +0.06%). There was a particularly marked reduction in current asthma symptom prevalence in English language countries (???0.51% and ???0.09%). Similar patterns were observed for symptoms of severe asthma. However, the percentage of children reported to have had asthma at some time in their lives increased by 0.28% per year in the 13???14 year age group and by 0.18% per year in the 6???7 year age group. Conclusions: These findings indicate that international differences in asthma symptom prevalence have reduced, particularly in the 13???14 year age group, with decreases in prevalence in English speaking countries and Western Europe and increases in prevalence in regions where prevalence was previously low. Although there was little change in the overall prevalence of current wheeze, the percentage of children reported to have had asthma increased significantly, possibly reflecting greater awareness of this condition and/or changes in diagnostic practice. The increases in asthma symptom prevalence in Africa, Latin America and parts of Asia indicate that the global burden of asthma is continuing to rise, but the global prevalence differences are lessening.

    View record details
  • Health expectancy in New Zealand, 1981-1991: social variations and trends in a period of rapid social and economic change

    Davis, Peter; Graham, P; Pearce, N (1999)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: To assess social variations and trends in health expectancy over a period of rapid social and economic change. DESIGN: Cross sectional survey data on the association between social status-- gender, socioeconomic class and ethnic group--and measures of health status at two points in time approximately a decade apart. The Sullivan method of calculating health expectancy was used. SETTING: The adult population of New Zealand in the periods 1980-81 and 1992-93. PARTICIPANTS: Representative samples of the adult civilian non- institutionalised population of 6,891 (1980-81) and 5,873 (1992-93) respectively. MAIN RESULTS: In comparison with life expectancy, adjusting for health status narrowed the gender gap but widened socioeconomic and ethnic differentials. These results were replicated for three measures--self reported health, mobility, and handicap-- suggesting a robustness of outcome to specific indicators. Comparable data over the period of study were only available for the mobility measure. Increases in longevity appeared to be fully absorbed by minor disability. Ethnic and socioeconomic disadvantages remained static or widened for the 15-64 age group, suggesting a potential social polarisation in the disability transition. CONCLUSIONS: The operationalization of health expectancy appears to be rather robust to specific indicators. Health expectancy may provide a sensitive health impact assessment of social and economic policy. Existing theories of the disability transition may need to be modified to take account of social variation, at least in the special case of disability free health expectancy over the 15-64 age range.

    View record details
  • Self-Reported Truck Traffic on the Street of Residence and Symptoms of Asthma and Allergic Disease: A Global Relationship in ISAAC Phase 3

    Brunekreef, B; Stewart, Alistair; Anderson, HR; Lai, CKW; Strachan, DP; and the ISAAC Phase Three Study Group; Pearce, N; Mitchell, Edwin; Clayton, Tadd; Asher, Monica Innes; Ellwood, Philippa (2009-11)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    BACKGROUND: Associations between traffic pollution on the street of residence and a range of respiratory and allergic outcomes in children have been reported in developed countries, but little is known about such associations in developing countries.METHODS: The third phase of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) was carried out in 13- to 14-year-old and 6- to 7-year-old children across the world. A question about frequency of truck traffic on the street of residence was included in an additional questionnaire. We investigated the association between self-reported truck traffic on the street of residence and symptoms of asthma, rhinoconjunctivitis, and eczema with logistic regression. Adjustments were made for sex, region of the world, language, gross national income, and 10 other subject-specific covariates.RESULTS: Frequency of truck traffic on the street of residence was positively associated with the prevalence of symptoms of asthma, rhinoconjunctivitis, and eczema with an exposure-response relationship. Odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) for "current wheeze" and "almost the whole day" versus "never" truck traffic were 1.35 (1.23-1.49) for 13- to 14-year-olds and 1.35 (1.22-1.48) for 6- to 7-year-olds.CONCLUSIONS: Higher exposure to self-reported truck traffic on the street of residence is associated with increased reports of symptoms of asthma, rhinitis, and eczema in many locations in the world. These findings require further investigation in view of increasing exposure of the world's children to traffic.

    View record details
  • Compression, expansion or dynamic equilibrium? The evolution of health expectancy in New Zealand

    Graham, P; Blakely, T; Davis, Peter; Sporle, Andrew; Pearce, N (2004)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Study objective: To evaluate the New Zealand evidence for three theories of population health change: compression of morbidity, expansion of morbidity, and dynamic equilibrium. Design: Using the Sullivan method, repeated cross sectional survey information on functional limitation prevalence was combined with population mortality data and census information on the utilisation of institutional care to produce health expectancy indices for 1981 and 1996. Setting: The adult population of New Zealand in 1981 and 1996. Participants: 6891 respondents to the 1981 social indicators survey; 8262 respondents to the 1996 household disability survey. Main results: As a proportion of overall life expectancy at age 15 the expectation of non-institutionalised mobility limitations increased from 3.5% to 6% for men, and from 4.5% to 8% for women; the expectation of agility limitation increased from 3% to 7.5% for men and from 4.5% to 8.5% for women, and the expectation of self care limitations increased from 2.0% to 4.5% for men and from 3.0% to 6.0% for women. These changes were primarily attributable to increases in the expectation of moderate functional limitation. Conclusion: The dynamic equilibrium scenario provides the best fit to current New Zealand evidence on changes in population health. Although an aging population is likely to lead to an increase in demand for disability support services, the fiscal impact of this increase may be partially offset by a shift from major to moderate limitations, with a consequential reduction in the average levels of support required.

    View record details
  • Global analysis of breast feeding and risk of symptoms of asthma, rhinoconjunctivitis and eczema in 6-7 year old children: ISAAC Phase Three

    Bj??rkst??n, B; A??t-Khaled, N; Asher, Monica Innes; Clayton, TO; Robertson, C; Anderson, HR; Beasley, R; Brunekreef, B; Crane, J; Flohr, C; Foliaki, S; Forastiere, F; Garc??a-Marcos, L; Keil, U; Lai, CKW; Mallol, J; Mitchell, EA; Odhiambo, J; Montefort, S; Pearce, N; Stewart, AW; Strachan, D; von Mutius, E; Weiland, SK; Williams, H; Wong, G; Howitt, ME; Weyler, J; de Freitas Souza, L; Rennie, D; Aguilar, P; Aristiz??bal, G; Cepeda, AM; Riikj??rv, MA; sigmond, GZ; Awasthi, S; Bhave, S; Hanumante, NM; Jain, KC; Joshi, MK; Mantri, SN; Pherwani, AV; Rego, S; Salvi, S; Sharma, SK; Singh, V; Sukumaran, U; Suresh Babu, PS; Kartasasmita, CB; Masjedi, MR; Odajima, H; Imanalieva, C; Kudzyte, J; Quah, BS; Teh, KH; Baeza-Bacab, M; Barrag??n-Meijueiro, M; Del-R??o-Navarro, BE; Garc??a-Almar??z, R; Gonz??lez-D??az, SN; Linares-Zapi??n, FJ; Merida-Palacio, JV; Romero-Tapia, S; Romieu, I; MacKay, R; Moyes, C; Pattemore, P; Onadeko, BO; Cukier, G; Br??borowicz, A; Lis, G; C??mara, R; Lopes dos Santos, JM; Nunes, C; Rosado Pinto, JE; Lee, HB; Busquets, RM; Carvajal-Urue??a, I; Garc??a-Hern??ndez, G; Gonz??lez D??az, C; L??pez-Silvarrey Varela, A; Morales-Su??rez-Varela, MM; Al-Rawas, O; Mohammad, S; Huang, JL; Kao, CC; Trakultivakorn, M; Vichyanond, P; Lapides, MC; Sears, M; Shah, J; Baratawidjaja, K; Lee, BW; Ellwood, Philippa (2011)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Background In Phase Three of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC), we investigated the relationship between breast feeding in infancy and symptoms of asthma, rhinoconjunctivitis and eczema in 6???7 year old children. Methods Parents or guardians of 6???7 year old children completed written questionnaires on current symptoms of asthma, rhinoconjunctivitis and eczema, and on a range of possible asthma risk factors including a history of breast feeding ever. Prevalence odds ratios were estimated using logistic regression, adjusted for gender, region of the world, language, per capita gross national income, and other risk factors.

    View record details
  • Hierarchical Regression for Multiple Comparisons in a Case-Control Study of Occupational Risks for Lung Cancer

    Corbin, M; Richiardi, L; Vermeulen, R; Kromhout, H; Merletti, F; Peters, S; Simonato, L; Steenland, K; Pearce, N; Maule, M

    Journal article
    Massey University

    Published

    View record details
  • Towards a comprehensive global approach to prevention and control of NCDs

    McKee, M; Haines, A; Ebrahim, S; Lamptey, P; Barreto, ML; Matheson, D; Walls, HL; Foliaki, S; Jaime Miranda, J; Chimeddamba, O; Garcia-Marcos, L; Vineis, P; Pearce, N

    Journal article
    Massey University

    Published

    View record details