45 results for Petchey, Fiona

  • Kumukumu 1, a hilltop site in the Aird Hills: Implications for occupational trends and dynamics in the Kikori River delta, south coast of Papua New Guinea

    David, Bruno O.; Aplin, Ken; Petchey, Fiona; Skelly, Robert; Mialanes, Jerome; Jones-Amin, Holly; Stanisic, John; Barker, Bryce; Lamb, Lara (2014)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

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  • ¹⁴C marine reservoir variability in herbivores and deposit-feeding gastropods from an open coastline, Papua New Guinea

    Petchey, Fiona; Ulm, Sean; David, Bruno O.; McNiven, Ian J.; Asmussen, Brit; Tomkins, Helene; Richards, Thomas; Rowe, Cassandra; Leavesley, Matthew; Mandui, Herman; Stanisic, John (2012)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    Herbivorous and deposit-feeding gastropods are a major component of archaeological shell middens worldwide. They provide a wealth of information about subsistence, economy, environment, and climate, but are generally considered to be less than ideal for radiocarbon dating because they can ingest sediment while they graze, inadvertently consuming terrestrial carbon in the process. However, few studies of C-14 activity in herbivores or deposit-feeding gastropods have been conducted into this diverse range of animals that inhabit many environmental niches. Here, we present results investigating ¹⁴C variability in shells belonging to the families Strombidae and Potamididae from the Bogi 1 archaeological site, Caution Bay, southern coastal Papua New Guinea (PNG). These shells make up 39.3% of the shell MNI8 in the excavation units studied and some of these species are the most common taxa of neighboring sites. It would therefore be advantageous to establish if there are any ¹⁴C offsets associated with such animals, and identify those that can give reliable calendar ages. Our methodology combines a high-resolution excavation protocol, selection of short-lived samples identified to species level, and a tri-isotope approach using ¹⁴C, δ¹³C, and delta ¹⁸O to evaluate the source of variability in shells. Our results indicate that considerable variation exists between different species of Strombidae with some inhabiting muddier environments that act as sinks for limestone-derived sediments with depleted ¹⁴C content. The magnitude of variation is, however, overshadowed by that measured in the mudwhelk, Cerithidea largillierti, which has the largest spread in ¹⁴C of any shellfish studied so far at Caution Bay. This animal ingests sediment within the estuary that contains ¹⁴C derived from both enriched and depleted sources.

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  • 14C marine reservoir variability in herbivores and deposit-feeding gastropods from an open coastline, Papua New Guinea

    Petchey, Fiona; Ulm, Sean; David, Bruno O.; McNiven, Ian J.; Asmussen, Brit; Tomkins, Helene; Richards, Thomas; Rowe, Cassandra; Leavesley, Matthew; Mandui, Herman; Stanisic, John

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    Herbivorous and deposit-feeding gastropods are a major component of archaeological shell middens worldwide. They provide a wealth of information about subsistence, economy, environment, and climate, but are generally considered to be less than ideal for radiocarbon dating because they can ingest sediment while they graze, inadvertently consuming terrestrial carbon in the process. However, few studies of 14C activity in herbivores or deposit-feeding gastropods have been conducted into this diverse range of animals that inhabit many environmental niches. Here, we present results investigating 14C variability in shells belonging to the families Strombidae and Potamididae from the Bogi 1 archaeological site, Caution Bay, southern coastal Papua New Guinea (PNG). These shells make up 39.3% of the shell MNI [minimum number of individuals] in the excavation units studied and some of these species are the most common taxa of neighboring sites. It would therefore be advantageous to establish if there are any 14C offsets associated with such animals, and identify those that can give reliable calendar ages. Our methodology combines a high-resolution excavation protocol, selection of short-lived samples identified to species level, and a tri-isotope approach using 14C, δ13C, and δ18O to evaluate the source of variability in shells. Our results indicate that considerable variation exists between different species of Strombidae with some inhabiting muddier environments that act as sinks for limestone-derived sediments with depleted 14C content. The magnitude of variation is, however, overshadowed by that measured in the mudwhelk, Cerithidea largillierti, which has the largest spread in 14C of any shellfish studied so far at Caution Bay. This animal ingests sediment within the estuary that contains 14C derived from both enriched and depleted sources.

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  • Archaeology of Atafu, Tokelau: Some initial results from 2008

    Addison, David J.; Bass, Bryon; Christensen, Carl; Kalolo, John; Lundblad, Steve; Mills, Peter; Petchey, Fiona; Thompson, Adam (2009)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    Surface survey, shovel testing, and stratigraphic excavations were done on Atafu Atoll in Tokelau during August 2008. Initial results suggest that Fale Islet has the most potential for further archaeological research. Dense cultural deposits on this islet are >1 m (39 in.) deep. Cultural material recovered includes food bone, fire-affected volcanic rock, tool-grade basalt flakes and tool fragments, Tridacna shell adzes, and pearl-shell fishhook fragments. Dog bone occurs from the earliest deposits through to the late prehistoric, while pig bone is found only in historic contexts. Fish bone is common throughout, and, with the exception of Tridacna, there are few edible mollusk remains. Initial EDXRF (Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence) analyses have found the basalt to be consistent with documented sources on Tutuila, Samoa. Basal radiocarbon dates from two excavation units are 660-540 cal. BP and 500-310 cal. BP (at 2σ).

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  • A Pleistocene charcoal drawing or painting from northern Australia

    David, Bruno O.; Barker, Bryce; Delannoy, Jean-Jacques; Geneste, Jean-Michel; Petchey, Fiona; Lamb, Lara (2014)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    Although claims are often made that Australia has evidence of some of the oldest rock art in the world and features prominently in rock art studies globally, very little of it is securely dated. Recently the first Pleistocene date for pigment art (painting, drawing, stencil or print) in Arnhem Land was obtained, arguably representing one of the oldest securely dated fragments of buried rock art in Australia (see Aubert 2012 and David et al. 2013a for recent reviews on dating rock art in Australia).

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  • Re-interpreting old dates: Radiocarbon determinations from the Tokelau Islands (South Pacific)

    Petchey, Fiona; Addison, David J.; McAlister, Andrew (2010)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    A re-evaluation of available archaeological radiocarbon dates from the Tokelau Islands in West Polynesia demonstrates that careful assessment is essential when developing chronologies from previously published radiocarbon data. The new calibration results point to concurrent and continual human occupation of Fakaofo and Atafu from at least 750-550 years ago up until European contact in AD 1765.

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  • Radiocarbon dates on desiccated moa (Dinornithiformes) flesh from Inland Otago, New Zealand

    Anderson, Atholl; Rowe, Lucy; Petchey, Fiona; White, Moira (2010)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    Remains of soft tissues from extinct moa (Dinornithiformes), mainly desiccated sinew, muscle, skin, and feathers have been recovered rather seldom but their distribution is distinctive. Of 22 records of such finds accumulated between 1864 and 1987, 15 came from inland Otago (Anderson 1989: 67–68, Table 5.2), west of Dunedin in the southern South Island. Most were found in the late nineteenth century (13 records) in rockshelters, clefts or alluvial sediments and were regarded at the time as evidence of the survival of moa up to about AD 1800 (Hutton and Coughtrey 1874a). Improbable as this latter point is, it has not been tested by radiocarbon dating until now. Our particular impetus to do so, however, arises in another way. It is from research, again largely within inland Otago, on Maori artefacts which have also been made from various other kinds of soft tissues (flax, grasses, dog skin, bird skin, feathers etc.). A series of accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) radiocarbon dates on these (Anderson et al., n.d.) shows that they are exclusively late, post-AD 1650, which begs the question of why the age range does not extend across the full prehistoric period, beginning about AD 1300.

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  • Marine Reservoir variation in the Bismarck Region: An evaluation of spatial and temporal change in ∆R and R over the last 3000 years

    Petchey, Fiona; Ulm, Sean (2012)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    Interactions between islands, ocean currents, and winds cause large-scale eddies and upwelling in the lee of islands that can result in spatial variation in the marine radiocarbon reservoir. For waters around New Ireland and the Bismarck Sea, ∆R values ranging from 365 to –320 14C yr have been reported (Kirch 2001; Petchey et al. 2004). Petchey et al. (2004) proposed that some of this variation was caused by seasonal reversals in the South Equatorial Current and North Equatorial Counter Current system, combined with Ekman upwelling from the Equator. McGregor et al. (2008) suggested additional complexity within this region caused by a change in the reservoir value over time in response to changing climatic conditions. We present a series of 14 new and extant published ∆R and R values on historic shells, combined with 8 values from archaeological terrestrial/marine pairs and U-Th dated coral, that support observations of localized variability caused by a complex interplay between seasonal currents, riverine input, and ocean eddies. On the basis of these values and oceanographic data, we divide the Bismarck Sea surface marine 14C reservoir into 6 tentative subregions. In particular, our results support significant variation within channels at the southwest and southeast ends of New Britain and towards the equatorial boundary of the sea. Our results indicate that within the Bismarck Sea geographical variation appears to be more extreme than temporal over the last 3000 yr.

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  • New ΔR for the southwest Pacific Ocean

    Petchey, Fiona; Phelan, Matthew; White, Peter J. (2004)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    ΔR results of known-age shells from the Solomon and Coral Seas and the northwest coast of New Ireland are presented. The results are too few to be conclusive but indicate that ΔR in this region is variable. An average ΔR value of 370 ± 25 yr is recorded for a range of shell species from Kavieng Harbor, New Ireland, and is primarily attributed to weak equatorial upwelling of depleted 14C due to seasonal current reversals. In contrast, values from the Solomon and Coral Seas are lower (average ΔR = 45 ± 19 yr). Higher ΔR values for some shellfish from these 2 seas is attributed to ingestion of 14Cdepleted sediment by deposit-feeding species.

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  • Algar do Bom Santo: a Middle Neolithic necropolis in Portuguese Estremadura

    Carvalho, António F; Gonçalves, David; Granja, Raquel; Petchey, Fiona (2012)

    Book item
    University of Waikato

    A research project on the Algar do Bom Santo necropolis started in 2010. This paper presents a preliminary synthesis on the exhumed human population and a first insight into the funerary practices recorded during the site excavations in the 1990s, as well as palaeodiet reconstitutions.

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  • New observations on the stratigraphy and radiocarbon dates at the Cross Creek site, Opito, Coromandel Peninsula

    Furey, Louise; Petchey, Fiona; Sewell, Brenda; Green, Roger (2008)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    This paper re-examines stratigraphy and radiocarbon dates at Cross Creek in Sarah's Gully. Three new radiocarbon dates are presented for Layer 9, the earliest, and previously undated, occupation. This investigation is part of a programme of archaeological work being carried out on the Coromandel Peninsula. Although there are several individual research projects underway, they have a common theme related to the Polynesian settlement period on the Coromandel Peninsula. The two seasons of excavation at Tairua are being written up by Matthew Campbell of CFG Heritage on behalf of Roger Green. Louise Furey, also CFG Heritage, is researching a thematic study on early sites for the Department of Conservation, Archaeological research in the Opito area includes documenting a pollen sequence for Opito under a grant obtained from the Green Foundation for Polynesian Research: Pam Chester, Louise Furey and Brenda Sewell are participants. In addition, positively identifying the Kaharoa Ash in the Opito-Sarah's Gully area is a priority.

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  • The excavation of Non Ban Jak, Northeast Thailand - A report on the first three seasons

    Higham, Charles; Cameron, Judith; Chang, Nigel; Castillo, Cristina; O'Reilly, Dougald; Petchey, Fiona; Shewan, Louise (2014)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    Non Ban Jak is a large, moated site located in the upper Mun Valley, Northeast Thailand. Excavations over three seasons in 2011-4 have revealed a sequence of occupation that covers the final stage of the local Iron Age. The site is enclosed by two broad moats and banks, and comprises an eastern and a western mound separated by a lower intervening area. The first season opened an 8 by 8 m square on the eastern mound, while the second and third seasons uncovered part of the low terrain rising into the western mound, encompassing an area of 25 by 10 m. The former revealed a sequence of industrial, residential and mortuary activity that involved the construction of houses, kiln firing of ceramic vessels and the interment of the dead within residences. The latter involved four phases of a late Iron Age cemetery, which again incorporated house floors and wall foundations, as well as further evidence for ceramic manufacture. The excavation sheds light on a late Iron Age town occupied at the threshold of state formation.

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  • Radiocarbon and linguistic dates for occupation of the South Wellesley Islands, Northern Australia

    Ulm, Sean; Evans, Nicholas; Rosendahl, Daniel; Memmott, Paul; Petchey, Fiona (2010)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    Radiocarbon dates from three Kaiadilt Aboriginal sites on the South Wellesley Islands, southern Gulf of Carpentaria, demonstrate occupation dating to c.1600 years ago. These results are at odds with published linguistic models for colonisation of the South Wellesley archipelago suggesting initial occupation in the last 1000 years, but are consonant with archaeological evidence for post-4200 BP occupation of islands across northern Australia, particularly in the last 2000 years.

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  • New radiocarbon dates from the Bapot-1 site in Saipan and Neolithic dispersal by stratified diffusion

    Clark, Geoffrey; Petchey, Fiona; Winter, Olaf; Carson, Mike; O’Day, Patrick (2010)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    The colonisation of the Mariana Islands in Western Micronesia is likely to represent an early ocean dispersal of more than 2000 km. Establishing the date of human arrival in the archipelago is important for modelling Neolithic expansion in Island Southeast Asia and the Pacific, particularly the role of long-distance dispersals. This paper presents new ¹⁴C results and a ΔR estimate from the Bapot-1 site on Saipan Island, which indicate human arrival at ca. 3400-3200 cal. BP. Archaeological chronologies of long-distance dispersal to Western Micronesia and the Lapita expansion (Bismarcks to Samoa) show that the Neolithic dispersal rate was increasing during the period ca. 3400-2900 cal. BP. The range-versus-time relationship is similar to stratified diffusion whereby a period of relatively slow expansion is succeeded by long-distance movement. An increase in new colonies created by long-distance migrants results in accelerating range expansion.

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  • Faunal extinction and human habitation in New Caledonia: Initial results and implications of new research at the Pindai Caves

    Anderson, Atholl; Sand, Christophe; Petchey, Fiona; Worthy, Trevor H. (2010)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    Archaeological and palaeontological investigations occurred in 2003 at the Pindai Caves in New Caledonia, where remains of prehistoric settlement exist in conjunction with the richest fossil deposits found to date on Grand Terre. Among more than 45 bird taxa in our excavations at least 20 that are locally or globally extinct are represented at levels immediately below or within the era of human occupation. These include the giant megapode, Sylviornis sp., the flightless swamphen, Porphyrio kukuwiedei, and other rails, a kagu, pigeons, a large snipe, Coenocorypha sp., several taxa of owls, a nightjar, and an owlet-nightjar. Unresolved problems in dating and taphonomy, however, make it difficult to specify the strength of cultural associations and thus the extent to which human activities were responsible for extinctions or extirpations. We present the first radiocarbon dates upon Sylviornis bone, showing that, at least, the species survived into the late Holocene. Relatively frequent occurrence of Sylviornis bone in the cultural levels, coupled with a radiocarbon date on a bone sample of about 3000 calBP make a case for human contact.

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  • Radiocarbon determinations from the Mulifanua Lapita site, Upolu, western Samoa

    Petchey, Fiona (2001)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    The Mulifanua ferry berth has the distinction of being the only site in Samoa with dentate-stamped Lapita wares, and is the most easterly Lapita site in the Pacific. Two new radiocarbon determinations of material associated with Lapita pottery found at Mulifanua are presented. The accuracy of this data is evaluated according to the results of recent reassessment of pottery from the site, and current theories regarding the age of Lapita settlement in the eastern Pacific. The resulting calibrated radiocarbon ages put occupation of the Mulifanua Lapita site at around 2880-2750 cal BP (930–800 BC). This conclusion is in agreement with the pottery chronology and supports recent hypotheses of rapid Lapita settlement in the Fiji/Tonga region around 2850–2700 cal BP (900–750 BC).

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  • Djadjiling Rockshelter: 35,000 ¹⁴C Years of Aboriginal Occupation in the Pilbara, Western Australia

    Law, W. Boone; Cropper, Dawn N.; Petchey, Fiona (2010)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    The Pleistocene settlement of the arid zone is a prominent research theme in Australian archaeology (Hiscock 2008:45- 62; Hiscock and Wallis 2004; Marwick 2002a, 2002b; O’Connor et al. 1998; Smith 1987, 2005; Thorley 1998; Veth 1993, 1995, 2005). Of particular interest is the inland Pilbara region of the western arid zone, which until recently was reported to have been first occupied between c.20,000 BP and c.26,000 BP (Brown 1987:27; Edwards and Murphy 2003:45; Maynard 1980:7). The recent test excavations at Juukan-1 rockshelter suggest the region was occupied before 32,920±270 BP (Slack et al. 2009:34). Our research at Djadjiling rockshelter supports this result by demonstrating an Aboriginal presence at the site c.35,000 years ago. Not only is the site unique for its antiquity, but excavations have recovered a large flaked stone assemblage from the earliest occupational phase. The evidence demonstrates repeated early site use, and a sequence of intermittent occupation throughout the late Pleistocene and Holocene. The preliminary findings are presented below.

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  • The chronology of occupation at Teouma, Vanuatu: Use of a modified chronometric hygiene protocol and Bayesian modeling to evaluate midden remains

    Petchey, Fiona; Spriggs, Matthew; Bedford, Stuart; Valentin, Frédérique (2015-12)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    A number of radiocarbon dates, both published and unpublished have been obtained from archaeological deposits across the Teouma site on the island of Efate in Vanuatu. These are on a range of materials from the midden and associated cemetery including charcoal (13) and shell (7) as well as a number of less commonly dated 14C sample types including bone from 2 terrestrial giant tortoises (?Meiolania damelipi), 8 pigs (Sus scrofa) and 2 chickens (Gallus gallus). Thirty-six human bone collagen dates and 5 Conus sp. shell ring artifacts from the cemetery context have been discussed in detail elsewhere (Petchey et al., 2014). In this paper, we evaluate the radiocarbon data according to observed contextual associations and established understandings of 14C offsets, and collate all available information in a Bayesian framework to establish the age and duration of the settlement at Teouma. This analysis provides a maximum age range for the Lapita deposits of between 3000 and 2560 cal BP and a most likely start date of 2920–2870 cal BP and end date of 2870–2750 cal BP (68.2% prob.). This is slightly younger age for the deposits than previously reported, but is in keeping with evaluation of the burials themselves, the majority of which are dated to between 2940 and 2720 cal BP. This age range indicates that the site was in use at the same time as colonization events in Tonga (2850–2830 cal BP) and Fiji (3020–2860 cal BP), and supports the hypothesis that Vanuatu was at the center of a region-wide interaction sphere for several generations after initial settlement.

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  • Kumukumu 1, a hilltop site in the Aird Hills: Implications for occupational trends and dynamics in the Kikori River delta, south coast of Papua New Guinea

    David, Bruno O.; Aplin, Ken; Petchey, Fiona; Skelly, Robert; Mialanes, Jerome; Jones-Amin, Holly; Stanisic, John; Barker, Bryce; Lamb, Lara (2015-01-01)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    We report on archaeological excavations undertaken at Kumukumu 1 atop the dense rainforest-clad Aird Hills of the Kikori river delta islands, south coast of Papua New Guinea. Results indicate exploitation of the nearby environment, including the gathering of some 200 million shellfish from riverine habitats at the base of the hill some 600 years ago, and deposition of shell remains onto hilltop middens. We ask what the implications of such a site in a defensive location on the upper, steep hillslope of Kumukumu hill are for regional occupation and dynamics. We conclude that the hinterland-marine fringe islands of the river deltas that include the site of Kumukumu 1 were especially sensitive to heightened cross-cultural influences and inter-group raids and competition, leading to accelerated processes of centralisation and aggrandisement among some groups, and the subjugation, fragmentation and dispersal of less powerful neighbouring groups.

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  • Murray-Darling basin freshwater shells: riverine reservoir effect

    Gillespie, Richard; Fink, David; Petchey, Fiona; Jacobsen, Geraldine (2009)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    We report carbon isotope measurements on pre-bomb museum samples of freshwater mussel shells collected alive from riverine locations in New South Wales, Australia. The calculated reservoir ages, ranging from -60 to +112 years, are much smaller than those for Australian marine shells and not considered significant for the radiocarbon dating of Late Pleistocene freshwater shells from the Murray-Darling Basin.

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