17 results for Peters, H. L.

  • Course results reporting workshop.

    Collins, J.; Peters, H. L.; Wellington, S. (2009)

    Seminar Paper
    Open Polytechnic

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  • An animal model of slot machine gambling.

    Peters, H. L.; Hunt, M.; Harper, D. N. (2008)

    Conference paper
    Open Polytechnic

    Despite the prevalence of problem gamblers and the ethical issues involved in studying gambling behavior with humans, few animal models of gambling have been developed. When designing an animal model it is necessary to determine if behavior in the paradigm is similar to human gambling. In human studies, response latencies following winning trials and near win trials are greater than those following clear losses. Weatherly and Derenne (Anal Gambl Behav 1:79-89, 2007) investigated whether this pattern was found with rats working in an animal analogue of slot machine gambling. They found a similar pattern of response latencies but the subjects� behavior did not come under control of the visual stimuli signalling the different outcomes. The animal model of slot machine gambling we used addressed procedural issues in Weatherly and Derenne�s model and examined whether reinforcer magnitude and the presence of near win trials influenced response latency and resistance to extinction. Response latencies of the six female Norway Hooded rats varied as a function of reinforcer magnitude and the presence of near-win trials. These results are consistent with prior research and with the idea that near win trials serve as conditional reinforcers.

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  • An animal model of slot machine gambling: The effect of structural characteristics on response latency and persistence.

    Peters, H. L.; Hunt, M.; Harper, D. N. (2010)

    Journal article
    Open Polytechnic

    Despite the prevalence of problem gamblers and the ethical issues involved in studying gambling behavior with humans, few animal models of gambling have been developed. When designing an animal model it is necessary to determine if behavior in the paradigm is similar to human gambling. In human studies, response latencies following winning trials and near win trials are greater than those following clear losses. Weatherly and Derenne (Anal Gambl Behav 1:79�89, 2007) investigated whether this pattern was found with rats working in an animal analogue of slot machine gambling. They found a similar pattern of response latencies but the subjects� behavior did not come under control of the visual stimuli signalling the different outcomes. The animal model of slot machine gambling we used addressed procedural issues in Weatherly and Derenne�s model and examined whether reinforcer magnitude and the presence of near win trials influenced response latency and resistance to extinction. Response latencies of the six female Norway Hooded rats varied as a function of reinforcer magnitude and the presence of near-win trials. These results are consistent with prior research and with the idea that near win trials serve as conditional reinforcers.

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  • Behaviour analysis around the world: New Zealand.

    Harper, D. N.; Peters, H. L. (2007)

    Conference paper
    Open Polytechnic

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  • Credit card logos and perceived value.

    Hunt, M.; Peters, H. L.; Lie, C.; Harper, D. N. (2009)

    Conference paper
    Open Polytechnic

    Feinberg (1986) found that in the presence of a credit card logo items were given higher monetary values than they were given in the absence of the logo. Feinberg speculated that associative learning was the mechanism underlying this effect however alternative explanations that may be related to delay discounting have also been offered in the literature. Should the associative learning explanation be valid, then changes in the broader social and/or economic context may alter this effect. That is, if credit cards are more associated with negative aspects of debt rather than access to goods, then credit card logos may be spending inhibiting rather than spending facilitating, stimuli. In New Zealand media campaigns have portrayed debt negatively and survey research indicates students do perceive debt as negative. Thus in the New Zealand student population credit card stimuli may limit spending. Study 1 demonstrated that the presence of credit card stimuli did lead to smaller perceived values of consumer items in Year 1 New Zealand university students. Study 2 replicated this effect with Year 4 university students. The demonstration of this �negative� credit card effect in this context supports the possibility that the �positive� credit card effect (or absence thereof) in previous studies may rely on associative learning.

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  • Development of a self-directed learning programme on how to implement positive reinforcement with horses.

    Southcombe, K.; Peters, H. L. (2009)

    Conference paper
    Open Polytechnic

    The popularity of trainers like Pat Parelli and Australia�s behaviourist Dr Andrew McLean suggest there is interest in learning more about training and theory, however access to professional trainers is limited. Two studies carried out in Australia and New Zealand, highlight two key findings: i) there is a lack of understanding of how operant training techniques can be used with horses; and, ii) a large number of horses fail to reach potential (wastage). While neither study demonstrates that there is a direct correlation between these findings, these results suggest that there is room for improvement in both areas. Our goal is to develop a training system that is cost effective, reliable and educationally structured on sound learning principles that allows the student to take charge of their learning, which in turn may impact on both the trainer�s learning experience and the potential for the horse. This paper discusses the initial development of a training model for future investigation.

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  • Dopamine agonists and antagonists can produce an attenuation of response bias in a temporal discrimination task depending on discriminability of target duration.

    Harper, D. N.; Bizo, L. A.; Peters, H. L. (2006)

    Journal article
    Open Polytechnic

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  • Probabilistic discounting with differing levels of background income.

    Peters, H. L.; Hunt, M.; Harper, D. N. (2010)

    Conference paper
    Open Polytechnic

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  • Slot machine structural characteristics, the near miss, and sensitivity to reinforcement.

    Wallace, B.; Harper, D. N.; Hunt, M.; Peters, H. L. (2009)

    Conference paper
    Open Polytechnic

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  • Slot machine structural characteristics, the near win, and sensitivity to reinforcement.

    Hunt, M.; Peters, H. L.; Harper, D. N. (2010)

    Conference paper
    Open Polytechnic

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  • The 'negative' credit card effect: Credit cards as spending-limiting stimuli in New Zealand

    Lie, C.; Hunt, M.; Peters, H. L.; Veliu, B.; Harper, D. N. (2010)

    Journal article
    Open Polytechnic

    The "credit card effect" describes a finding where greater value is given to consumer items if credit card logos are present. One explanation for the effect is that credit cards elicit spending behavior through associative learning. If this is true, social, economic and historical contexts should alter this effect. In Experiment 1, Year 1 New Zealand university students valued consumer items less in the presence of credit card logos. Experiment 2 replicated this effect. These findings support the idea that New Zealand students' negative conditioning history with credit card stimuli results in a "negative" credit card effect, whereby credit cards limit rather than facilitate spending. This "negative" effect suggests that the presence or absence of a "positive" effect in previous studies depends on previous associations with credit card stimuli.

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  • The influence of reinforcer quality on self-control.

    Peters, H. L.; Hunt, M.; Harper, D. N. (2006)

    Conference paper
    Open Polytechnic

    This study used a self-control paradigm designed as an analogue of choice situations in which individuals choose between two competing immediately available reinforcers each associated with a different delayed reinforcer. The immediate reinforcers were of equal amount and unequal quality; the delayed reinforcers were of unequal amount and equal quality. An impulsive choice was choosing the alternative that delivered the most-valuable immediate reinforcer and the least-valued delayed reinforcer. A self-controlled choice was choosing the alternative that delivered the least -valuable immediate reinforcer and the most-valuable delayed reinforcer. Increasing the delay between the init ial and terminal links increased subjects' responding on the impulsive choice. Behaviour allocation was well described by the CCM when the temporal context scaling parameter was allowed to vary.

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  • Bridging the distance with online support.

    Peters, H. L.; Weaver, N. E. (2009)

    Seminar Paper
    Open Polytechnic

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  • Using the web to enrich student learning.

    Peters, H. L.; Weaver, N. E. (2008)

    Conference paper
    Open Polytechnic

    As part of a larger research programme on support of students in distance education, we have begun studying the use of online course pages to enrich student learning at the Open Polytechnic of New Zealand.There is a general move toward blended learning, and as a result tutors are expanding their course webpages. How effective is this expansion in supporting students? We studied the development of an introductory psychology course webpage over three semesters and at the same time charted student use of the page. We found a marked general increase in both viewers and posters as the webpage developed. We then analyzed student use of some of the specific components of the page. Future directions include expanding the page to incorporate student feedback and analyzing the differences between students who post and students who only view the resources.

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  • Impact of online tuition on student success.

    Peters, H. L.; Weaver, N. E. (2008)

    Conference paper
    Open Polytechnic

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  • Rate the New Zealand birds: Applying best practice pedagogy to online activities.

    Weaver, N. E.; Peters, H. L. (2009)

    Conference paper
    Open Polytechnic

    Discusses a case study from a distance-learning introductory psychology course. An online activity was developed. The activity was based on recent principles of best practice and learning pedagogy including: fostering a sense of community, encouraging deep level learning, and moving toward mastery of course concepts. Students participated in a formative online task in which they rated New Zealand birds.

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  • Students as clients: A client-centred approach to distance learning.

    Weaver, N. E.; Peters, H. L. (2007)

    Conference paper
    Open Polytechnic

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