101 results for Pfahringer, Bernhard

  • Random Relational Rules

    Pfahringer, Bernhard; Anderson, Grant (2006)

    Conference item
    University of Waikato

    Exhaustive search in relational learning is generally infeasible, therefore some form of heuristic search is usually employed, such as in FOIL[1]. On the other hand, so-called stochastic discrimination provides a framework for combining arbitrary numbers of weak classifiers (in this case randomly generated relational rules) in a way where accuracy improves with additional rules, even after maximal accuracy on the training data has been reached. [2] The weak classifiers must have a slightly higher probability of covering instances of their target class than of other classes. As the rules are also independent and identically distributed, the Central Limit theorem applies and as the number of weak classifiers/rules grows, coverages for different classes resemble well-separated normal distributions. Stochastic discrimination is closely related to other ensemble methods like Bagging, Boosting, or Random forests, all of which have been tried in relational learning [3, 4, 5].

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  • Mining data streams using option trees

    Holmes, Geoffrey; Pfahringer, Bernhard; Kirkby, Richard Brendon (2003-09)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Waikato

    The data stream model for data mining places harsh restrictions on a learning algorithm. A model must be induced following the briefest interrogation of the data, must use only available memory and must update itself over time within these constraints. Additionally, the model must be able to be used for data mining at any point in time. This paper describes a data stream classification algorithm using an ensemble of option trees. The ensemble of trees is induced by boosting and iteratively combined into a single interpretable model. The algorithm is evaluated using benchmark datasets for accuracy against state-of-the-art algorithms that make use of the entire dataset.

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  • Locally weighted naive Bayes

    Frank, Eibe; Hall, Mark A.; Pfahringer, Bernhard (2003-04)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Waikato

    Despite its simplicity, the naive Bayes classifier has surprised machine learning researchers by exhibiting good performance on a variety of learning problems. Encouraged by these results, researchers have looked to overcome naive Bayes' primary weakness—attribute independence—and improve the performance of the algorithm. This paper presents a locally weighted version of naive Bayes that relaxes the independence assumption by learning local models at prediction time. Experimental results show that locally weighted naive Bayes rarely degrades accuracy compared to standard naive Bayes and, in many cases, improves accuracy dramatically. The main advantage of this method compared to other techniques for enhancing naive Bayes is its conceptual and computational simplicity.

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  • Cache Hierarchy Inspired Compression: a Novel Architecture for Data Streams

    Holmes, Geoffrey; Pfahringer, Bernhard; Kirkby, Richard Brendon (2006)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    We present an architecture for data streams based on structures typically found in web cache hierarchies. The main idea is to build a meta level analyser from a number of levels constructed over time from a data stream. We present the general architecture for such a system and an application to classification. This architecture is an instance of the general wrapper idea allowing us to reuse standard batch learning algorithms in an inherently incremental learning environment. By artificially generating data sources we demonstrate that a hierarchy containing a mixture of models is able to adapt over time to the source of the data. In these experiments the hierarchies use an elementary performance based replacement policy and unweighted voting for making classification decisions.

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  • Bagging ensemble selection for regression

    Sun, Quan; Pfahringer, Bernhard (2012)

    Conference item
    University of Waikato

    Bagging ensemble selection (BES) is a relatively new ensemble learning strategy. The strategy can be seen as an ensemble of the ensemble selection from libraries of models (ES) strategy. Previous experimental results on binary classification problems have shown that using random trees as base classifiers, BES-OOB (the most successful variant of BES) is competitive with (and in many cases, superior to) other ensemble learning strategies, for instance, the original ES algorithm, stacking with linear regression, random forests or boosting. Motivated by the promising results in classification, this paper examines the predictive performance of the BES-OOB strategy for regression problems. Our results show that the BES-OOB strategy outperforms Stochastic Gradient Boosting and Bagging when using regression trees as the base learners. Our results also suggest that the advantage of using a diverse model library becomes clear when the model library size is relatively large. We also present encouraging results indicating that the non negative least squares algorithm is a viable approach for pruning an ensemble of ensembles.

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  • Algorithm selection on data streams

    van Rijn, Jan N.; Holmes, Geoffrey; Pfahringer, Bernhard; Vanschoren, Joaquin (2014)

    Conference item
    University of Waikato

    We explore the possibilities of meta-learning on data streams, in particular algorithm selection. In a first experiment we calculate the characteristics of a small sample of a data stream, and try to predict which classifier performs best on the entire stream. This yields promising results and interesting patterns. In a second experiment, we build a meta-classifier that predicts, based on measurable data characteristics in a window of the data stream, the best classifier for the next window. The results show that this meta-algorithm is very competitive with state of the art ensembles, such as OzaBag, OzaBoost and Leveraged Bagging. The results of all experiments are made publicly available in an online experiment database, for the purpose of verifiability, reproducibility and generalizability.

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  • Having a Blast: Meta-Learning and Heterogeneous Ensembles for Data Streams

    van Rijn, Jan N.; Holmes, Geoffrey; Pfahringer, Bernhard; Vanschoren, Joaquin (2015-01-01)

    Conference item
    University of Waikato

    Ensembles of classifiers are among the best performing classifiers available in many data mining applications. However, most ensembles developed specifically for the dynamic data stream setting rely on only one type of base-level classifier, most often Hoeffding Trees. In this paper, we study the use of heterogeneous ensembles, comprised of fundamentally different model types. Heterogeneous ensembles have proven successful in the classical batch data setting, however they do not easily transfer to the data stream setting. We therefore introduce the Online Performance Estimation framework, which can be used in data stream ensembles to weight the votes of (heterogeneous) ensemble members differently across the stream. Experiments over a wide range of data streams show performance that is competitive with state of the art ensemble techniques, including Online Bagging and Leveraging Bagging. All experimental results from this work are easily reproducible and publicly available on OpenML for further analysis.

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  • The positive effects of negative information: Extending one-class classification models in binary proteomic sequence classification

    Mutter, Stefan; Pfahringer, Bernhard; Holmes, Geoffrey (2009)

    Conference item
    University of Waikato

    Profile Hidden Markov Models (PHMMs) have been widely used as models for Multiple Sequence Alignments. By their nature, they are generative one-class classifiers trained only on sequences belonging to the target class they represent. Nevertheless, they are often used to discriminate between classes. In this paper, we investigate the beneficial effects of information from non-target classes in discriminative tasks. Firstly, the traditional PHMM is extended to a new binary classifier. Secondly, we propose propositional representations of the original PHMM that capture information from target and non-target sequences and can be used with standard binary classifiers. Since PHMM training is time intensive, we investigate whether our approach allows the training of the PHMM to stop, before it is fully converged, without loss of predictive power.

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  • Propositionalisation of Profile Hidden Markov Models for Biological Sequence Analysis

    Mutter, Stefan; Pfahringer, Bernhard; Holmes, Geoffrey (2008)

    Conference item
    University of Waikato

    Hidden Markov Models are a widely used generative model for analysing sequence data. A variant, Profile Hidden Markov Models are a special case used in Bioinformatics to represent, for example, protein families. In this paper we introduce a simple propositionalisation method for Profile Hidden Markov Models. The method allows the use of PHMMs discriminatively in a classification task. Previously, kernel approaches have been proposed to generate a discriminative description for an HMM, but require the explicit definition of a similarity measure for HMMs. Propositionalisation does not need such a measure and allows the use of any propositional learner including kernel-based approaches. We show empirically that using propositionalisation leads to higher accuracies in comparison with PHMMs on benchmark datasets.

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  • Organizing the World’s Machine Learning Information

    Vanschoren, Joaquin; Blockeel, Hendrik; Pfahringer, Bernhard; Holmes, Geoffrey (2009)

    Conference item
    University of Waikato

    All around the globe, thousands of learning experiments are being executed on a daily basis, only to be discarded after interpretation. Yet, the information contained in these experiments might have uses beyond their original intent and, if properly stored, could be of great use to future research. In this paper, we hope to stimulate the development of such learning experiment repositories by providing a bird’s-eye view of how they can be created and used in practice, bringing together existing approaches and new ideas. We draw parallels between how experiments are being curated in other sciences, and consecutively discuss how both the empirical and theoretical details of learning experiments can be expressed, organized and made universally accessible. Finally, we discuss a range of possible services such a resource can offer, either used directly or integrated into data mining tools.

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  • Static techniques for reducing memory usage in the C implementation of Whiley programs

    Weng, Min-Hsien; Pfahringer, Bernhard; Utting, Mark (2017)

    Conference item
    University of Waikato

    Languages that use call-by-value semantics, such as Whiley, can make program verification easier. But effcient implementation becomes harder, due to the overhead of copying and garbage collection. This paper describes how a mixture of static analysis and runtime-monitoring can be used to eliminate unnecessary copying and deallocate memory with- out garbage collection. We show that this allows Whiley programs to be translated into effcient C implementations.

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  • From opinion lexicons to sentiment classification of tweets and vice versa: a transfer learning approach

    Bravo-Marquez, Felipe; Frank, Eibe; Pfahringer, Bernhard (2016)

    Conference item
    University of Waikato

    Message-level and word-level polarity classification are two popular tasks in Twitter sentiment analysis. They have been commonly addressed by training supervised models from labelled data. The main limitation of these models is the high cost of data annotation. Transferring existing labels from a related problem domain is one possible solution for this problem. In this paper, we propose a simple model for transferring sentiment labels from words to tweets and vice versa by representing both tweets and words using feature vectors residing in the same feature space. Tweets are represented by standard NLP features such as unigrams and part-of-speech tags. Words are represented by averaging the vectors of the tweets in which they occur. We evaluate our approach in two transfer learning problems: 1) training a tweet-level polarity classifier from a polarity lexicon, and 2) inducing a polarity lexicon from a collection of polarity-annotated tweets. Our results show that the proposed approach can successfully classify words and tweets after transfer.

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  • Learning Distance Metrics for Multi-Label Classification

    Gouk, Henry; Pfahringer, Bernhard; Cree, Michael J. (2016)

    Conference item
    University of Waikato

    Distance metric learning is a well studied problem in the field of machine learning, where it is typically used to improve the accuracy of instance based learning techniques. In this paper we propose a distance metric learning algorithm that is specialised for multi-label classification tasks, rather than the multiclass setting considered by most work in this area. The method trains an embedder that can transform instances into a feature space where squared Euclidean distance provides an estimate of the Jaccard distance between the corresponding label vectors. In addition to a linear Mahalanobis style metric, we also present a nonlinear extension that provides a substantial boost in performance. We show that this technique significantly improves upon current approaches for instance based multi-label classification, and also enables interesting data visualisations.

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  • MOA: Massive Online Analysis, a framework for stream classification and clustering.

    Bifet, Albert; Holmes, Geoffrey; Pfahringer, Bernhard; Kranen, Philipp; Kremer, Hardy; Jansen, Timm; Seidl, Thomas (2010)

    Conference item
    University of Waikato

    Massive Online Analysis (MOA) is a software environment for implementing algorithms and running experiments for online learning from evolving data streams. MOA is designed to deal with the challenging problem of scaling up the implementation of state of the art algorithms to real world dataset sizes. It contains collection of offline and online for both classification and clustering as well as tools for evaluation. In particular, for classification it implements boosting, bagging, and Hoeffding Trees, all with and without Naive Bayes classifiers at the leaves. For clustering, it implements StreamKM++, CluStream, ClusTree, Den-Stream, D-Stream and CobWeb. Researchers benefit from MOA by getting insights into workings and problems of different approaches, practitioners can easily apply and compare several algorithms to real world data set and settings. MOA supports bi-directional interaction with WEKA, the Waikato Environment for Knowledge Analysis, and is released under the GNU GPL license.

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  • Use of Ensembles of Fourier Spectra in Capturing Recurrent Concepts in Data Streams

    Sakthithasan, Sakthithasan; Pears, Russel; Bifet, Albert; Pfahringer, Bernhard (2015)

    Conference item
    University of Waikato

    In this research, we apply ensembles of Fourier encoded spectra to capture and mine recurring concepts in a data stream environment. Previous research showed that compact versions of Decision Trees can be obtained by applying the Discrete Fourier Transform to accurately capture recurrent concepts in a data stream. However, in highly volatile environments where new concepts emerge often, the approach of encoding each concept in a separate spectrum is no longer viable due to memory overload and thus in this research we present an ensemble approach that addresses this problem. Our empirical results on real world data and synthetic data exhibiting varying degrees of recurrence reveal that the ensemble approach outperforms the single spectrum approach in terms of classification accuracy, memory and execution time.

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  • Mining Arbitrarily Large Datasets Using Heuristic k-Nearest Neighbour Search

    Wu, Xing; Holmes, Geoffrey; Pfahringer, Bernhard (2008)

    Conference item
    University of Waikato

    Nearest Neighbour Search (NNS) is one of the top ten data mining algorithms. It is simple and effective but has a time complexity that is the product of the number of instances and the number of dimensions. When the number of dimensions is greater than two there are no known solutions that can guarantee a sublinear retrieval time. This paper describes and evaluates two ways to make NNS efficient for datasets that are arbitrarily large in the number of instances and dimensions. The methods are best described as heuristic as they are neither exact nor approximate. Both stem from recent developments in the field of data stream classification. The first uses Hoeffding Trees, an extension of decision trees to streams and the second is a direct stream extension of NNS. The methods are evaluated in terms of their accuracy and the time taken to find the neighbours. Results show that the methods are competitive with NNS in terms of accuracy but significantly faster.

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  • Clustering for classification

    Evans, Reuben James Emmanuel; Pfahringer, Bernhard; Holmes, Geoffrey (2011)

    Conference item
    University of Waikato

    Advances in technology have provided industry with an array of devices for collecting data. The frequency and scale of data collection means that there are now many large datasets being generated. To find patterns in these datasets it would be useful to be able to apply modern methods of classification such as support vector machines. Unfortunately these methods are computationally expensive, quadratic in the number of data points in fact, so cannot be applied directly. This paper proposes a framework whereby a variety of clustering methods can be used to summarise datasets, that is, reduce them to a smaller but still representative dataset so that advanced methods can be applied. It compares the results of using this framework against using random selection on a large number of classification problems. Results show that clustering prior to classification is beneficial when employing a sophisticated classifier however when the classifier is simple the benefits over random selection are not justified given the added cost of clustering. The results also show that for each dataset it is important to choose a clustering method carefully.

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  • Clustering large datasets using cobweb and K-means in tandem

    Li, Mi; Holmes, Geoffrey; Pfahringer, Bernhard (2005)

    Conference item
    University of Waikato

    This paper presents a single scan algorithm for clustering large datasets based on a two phase process which combines two well known clustering methods. The Cobweb algorithm is modified to produce a balanced tree with subclusters at the leaves, and then K-means is applied to the resulting subclusters. The resulting method, Scalable Cobweb, is then compared to a single pass K-means algorithm and standard K-means. The evaluation looks at error as measured by the sum of squared error and vulnerability to the order in which data points are processed.

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  • Propositionalisation of multiple sequence alignments using probabilistic models

    Mutter, Stefan; Pfahringer, Bernhard; Holmes, Geoffrey (2008)

    Conference item
    University of Waikato

    Multiple sequence alignments play a central role in Bioinformatics. Most alignment representations are designed to facilitate knowledge extraction by human experts. Additionally statistical models like Profile Hidden Markov Models are used as representations. They offer the advantage to provide sound, probabilistic scores. The basic idea we present in this paper is to use the structure of a Profile Hidden Markov Model for propositionalisation. This way we get a simple, extendable representation of multiple sequence alignments which facilitates further analysis by Machine Learning algorighms.

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  • Mining frequent closed graphs on evolving data streams

    Bifet, Albert; Holmes, Geoffrey; Pfahringer, Bernhard; Gavaldà, Ricard (2011)

    Conference item
    University of Waikato

    Graph mining is a challenging task by itself, and even more so when processing data streams which evolve in real-time. Data stream mining faces hard constraints regarding time and space for processing, and also needs to provide for concept drift detection. In this paper we present a framework for studying graph pattern mining on time-varying streams. Three new methods for mining frequent closed subgraphs are presented. All methods work on coresets of closed subgraphs, compressed representations of graph sets, and maintain these sets in a batch-incremental manner, but use different approaches to address potential concept drift. An evaluation study on datasets comprising up to four million graphs explores the strength and limitations of the proposed methods. To the best of our knowledge this is the first work on mining frequent closed subgraphs in non-stationary data streams.

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