40 results for Poot, Jacques

  • The impact of immigration on international trade: a meta‐analysis

    Genc, Murat; Gheasi, Masood; Nijkamp, Peter; Poot, Jacques (2011)

    Conference item
    University of Waikato

    Since the early 1990s many studies have been conducted on the impact of international migration on international trade, predominantly from the host country perspective. Because most studies have adopted broadly the same specification, namely a log‐linear gravity model of export and import flows augmented with the logarithm of the stock of immigrants from specific source countries as an additional explanatory variable, the resulting elasticities are broadly comparable and yield a set of estimates that is well suited to meta‐analysis. We therefore compile and analyze in this paper the distribution of immigration elasticities of imports and exports across 48 studies that yielded 300 estimates. The results confirm that immigration boosts trade, but its impact is lower on trade in homogeneous goods. An increase in the number of immigrants by 10 percent increases the volume of trade by about 1‐2 percent The migrant elasticity of imports is on average similar to that of exports. The estimates are affected by the choice of some covariates, the nature of the data (cross‐section or panel) and the estimation technique. Elasticities vary between countries in ways that cannot be explained by study characteristics; host country differences in immigration policies do apparently matter for the trade impact. The trade‐enhancing impact of migration appears to be greater for migration between countries of different levels of development than between developed countries.

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  • International trade agreements and international migration

    Poot, Jacques; Strutt, Anna (2009-04)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Waikato

    Despite large potential economic gains to the countries concerned, bilateral and multilateral negotiations regarding liberalization of migration have not had the high profile of trade negotiations and agreements. Migration and trade have been traditionally the prerogative of different ministries, yet there are many interdependencies between international trade, foreign investment and migration. The relevance of these interdependencies for trade negotiations has been remarkably ignored in the literature. In this paper we therefore focus on the two-way interaction between international migration and agreements designed to enhance cross-border trade or investment. Liberalization of international trade in services and the movement of people are likely to offer much more significant economic gains than liberalization of remaining barriers to goods trade. However, progress within multilateral frameworks is fraught with difficulty. Mode IV of GATS is restricted to temporary movement of service employees and has yielded little progress so far. Negotiations within more flexible unilateral and bilateral frameworks are likely to be more successful in liberalizing the movement of labour. We discuss several specific examples and conclude that trade negotiations are increasingly accommodating migration policies that favour temporary migration over permanent migration and that the migration regulatory framework is likely to be further linked to trade and investment over time.

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  • Meta-analysis of empirical evidence on the labour market impacts of immigration

    Longhi, Simonetta; Nijkamp, Peter; Poot, Jacques (2008-02)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Waikato

    The increasing proportion of immigrants in the population of many countries has raised concerns about the ‘absorption capacity’ of the labour market, and fuelled extensive empirical research in countries that attract migrants. In previous papers we synthesized the conclusions of this empirical literature by means of meta-analyses of the impact of immigration on wages and employment of native-born workers. While we have shown that the labour market impacts in terms of wages and employment are rather small, the sample of studies available to generate comparable effect sizes was severely limited by the heterogeneity in study approaches. In the present paper, we take an encompassing approach and consider a broad range of labour market outcomes: wages, employment, unemployment and labour force participation. We compare 45 primary studies published between 1982 and 2007 for a total of 1,572 effect sizes. We trichotomise the various labour market outcomes as benefiting, harming or not affecting the native born, and use an ordered probit model to assess the relationship between this observed impact and key study characteristics such as type of country, methodology, period of investigation and type of migrant.

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  • Demographic change and regional competitiveness: The effects of immigration and ageing

    Poot, Jacques (2007-02)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Waikato

    The demographic profile of a region is usually seen as a slowly changing background phenomenon in the analysis of regional competitiveness and regional growth. However, regional demographic change can have a significant impact on regional competitiveness and such change is often more rapid and profound than at the national level. In turn, regional population size, growth, composition and distribution are endogenous to regional economic development. This paper focuses on the impact of population ageing and immigration on aspects of regional competitiveness such as innovation, entrepreneurship and productivity. Immigration and ageing trends have generated huge separate literatures but it is argued here that it is fruitful to consider these trends jointly. Theoretically, there are many channels through which immigration and population ageing can affect regional competitiveness. There is empirical evidence that population ageing reduces regional competitiveness, while immigration – particularly of entrepreneurs and highly skilled workers to metropolitan areas – enhances competitiveness. Much of the available literature is based on smallscale case studies and rigorous econometric research on the impact of demographic change at the regional level is still remarkably rare. Some directions for further research are suggested.

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  • Description and spatial analysis of employment change in New Zealand regions 1986-2001

    Baxendine, Sandra; Cochrane, William; Poot, Jacques (2005-11)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Waikato

    Over the last two decades New Zealand has undergone fundamental economic restructuring, and phases of slow and rapid growth, which have resulted in some dramatic changes in the regional economies. This paper provides a detailed multiperiod shift-share analysis over three intercensal periods between 1986 and 2001 on changes in regional employment outcomes at two levels of spatial disaggregation: 29 Administrative Regions (ARs), based on Regional Council areas, and 58 Labour Market Areas (LMAs) that have economically meaningful (commuting determined) boundaries. The contributions to employment outcomes of national trends, sectoral composition within regions, structural change, and local conditions are identified. A four-category disaggregation of regional employment into sex, age, occupation and industry is also undertaken. The results show a dichotomy between metropolitan and non-metropolitan areas, but also several distinct clusters among the latter. Regional competitive advantage is clearly linked with net inward migration. There is also evidence of significantly positive spatial autocorrelation in the competitive effect. Local indicators of spatial association help to identify regions that stand out in terms of being surrounded by similar regions, or by regions that are just the opposite, in terms of the competitive effect. Interestingly, regional population growth precedes the competitive component of employment growth rather than just being a symptom of it.

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  • Demographic change and transport needs in the Waikato region

    Baxendine, Sandra; Cochrane, William; Poot, Jacques (2005-09)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Waikato

    This report has been commissioned by Environment Waikato (EW) as part of its review of the Land Transport Strategy for the Waikato region. The report identifies key population characteristics that impact on transport needs of the EW region and the constituent Territorial Authority (TA) areas. In this context, vulnerable locations and populations are identified. Future trends for the EW region and sub-regions are assessed by means of low, medium and high population growth scenarios, and the implications of the projected changes in population size and composition for transport needs are identified. A general theme throughout this report is that in many respects demographic change in the Waikato region is not that different from that in New Zealand as a whole, but there are sharp differences between the constituent TA areas. The report covers changes in population size and structure, ethnic structure, the labour force, income, housing tenure and motor vehicle ownership, deprivation and projections of locally generated trips, the number of motor vehicles and travel to work flows. It is noted that a comprehensive assessment of transport need should embed demographic change into an integrated model of economic change in the region, combined with scenarios relating to external factors and policy changes.

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  • The New Zealand population: A synopsis of trends and projections 1991 - 2016

    Baxendine, Sandra; Cochrane, William; Dharmalingam, Arunachalam; Hillcoat-Nallétamby, Sarah; Poot, Jacques (2005-05)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Waikato

    Although there are many excellent documents and online resources available on New Zealand population trends, it is useful to highlight some key trends in one short document. This paper provides a synopsis of trends with respect to population size and age structure, sub-national population size and change, international migration, ethnicity, families and generations, fertility and mortality, and education and work.

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  • Measuring the economic impact of immigration: A scoping paper

    Poot, Jacques; Cochrane, William (2005-02)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Waikato

    This discussion paper has three objectives. Firstly, it provides a brief review of recent international empirical research on the labour market impact of immigration. The synthesis of this literature is facilitated by reference to the results from a recent meta-analysis of the impact of immigration on wages. Secondly, the paper briefly reviews international research on other dimensions of the economic impact of immigration, namely productivity and technical change, trade and international relations, the fiscal impact, socio-economic impacts and externalities, and economy-wide (general equilibrium) effects. The approach adopted in considering each of these impacts is to identify the main issues associated with the particular impact, followed by key international references and, where available, New Zealand references on the particular type of impact. The gaps in NZ research are then identified along with any difficulties with the data available for replicating the international studies in New Zealand. Thirdly, the paper seeks to identify feasible (in terms of data availability) suggestions for further research that would add to our knowledge of the economic impact of immigration in New Zealand.

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  • A meta-analytic assessment of the effect of immigration on wages

    Longhi, Simonetta; Nijkamp, Peter; Poot, Jacques (2004-12)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Waikato

    In our increasingly interconnected and open world, international migration is becoming an important socio-economic phenomenon for many countries. Since the early 1980s, many studies have been undertaken of the impact of immigration on host labour markets. Borjas (2003) noted that the estimated effect of immigration on the wage of native workers varies widely from study to study and sometimes even within the same study. In addition, these effects cluster around zero. Such a small effect is a rather surprising outcome, given that in a closed competitive labour market an increase in labour supply may be expected to exert a downward pressure on wages. We revisit this issue by applying meta-analytic techniques to a sample of eighteen papers, which altogether generated 348 estimates of the percentage change in the wage of a native worker with respect to a one percentage point increase in the ratio of immigrants over native workers. While many studies in our sample employ US data, estimates are also obtained from Germany, The Netherlands, France, Norway, Austria, Israel and Australia. Our analysis shows that results vary across countries and are inter alia related to the type of modelling approach. Technical issues such as publication bias and quality of the estimates are addressed as well. A negative but small effect of immigration on wages of native groups with similar skills appears rather robust.

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  • International trade negotiations and the trans-border movement of people: A review of the literature

    Strutt, Anna; Poot, Jacques; Dubbeldam, Jason (2008-06)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Waikato

    We review the international and New Zealand literatures on the two-way interaction between international migration and agreements designed to enhance cross-border trade or investment. Benefits and costs of migration, to the extent that these may feature in trade and migration negotiations, are discussed. While trade and migration can be substitutes in some contexts, they will be complements in other contexts. Liberalisation of services and the movement of people are likely to offer much more significant gains than liberalisation of remaining barriers to goods trade. Significant scope for liberalisation under GATS mode 4 (the movement of natural persons) may remain. However, temporary migration is already promoted on a unilateral and bilateral basis within immigration policy frameworks that may provide greater flexibility than GATS mode 4. With respect to both trade and migration, the more diverse the exchanging countries are, the greater the economic benefits tend to be. However, greater diversity may also imply greater social costs. This paradox of diversity needs to be addressed through appropriate social policies accompanying enhanced temporary and permanent migration.

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  • Migration, relationship capital and international travel: Theory and evidence

    McCann, Philip; Poot, Jacques; Sanderson, Lynda Margaret (2008-08)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Waikato

    In this paper we consider how international migration is related to the frequency and duration of trips to the home country. For many migrants, international migration triggers a series of trips to visit the home country that allow for a replenishment of the depleted relationship capital with family and friends back home, but these trips incur travel costs and foregone earnings. Given plausible assumptions about the depreciation and replenishment of home country relationship capital, a steady-state level of average maintained relationship capital implies that the optimized travel frequency is inversely related to the distance and the transportation costs, and positively related to the psychological costs of separation. The total time spent at home is increasing in the trip frequency, but with an elasticity that is decreasing in cultural proximity. Empirical evidence in support of these theoretical predictions is found in a unique longitudinal sample of international travel of 13,674 New Zealand citizens and 6,882 UK citizens who migrated to Australia between 1 August 1999 and 31 July 2000.

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  • Agglomeration externalities, innovation and regional growth: Theoretical perspectives and meta-analysis

    de Groot, Henri L. F.; Poot, Jacques; Smit, Martijn J. (2008-02)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Waikato

    Technological change and innovation and are central to the quest for regional development. In the globally-connected knowledge-driven economy, the relevance of agglomeration forces that rely on proximity continues to increase, paradoxically despite declining real costs of information, communication and transportation. Globally, the proportion of the population living in cities continues to grow and sprawling cities remain the engines of regional economic transformation. The growth of cities results from a complex chain that starts with scale, density and geography, which then combine with industrial structure characterised by its extent of specialisation, competition and diversity, to yield innovation and productivity growth that encourages employment expansion, and further urban growth through inward migration. This paper revisits the central part of this virtuous circle, namely the Marshall-Arrow-Romer externalities (specialisation), Jacobs externalities (diversity) and Porter externalities (competition) that have provided alternative explanations for innovation and urban growth. The paper evaluates the statistical robustness of evidence for such externalities presented in 31 scientific articles, all building on the seminal work of Glaeser et al. (1992). We aim to explain variation in estimation results using study characteristics by means of ordered probit analysis. Among the results, we find that the impact of diversity depends on how it is measured and that diversity is important for the high-tech sector. High population density increases the chance of finding positive effects of specialisation on growth. More recent data find more positive results for both specialization and diversity, suggesting that agglomeration externalities become more important over time. Finally, primary study results depend on whether or not the externalities are considered jointly and on other features of the regression model specification.

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  • Agglomeration externalities and 1981-2006 regional growth in Brazil

    Matlaba, Valente José; Holmes, Mark J.; McCann, Philip; Poot, Jacques (2012-06)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Waikato

    This paper focuses on manufacturing employment growth across the 26 states of Brazil. We employ the Glaeser et al. (1992) approach to identify the role played by knowledge externalities in growth and convergence. To assess robustness of the results, we compare cross-section models, dynamic panel models and pooled-periods fixed-effect models. We find that cross-section models confirm the positive impact of Porter’s and Jacobs’ competition externalities on growth, whereas dynamic panel models and pooled-periods fixed-effect models are consistent with the predictions of Marshall-Arrow-Romer and Porter regarding the role of specialisation in manufacturing vis-à-vis other employment. The results provide new insights into the rapid growth since 1981 in particularly the North and Centre West of Brazil.

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  • Social capital and regional social infrastructure investment: Evidence from New Zealand

    Roskruge, Matthew James; Grimes, Arthur; McCann, Philip; Poot, Jacques (2010)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Waikato

    In this paper we link unique data on local social infrastructure expenditure with micro-level individual survey data of self-reported social capital measures of trust and participation in community activities. We use both probit and tobit models to estimate the impact of social infrastructure expenditure on social capital formation. Our results imply that the links between social capital, demographic characteristics, human capital, geography and public social infrastructure investment are rather more subtle and complex than much of the literature implies. While we find evidence in support of many of the hypothesized relationships discussed in the social capital literature, our results also suggest that the impact of public social infrastructure investment is affected by both selection effects and free rider processes.

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  • The importance of heterogeneity when examining immigrant education-occupation mismatch: evidence from New Zealand

    Poot, Jacques; Stillman, Steven (2010)

    Conference item
    University of Waikato

    Many immigrants are overqualified in their first job after arrival in the host country. Education-occupation mismatch can affect the economic integration of immigrants and the returns to education and experience. The extent of this problem has been measured in recent years by means of micro level data in Australia, North America and Europe. However, these papers have typically ignored the importance of allowing for heterogeneity, in particular by qualification level and years in the destination country. In this paper, we use data from the 1996, 2001 and 2006 New Zealand censuses to examine differences between each migrant’s actual years of education and the estimated typical years of education in the narrowly defined occupation in which they work. We find that migrants living in New Zealand for less than 5 years are on average overeducated, while earlier migrants are on average undereducated. However, once accounting for heterogeneity, we find that both overeducated and undereducated migrants become, with increasing years of residence in New Zealand, more similar to comparable native born. Convergence from overeducation is stronger than from undereducation.

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  • The spatial impact of local infrastructural investment in New Zealand

    Cochrane, William; Grimes, Arthur; McCann, Philip; Poot, Jacques (2010)

    Conference item
    University of Waikato

    In this paper we estimate the impact of local authority infrastructure spending in New Zealand using spatial econometric modeling, with the infrastructure spending itself endogenously determined. Utilizing data from the New Zealand Census and Local Authorities Finance data (1991-2008), aggregated to functional labor market areas, we formulate a simultaneous equations growth model of real income, population, land rent and public infrastructure investment. Estimation is conducted using a spatial 3SLS procedure. We find that an increase in local infrastructure spending increases population growth, real income and land values, but is itself endogenous and spatially correlated.

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  • Immigration and innovation in European regions

    Poot, Jacques; Ozgen, Ceren; Nijkamp, Peter (2010)

    Conference item
    University of Waikato

    The pooling of people with diverse backgrounds in particular areas may boost the creation of new ideas, knowledge spillovers, entrepreneurship and economic growth. In this paper we measure the impact of the size, skills and diversity of immigration on innovativeness of host regions. For this purpose we construct a panel of data on 170 regions in Europe (NUTS 2 level) for the period 1991-2001. Innovation outcomes are measured by means of the number and types of patent applications. Given the geographical concentration and subsequent diffusion of innovation activity, and the spatial selectivity of immigrant settlement patterns, we take account of spatial dependence and of endogeneity of immigrant settlement in the econometric modelling. We find that an increase in patent applications in a region is associated with (i) net immigration; (ii) the share of foreigners in the population of the region; (iii) the average skill level of the immigrants; and (iv) the cultural diversity of the immigrants. The magnitude of these effects varies between types of patents.

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  • A century of the evolution of the urban system in Brazil

    Matlaba, Valente José; Holmes, Mark J.; McCann, Philip; Poot, Jacques (2011-06)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Waikato

    In this paper, we study the hitherto unexplored evolution of the size distribution of 185 urban areas in Brazil between 1907 and 2008. We find that the power law parameter of the size distribution of the 100 largest urban areas increases from 0.63 in 1907 to 0.89 in 2008, which confirms an agglomeration process in which the size distribution has become more unequal. A panel fixed effects model pooling the same range of urban size distributions provides a power law parameter equal to 0.53, smaller than those from cross-sectional estimation. Clearly, Zipf’s Law is rejected. The lognormal distribution fits the city size distribution quite well until the 1940s, but since then applies to small and medium size cities only. These results are consistent with our understanding of historical-political and socio-economic processes that have shaped the development of Brazilian cities.

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  • Choosing Regional Futures: Challenges and choices in building integrated models to support long-term regional planning in New Zealand

    Rutledge, D. T.; Cameron, Michael Patrick; Elliott, S.; Fenton, J. A.; Huser, B.; McBridge, G.; McDonald, Gael; O’Connor, M.; Phyn, D.; Poot, Jacques; Price, R.; Scrimgeour, Frank; Small, B.; Tait, A.; Van Delden, H.; Wedderburn, M. E.; Woods, R. A. (2008)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    Better integrated knowledge of coupled ecological-socio-economic systems can assist regional policy development and planning in moving towards sustainable development by assessing the viability of those systems to meet the needs of current and future generations. Developing models that will yield such integrated knowledge poses significant challenges and requires hard choices. We explore these challenges and choices in the context of the Choosing Regional Futures project. In our project a regional council in New Zealand and several research organizations are co-developing a spatial decision support system (SDSS) to assist the council in undertaking long-term integrated planning as required by recent legislative changes. The SDSS integrates aspects of the economy, environment, and society. It consists of a spatially-explicit systems model operating at three scales: regional, district (i.e. sub-region), and local (200 m grid cells). The SDSS addresses aspects of biodiversity, economics, demography, land use change, and water resources. Climate change and external drivers at global and national scales are also included to explore their influence on future regional development. While researchers lead SDSS development, council staff participated in the project to build their knowledge and capacity, thereby maximizing both the relevance and likelihood of uptake upon project completion.

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  • Migration, relationship capital and international travel: theory and evidence

    McCann, Philip; Poot, Jacques; Sanderson, Lynda Margaret (2010)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    In this article we consider how international migration is related to the frequency and duration of trips to the home country. For many migrants, international migration triggers a series of trips to visit the home country that allow for a replenishment of the depleted relationship capital with family and friends back home, but these trips incur travel costs and foregone earnings. Given plausible assumptions about the depreciation and replenishment of home country relationship capital, a steady-state level of average maintained relationship capital implies that the optimized travel frequency is inversely related to the distance and the transportation costs, and positively related to the psychological costs of separation. The total time spent at home is increasing in the trip frequency, but with an elasticity that is decreasing in cultural proximity. Empirical evidence in support of these theoretical predictions is found in a unique longitudinal sample of international travel of 13,674 New Zealand citizens and 6882 UK citizens who migrated to Australia between 1 August 1999 and 31 July 2000.

    View record details