10 results for Popov, Nikolay

  • Parametric Models of Coastal Settlements' Growth

    Dove, K.; Popov, Nikolay (2013)

    Conference paper
    Unitec

    Parametric design has been widely used by architects. However within landscape architecture and urban design its use has been very limited (Steino, 2012). This paper reports on initial findings of on-going research that aims at investigating the applicability of parametric design concepts when evaluating growth scenarios in small coastal settlements within New Zealand. The objective of this research project is twofold. Firstly, it identifies issues associated with urban growth, alongside current urban design approaches. Secondly, the project aims to take the parametric design discourse out of its academic context and test its applicability on a real site that is under pressure from growth. This is explored by developing parametric urban design systems that operate at different scales. The case study site is Pataua North, Whangarei Heads. This site has an expected growth demand of 5000 people (Liang, A. 2010). The developed parametric urban design system models the interconnections between greenspace, street layout and lot sizes. The advantages and shortcomings of parametric models when compared with canonical top-down urban design approaches are explored through this research. Evaluation criteria for privileging models outputs are also reviewed. The research recommends a range of possible improvements to models and speculates on the future of parametric urban design.

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  • Swarm planning : development of generative spatial planning tool for resilient cities

    Roggema, Rob; Popov, Nikolay (2015-09)

    Conference paper
    Unitec

    In dealing with unexpected impacts of climate change current spatial planning tools are irresponsive and inflexible. The outcomes of applications of these tools are very limited in number, producing static plans that if implemented are very vulnerable to climate hazards. Therefore, an innovative generative tool has been developed to support spatial planning which results in designs that are responsive and adjustable to unexpected, simulated changes. The development of the generative tool is informed by swarm planning theory, and by contemporary generative approaches in urban design and planning. The generative tool is modeled as an Agent-Based System and utilizes versions of the canonical flocking algorithm. The agents are abstract cubical units of space that represent building envelopes. The agents exist and work within an environment that represents a site in terms of topography, land value, and available/buildable land. The agents receive information from the environment and act upon this information. The unexpected climate impact is a simulated flood, which affects both the environment and the agents. The outputs of the tool are generated 'bottom-up' in order to study emergent spatial configurations, as massings of building units.

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  • How can Netlogo be used in the landscape architectural design process?

    Popov, Nikolay (2007)

    Thesis
    Unitec

    “The frame of our view is already framed by a part of its content. We can easily recognize here the topology of the Moebius band where, as in a kind of abyssal inversion, the envelope itself is encased by its interior.” Slavoj Zizek The objective of this masters project is to test the applicability of the Netlogo[1] computer complexity modelling environment to landscape architectural design. This is achieved by designing four Netlogo models of different landscape systems and critically evaluating their usefulness in the design process, outlining possible improvements and shortcomings of the models, and finally making some speculative suggestions for future utilisations of this or other similar techniques in landscape architecture. The recent adoption of complexity theory by landscape architectural writers and the new viewpoints offered by landscape urbanism combined with theoretical and technological innovation in various fields - ranging from object oriented computer programming to geographic information science and urban modeling techniques - provided the theoretical frame work and prompted a possible methodology for this project. Landscape architectural theory has shifted to accommodate the ideas and perspectives originating in complexity theory, changing opinions within the profession.Landscapes are now seen as systems that are open, chaotic, unpredictable, irreversible, and in constant flux – i.e. complex adaptive systems. It has also been accepted that there is little to distinguish between ‘natural’ and ‘artificial’. The interests of landscape architects have shifted from objects to processes and forces, from ‘how things look’ to ‘what they do’. This new paradigm has also provided a useful model for urban designers and planners thus potentially allowing for a more unified perspective within landscape architecture, planning and urban design. Urban Planners now work with the idea that cities are complex, bottom-up phenomena. From this profession, methodologies and techniques have further been developed for modelling or simulating complex adaptive systems and applied them to cities. These techniques made it possible to explore cities ‘bottom up’, to play numerous scenarios for possible futures and to investigate the emergence and development of urban patterns. These methodologies are still missing from the landscape architectural ‘tool bag’. This project introduces, adapts, and evaluates some of the most recent methodologies and algorithms employed in urban simulations for landscape architectural applications. The method explored by this masters project is called multi-agent simulations (MAS). It derives from distributed artificial intelligence studies and it is of a particular interest when modeling space-time dynamics within environmental and urban systems. The underlying concept is that models exhibit behaviours described entirely by their internal mechanisms. Every member, or agent, of the system has a strategy, and when the simulation is running, all agents are implementing their strategies in a parallel manner, while simultaneously registering the changes in the surrounding world. MAS can explore the connection between micro-level behaviour of individuals and the macro-level patterns that emerge from the interaction of many individuals. Netlogo was chosen as the MAS modeling environment according to a set of pragmatic criteria. Learning to work with it was a time consuming and difficult process. This is why the four models developed for this project have an increasing degree of complexity. It is well recognised that models are simplifications of the real thing but they also have many advantages – it is possible to ask multiple ‘what if?’ questions about the system of interest, and this is absolutely central to their use in design and planning, together with their ability to simplify and manipulate worlds associated with human and natural systems and to experiment with them using simulation in ways that were simply unthinkable in earlier times. The evaluation of Netlogo was made by modeling four simulations or case studies that may be of interest to landscape architects and then critically evaluating their advantages and shortcomings. The first case study deals with pedestrian movement simulations at small scale. Two types of pedestrian behaviour are studied - Flocking (curiosity or ‘what one’s neighbour is doing?’) and Turbulence (the desire to flee or to reach some goal). Building 1, Unitec, Carrington Road, Mt. Albert, Auckland and the surrounding areas were selected for this experiment. The second case study deals with hydrology dynamics and GIS – Netlogo data exchange. The Unitec site and the GIS elevation data available were used as a basis for this simulation. Tropical Forest Dynamics is the third case study. It is grounded in the disturbance ecology paradigm i.e. that ecosystems need disturbance events in order to survive. The simulation utilizes a virtual, conical, tropical island as its basis and studies the emergent regenerative forests patterns after cyclone disturbance. Pacific Settlement Regeneration is the fourth simulation. It studies the recovery process of a small Pacific settlement after a cyclonic event. The chosen site was Houma Village, located on the island of Eua, Tonga. This masters project introduces complexity simulations into landscape architectural practice by investigating the advantages and the drawbacks of this type of modelling. It will suggest how the developed models may be further enriched, propose how some of the drawbacks can be overcome, and identify limitations. Finally, there will be some speculations about the future of this technique in landscape architecture.

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  • Generative urban design with cellular automata and agent based modelling

    Popov, Nikolay (2010)

    Conference paper
    Unitec

    This paper reports on initial findings of a bigger research project that set out to explore the potential of generative algorithms in landscape architecture, urban design and architecture. The paper focuses on how urban morphologies of unplanned settlements can be modelled as emergent phenomena using parallel computing. Theoretically the research stems from Hiller’s discourse about space syntax, summarised in Section 2. The paper outlines the concepts behind generative design and illustrates the principles of Cellular Automata and Agent Based Modelling using some simple examples. The models are described in detail and their potential usefulness in design education is demonstrated. The potential of using such models in design practice is also evaluated.

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  • Digitising the complex form

    Egginton, Zane; Popov, Nikolay; Orams, Brett (2010)

    Conference paper
    Unitec

    The demands of Landscape Architects and Architects use of organic and complex forms at various scales heavily fuel this project. In a typical project a designer is often faced with three challenges, how to create a digital model, how to enhance their design and how to visualise the final product. However due to the limitations of typical CAD programs used in the industry as a stand alone solution for digital representation the designer may end up representing complex form by illustrating either by photographic means or hand rendering. While these two methods have their place as representational tools it limits the techniques available to the designer to manipulate and interrogate these forms as they would with a typical CAD model. The difficulty to produce digital models of complex forms limits the methods to visualise the design and often mutes the detail presented. In this paper we will look at digitising and manipulating the complex form in various ways.

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  • Utilising agent based models for simulating landscape dynamics

    Popov, Nikolay (2009)

    Conference paper
    Unitec

    Cities and landscapes are now understood as systems that are open, chaotic, unpredictable, irreversible, and in constant flux - i.e. complex adaptive systems. This is why designers need to develop new modes of practice that can cope with open systems design. The term ‘model’, on the other hand, is now central to our thinking about the way we understand and design cities and landscapes. They are mediators between reality and theory and have a central role in bridging the gap between these two domains. This paper describes a new type of morphological modelling known as Agent Based Modelling (ABM) and investigates its applicability in landscape architectural design and planning. ABM assemble a wide range of theories and tools and offer an interesting view of urban and natural phenomena as a collective dynamics of interacting objects. They explore the connection between microlevel behaviour of individuals and the macro-level patterns that emerge from the interactions of many individuals. This paper examines, through a set of examples, the advantages, the drawbacks and the limitations of this type of modelling, with respect to their applications in landscape architecture. Finally, there will be some speculations about the future of these techniques in landscape design and planning.

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  • Landscape systems modelling: A disturbance ecology approach

    Margetts, Jacqueline; Barnett, Rod; Popov, Nikolay (2007)

    Conference paper
    Unitec

    This paper reports on research which explores the modelling of landscape systems over time using multiagent simulation (MAS) software called NetLogo. Two case studies investigate a disturbance ecology approach to the recovery of Pacific Island settlements after cyclonic events. First, the natural tropical forest sequence of colonisation-succession-disturbance which operates on Pacific Islands subject to frequent cyclonic events is modelled according to the rules of forest recovery. Then, rules derived from the tropical forest model are applied to a Pacific resort to explore design possibilities as the resort responds to cyclonic disturbance. There are two useful outcomes: the possible impact of a cyclone on a resort is modelled, and new patterns of resort design emerge. The research shows that MAS can not only model natural landscape systems but also be used to explore an infinite number of ‘what-if’ design scenarios. The results show the potential for MAS in landscape architectural practice.

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  • Exploring architectural possibilities with flocking algorithms

    Popov, Nikolay (2010)

    Conference paper
    Unitec

    Complexity theory offers a new way of understanding spatial patterns as self-organising morphologies. This provides a promising paradigm for exploring spatial organizations as the emergent outcome of dynamic relations between simple elements bounded together by multiple feedback loops. Self-organising spatial morphologies can be defined as a part of a process, usually a simple one, and modelled employing iterative algorithms. This paper reports on how various versions of the canonical flocking [1] algorithm can be utilized to interactively evolve emergent spatial patterns. The reason for selecting flocks as a study area is the fascinating asymmetry between the simplicity of the rules and the spatial complexity of the outcomes, when observed from a synoptic viewpoint. The flocks are modelled as Agent Based Systems using Netlogo [2] language. Together with traditional behaviours (separate, align, and cohere) the models employ up to five additional rules and a variety of parameters. The focus of the models range from obstacle avoidance, to learning and evolutionary flocking. The aim of the research is to investigate how complex architectural possibilities can be generated bottom-up, using distributed representation. Theoretically the research is related to the work of Paul Coates [3], Sebastian von Mammen, Aaron Westre, James Macgill, and many others.

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  • A new peri-urban agricultural system for Auckland

    Chen, Shoujun; Popov, Nikolay (2015-11-11)

    Journal article
    Unitec

    With population growth predicted for Auckland, there will be a rise in the food production required to feed the city. Auckland is already the country’s largest customer of food markets, but the fossil fuel based agricultural system in Auckland is still vulnerable to urban growth and climate change. In order to provide sustainable future for our next generation, the emergence of peri-urban agriculture* provides opportunities to improve the city’s food resilience and develop local food system in Auckland. This article will survey various planning concepts for peri-urban agriculture development and evaluate their applicability on a specific site - Special Housing Areas (SHAs) in Belmont. * Peri-urban agriculture refers to “production units close to town, which operates intensive semi- or fully commercial farms to grow vegetable and other crops” (5) Komirenko, Z. (2008). Urban and peri-urban agriculture in Kyiv (Ukraine): ”Crisis induced strategy” versus recreational resource. Retrieved from http://ageconsearch.umn.edu/bitstream/43553/2/083.pdf

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  • Auckland volcanic field build resilient framework on public open space

    Gao, Yan; Popov, Nikolay (2015-11-11)

    Journal article
    Unitec

    Auckland is a city built on volcanoes. Although the special volcanic landscape has brought benefits such as attracting foreign tourists and providing leisure for residents, it also brings potential risks. Volcanic eruption is ranked as the most dangerous hazard among all types of disaster and is considered a likely event with very high risks (Auckland Civil Defence, 2011). The challenge is to manage the aftermath of the disaster in a growing city as Auckland’ population is expected to grow by one million by 2040 (Auckland Council, 2012). In addition, evidence from the historical record shows that natural disasters such as volcanic eruptions do not always happen in isolation. For instance, the active volcano Mount Tambora, situated on a peninsula in Indonesia, had its strongest recorded eruption in 1815. The volcanic eruption was followed by a tsunami that caused over 4,500 deaths (Monk, Fretes, & Reksodiharjo-Lilley, 1996). As mentioned in the Auckland Civil Defence and the Emergency Management (CDEM) Plan, “Volcanic eruption can also cause other natural disasters, including earthquakes, wildfires, and (given certain conditions) tsunamis” (Auckland Civil Defence, 2010, p. 4). Response strategies in the case of natural disasters have been investigated in several ways. For example, CDEM Plan provides a comprehensive list of disasters that could happen in Auckland, as well as a variety of measures and suggestions relative to each type of disaster (Auckland Civil Defence, 2011). As outlined in the Auckland Evacuation Plan, the five phases of evacuation are decision, warning, physical evacuation, shelter and return (Auckland Civil Defence, 2014). The idea that open spaces can be part of a disaster relief system has been applied in other countries. For example, in many cities in China, use of parks as evacuation spaces has been built into policies (Ye & Fu, 2013). At present, public open spaces in Auckland are not adequately designed as disaster relief spaces. As such, this research attempts to explore how an open space can be used in disaster relief. Specifically, three aims will be addressed: 1. Assess public open spaces for availability of possible evacuation sites. Sites wherein secondary hazards (earthquakes and tsunami) may occur are considered as exclusion zones. 2. Explore the potential for increased usage of public open spaces and identify the emergency functions of open space approaches in disaster relief. 3. Design a sample site with emergency functions and test the design work though simulation in both a disaster situation and daily use.

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