35 results for Saunders, Caroline M., Book

  • Comparative energy and greenhouse gas emissions of New Zealand's and the UK's dairy industry

    Saunders, Caroline M.; Barber, A.

    Book
    Lincoln University

    This research report builds upon the AERU Research Report No. 285 on Food Miles - Comparative energy/emissions performance of New Zealand's agriculture industry (Saunders et al. 2006). This report adds greenhouse gas emissions associated with methane and nitrous oxide to the emissions associated with energy use in the food miles report. The calculations of methane and nitrous oxide emissions use the same methodology, but country specific coefficients, for both the UK and NZ as was the case for energy emissions in the original food miles report. This found that the UK had 34 per cent more emissions per kilogram of milk solids and 30 per cent more per hectare than NZ for dairy production even including the shipping to the UK. The report assumes that it is possible for the UK and other countries to supply the UK market at current cost with production to replace NZ imports. This, of course, may not be the case given limited capacity of production and different production environments.

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  • EU positions in WTO : impact on the EU, New Zealand and Australian livestock sectors

    Santiago Albuquerque, J. D.; Saunders, Caroline M.

    Book
    Lincoln University

    This report reviews the European Union (EU) position on the World Trade Organisation (WTO) for the market access pillar of the Doha round agricultural negotiations, and its implications in the EU, NZ and Australia. Initially, the report reviews the developments in the WTO and the EU on market access. The report also reviews various studies that evaluated agriculture market liberalisation in the EU. The report then describes the LTEM (Lincoln Trade and Environment Model), a multi-commodity and country, partial equilibrium model. The basic framework of the LTEM trade model is described especially the modification of the model to include market protection through import tariffs. The model is then used to estimate the impact of different levels and forms of tariff cuts. Three tariff reduction alternatives are considered. The first applies a linear tariff cut of 39 per cent, the second a tiered formula with cuts ranging from 60, 50, and 45 to 35 per cent. The highest cuts are applied to the sectors with highest tariffs, such as beef, sheep and some of the dairy products. The third applies a 100 per cent tariff removal. The results are consistent with theory, other studies and expectations. Producer returns decrease for the EU in proportion to the level of tariff cut. The decreases are larger for beef and sheep. In dairy, the reductions in producer returns are lesser due to the small decrease in EU milk production. EU dairy production remains at its quota level in the first two scenarios. NZ and Australia benefit in all scenarios. The application of a tiered formula for tariff cuts in the second scenario leads to deeper reductions in the commodities where NZ and Australia are net exporters and therefore leads to higher returns than the linear reduction. Regarding commodities, the gains in producer returns for NZ and Australia are bigger for beef and sheep. In the case of the dairy sector, the gains for NZ and Australia are much more moderate. This is expected the cuts in import tariffs in the EU dairy sector are offset by other mechanisms in place.

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  • Potential impacts of biopharming on New Zealand: results from the Lincoln Trade and Environment Model

    Kaye Blake, W.; Saunders, Caroline M.; de Aragao Pereira, M.

    Book
    Lincoln University

    Biopharming is an agricultural technology on the cusp of commercialisation. The technology uses genetically modified crop plants and animals to produce pharmaceuticals. Biopharm crops are now grown in the United States and Europe, and biopharm animals are being raised in New Zealand and elsewhere. The Agribusiness and Economics Research Unit (AERU) conducted research on the industry in 2006 and 2007 (Kaye-Blake, Saunders, & Ferguson, 2007), finding that ‘the necessary information to develop a robust economic analysis of these products is lacking. Much of the information on the relevant dimensions is simply unknown.’ This report builds on the prior AERU study. First, it presents an update on the biopharming industry and the economics literature on it. Secondly, it presents economic modelling to estimate the potential impacts of biopharming in New Zealand. This analysis uses the Lincoln Trade and Environment Model (LTEM) to simulate different market impacts from biopharming and estimate the net economic impacts. Finally, the ramifications of these estimates for biopharming in New Zealand are discussed. The literature on biopharming has not developed appreciably in the last year or two. There are still a number of unknowns, and its profitability and potential impacts on the wider agricultural sector depend on the pharmaceutical, crop, and region being studied. Consumer reactions appear to be a significant factor. Consumer perceptions of biopharming and the food system are presented in the literature in essentially three ways. One model of perceptions is ecological: it considers the biopharm organism in an agro-ecological environment. A second model is genetic, and focuses on the potential for modified genes to escape the biopharm crop or animal and enter the genome of other organisms. The third model considers how food is produced and the potential for mixing biopharm material with food crops and ingredients in the food industry. A model of international trade in agricultural commodities – the LTEM – was used to analyse the impact of changes in agricultural markets due to the introduction of biopharming into the dairy sector in New Zealand. The results provided information about the relative sizes of potential economic impacts given different future changes in the markets. Biopharming could have either positive, neutral, or negative impacts on the demand for New Zealand dairy products. In addition, it may be pursued without any impact on the cost structure of the wider dairy sector, but it could impose segregation or similar costs on non-biopharm producers.

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  • Maximising export returns (MER): communicating New Zealand's Credence Attributes to International Consumers

    Lees, Nicholas J.; Saunders, Caroline M.

    Book
    Lincoln University

    This research used semi-structured key informant interviews with twenty-one European gatekeepers and twelve New Zealand exporters. Gatekeepers were defined as manufacturers, importers, distributors or retail customers who controlled the flow of product and information through the supply chain to the final consumer. The research indicated that the credence attributes of New Zealand food products were important to consumers but they were frequently filtered out through the distribution channel where products get further processed, repackaged and rebranded, or became an ingredient in another food product. As a result, a large percentage of New Zealand food exports arrived at the consumer unbranded and not identified with their New Zealand origin so they did not have New Zealand-specific credence attributes associated with them. The majority of New Zealand’s beef and dairy exports were unbranded commodities that entered the manufacturing sector as raw materials or ingredients for processed products. Likewise, significant proportions of lamb and venison exports entered the food service sector and were delivered to hotels, restaurants and institutions where they were, frequently, not identified to the consumer as being of New Zealand origin. The main products that were consistently branded and reached consumers with identification of New Zealand origin were kiwifruit, apples and wine.

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  • Trade and the environment : economic and environmental impacts of global dairy trade liberalisation

    Saunders, Caroline M.; Cagatay, Selim; Moxey, A. P.

    Book
    Lincoln University

    This paper presents a partial equilibrium model of dairy sector international trade which has been extended to include physical dairy production systems and their effect on water quality. This combined model, LTEM (Lincoln Trade and Environment Model), is then used to simulate the effects of liberalisation policies on trade flows, dairy production systems and groundwater nitrate levels across different countries. The results show expected variation in price and production impacts, but also varying effects on groundwater quality between and within countries. More specifically, whilst liberalisation lowers dairy production in the EU and reduces the EU nitrate pollution slightly, the balancing production increases elsewhere lead to marginally higher pollution in other countries. This is of policy relevance given contemporary debates about the likely net environmental effect of further trade liberalisation. © Imperial College Press.

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  • Forecast of skills demand in the high tech sector in Canterbury : phase two

    Dalziel, Paul C.; Saunders, Caroline M.; Zellman, Eva

    Book
    Lincoln University

    This report presents the results of a second survey carried out by the AERU research unit to map skills demand in the Canterbury ICT sector. This research was commissioned the Electrotechnology Industry Training Organisation (ETITO) Growth Pilot, funded by the Tertiary Education Commission, to develop mechanisms to ensure the timely delivery of an appropriate number of suitably qualified individuals required by enterprises in the Canterbury ICT sector. It builds on a similar survey in 2004.

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  • Consumer attitudes to New Zealand food product attributes and technology use in key international markets

    Saunders, Caroline M.; Guenther, Meike; Driver, Tim; Tait, Peter R.; Dalziel, Paul C.; Rutherford, Paul

    Book
    Lincoln University

    The study described in this paper builds on the research above. It is a pilot survey of 100 consumers each in the United Kingdom (UK), India, China, Indonesia, Japan and Korea. The survey gathers information on attitudes and preferences of consumers for attributes in food products in these countries. The first part of the survey assessed the importance of key attributes in food products in these markets. These attributes were selected based on prior research examining international consumer trends (Saunders et al. 2010, Driver et al. 2011, Saunders et al. 2013, Miller et al. 2014). This study expanded previous research by including more countries, by increasing the number of attributes considered, and by assessing important factors underpinning these key attributes in food products. The survey then explores how consumers in these markets were using new personal technologies in relation to food information and purchase intentions. The results from this study 1 are aimed to better inform New Zealand’s export industries, allowing for enhanced value garnered throughout the value chain. A full survey will take place in 2015. This study is also part of a wider research programme “Maximising Export Returns (MER)”, a Ministry of Business, Innovation and Enterprise (MBIE) funded three-year project undertaken by the Agribusiness and Economics Research Unit (AERU) at Lincoln University. This project aims to explore how export firms can capture price premiums by including and communicating credence attributes in products for overseas markets.

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  • Modelling climate change impacts on agriculture and forestry with the extended LTEM (LincolnTrade and Environmental Model)

    Saunders, Caroline M.; Kaye-Blake, William H.; Turner, J.

    Book
    Lincoln University

    In the land-based sectors, agricultural production generally is a source of carbon, while forestry can act as a sink. This report focuses on new research examining the interaction of the two. The core of the research is the Lincoln Trade and Environment model (LTEM), a partial equilibrium model which links trade in NZ with the main trading countries overseas, through to production and associated environmental consequences. This research report discusses the issues, methodology and results from research expanding the model to include forestry. This was done by incorporating the capabilities of the Global Forest Products Model (GFPM) into the LTEM and hence producing an integrated model of agricultural and forestry land-uses for NZ and overseas. The paper thereby reports on the development of a model of international trade that encompasses major agricultural commodities and forestry, complete with linkages and feedback with the environment and differentiated international markets. The modelling results are examined to draw general conclusions about the impact of climate change, climate policies, mitigation, and markets on both producer returns and greenhouse gas emissions in agriculture and forestry in New Zealand. These results are then discussed more broadly, in particular with an eye towards policy implications.

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  • Maximising export returns: consumer attitudes towards attributes of food and beverages in export markets relevant to New Zealand

    Guenther, Meike; Saunders, Caroline M.; Dalziel, Paul C.; Rutherford, Paul; Driver, Tim

    Book
    Lincoln University

    The aim of this study is to explore consumer preferences towards selected key attributes in food, beverage, and other products in China, India, Indonesia, Japan and the United Kingdom (UK). The targeted consumer groups are the middle and upper class consumers in each country who are expected to be more likely to be willing to pay premium for these attributes in food and beverages, hence informing the New Zealand industries of possible opportunities for maximising their export returns. This study is part of a wider research project ‘Maximising Export Returns (MER)’, a three year project undertaken by the Agribusiness and Economics Research Unit (AERU) at Lincoln University funded by the New Zealand Ministry for Business, Innovation and Employment (MBIE). This project aims to explore how export firms can obtain price premiums by considering credence attributes in their products for overseas markets. This research builds on previous work of the AERU which showed that overseas consumers (including those in the UK, China, and India) value different attributes in food products (Saunders et al. 2013). The study assessed consumers’ willingness to pay (WTP) and preferences for the certification of certain attributes in lamb and dairy products; results showed that food safety was the most important attribute. Not surprisingly, India and China rated food safety certification as more important than respondents from the UK. However, more surprisingly, in most cases Indian and Chinese consumers valued other credence attributes more than consumers in the UK, including organic, environmental quality, animal welfare and recyclability (Saunders et al. 2013). In a pilot study, further surveying expanded the research to firstly include more countries such as Indonesia, Japan and Korea and secondly to assess in more detail the importance of factors affecting key credence attributes in food products and the relationships between them. The pilot survey explored consumer attitudes towards seven attributes in food products and then selected four of them for more detailed analysis; these were animal welfare, environmental quality, health food and food safety. Survey participants were asked to rate the importance of a range of factors underpinning these four attributes, which suggested some associations between them. Environmental quality, for example, was listed in the three developing countries as one of the top five factors associated with food safety (Saunders et al. 2015). The information gained from the pilot survey assisted the development of the scope of this study. In this study, the selection of credence attributes is expanded to ten key attributes in food and beverages that are important to consumers in five New Zealand exports markets, then six of these attributes are selected to assess underpinning factors in more detail as the pilot study showed that the factors influencing these key credence attributes differed across markets. The six key attributes are food safety, environmental condition, animal welfare & health, human health enhancing foods, social responsibility and the role of traditional cultures. The method of this study included a structured and self-administered online survey. Primary data was collected using Qualtrics™, a web-based survey system. Five surveys were conducted in March/April 2015 to assess consumers’ attitudes towards attributes in food and beverage products. The surveys were distributed in two developed countries (Japan and the UK) and three developing countries (China, India and Indonesia) and had a sample size of 1,000 consumers in each country. The survey also included a choice experiment to assess consumers’ willingness –to – pay (WTP) for attributes in different types of food and beverages, however these results are not in the focus of this report. Additionally, the WTP results will be used to estimate the potential benefits to New Zealand through modelling different scenarios using the Lincoln Trade and Environment model LTEM; a partial equilibrium trade model which forecasts the international trade, production and consumption of agricultural commodities.

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  • Lincoln Trade and Environment Model (LTEM) : an agricultural multi-country, multi-commodity partial equilibrium framework

    Cagatay, Selim; Saunders, Caroline M.

    Book
    Lincoln University

    This research report introduces the Lincoln Trade and Environmental Model (LTEM). The report defines the model as well as comparing it to other trade modelling frameworks. The theoretical and technical specification of LTEM are detailed. The report then identifies the policies which can be incorporated into the LTEM. These policies are distinguished into unilateral policies and bilateral policies, and illustrate the capability of the model to simulate the impact of various complex policies on trade. The unilateral policies include the more traditional policies such as import tariffs and export subsidies, as well as market and input subsidies. However, the LTEM also includes the ability to model direct payments, production quotas and minimum prices. The bilateral policies in the LTEM include preferential access quotas with and without in-quota tariffs. In addition the LTEM can include more general trade access quotas, again with or without in- or out-quota tariffs, thus enabling the impact of more complex policies to be assessed. The research report then outlines the model interactions, and how the policy changes or other shocks to the LTEM are simulated.

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  • The key elements of success and failure in the NZ sheep meat industry from 1980 - 2007

    McDermott, A.; Saunders, Caroline M.; Zellman, Eva; Hope, T.; Fisher, A.

    Book
    Lincoln University

    This study explores the nature and performance of the New Zealand sheep meat industry from 1980 to 2007. As almost 94 per cent of sheep meat produced in New Zealand is exported the focus of this study is on the export sector of the sheep meat industry, and in particular, the lamb meat export industry. Deregulation of the New Zealand economy led to a fundamental change of philosophy within the sheep meat industry. Government support was reduced in the mid- to late-1980s, and financial deregulation was initially associated with rising interest rates and high exchange rates. After an initial adjustment period, interest rates fell, but variable exchange rates have remained. After having a high level of involvement in the processing and marketing sectors through ownership of both processing companies and product, the role of the New Zealand Meat Board reduced in the mid-1990s to that of an industry-good role, managing quota and allocating research funding. In the sheep meat industry, markets and market destinations have not changed dramatically over the study period 1980-2007, but the product form has undergone some quite radical changes. The nature of the product now being sold has been transformed from a frozen carcass to a range of both chilled and frozen, and bone-in and boneless cuts of lamb. Over the period concerned, supermarkets have emerged as the dominant prescriber of specifications, and these specifications have become more demanding. This study has identified a number of factors that have been important in transforming the sheep meat industry from a heavily subsidised, production-driven sector to one that is more market-oriented operating in a market economy. The study has also identified factors that underpin the continued instability of the industry as a whole, and specifically, low profitability for process-exporting companies and variable returns for farmers.

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  • The Land and the Brand

    Saunders, Caroline M.; Dalziel, Paul C.; Guenther, Meike; Saunders, John; Rutherford, Paul

    Book
    Lincoln University

    The Agribusiness and Economics Research Unit at Lincoln University was commissioned to prepare this report assessing the contributions that the agri‐food sector has made to the wellbeing of New Zealanders over the decades and in the present day. The purpose of this research is to indicate how industry‐led initiatives and private‐public partnerships might build on the sector’s historical successes for ongoing economic prosperity into the future. The agri‐food sector continues to dominate the country’s merchandise exports. The dairy sector in 2013/14 generated export revenue of just over $18 billion, followed by meat and wool (more than $8 billion), forestry (more than $5.1 billion), horticulture (nearly $3.8 billion) and seafood (more than $1.7 billion).

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  • Maximising export returns: the use of digital media and smart technology in shopping and information gathering for food and beverages in markets relevant to New Zealand

    Driver, Tim; Saunders, Caroline M.; Guenther, Meike; Dalziel, Paul C.; Rutherford, Paul

    Book
    Lincoln University

    The aim of this study is to inform New Zealand businesses of possible opportunities for increasing their export returns by improving their market access through digital media and smart technologies. This study explores the use of digital media and smart technologies by middle and upper class consumers of food and beverage products in China, India, Indonesia and compares this with consumers in Japan and the United Kingdom (UK). This study is part of a wider research project ‘Maximising Export Returns (MER)’, a three year project undertaken by the Agribusiness and Economics Research Unit (AERU) at Lincoln University funded by the New Zealand Ministry for Business, Innovation and Employment (MBIE). This project aims to explore how export firms can obtain price premiums from the credence attributes of their products and place these in overseas markets. The new technologies include online shopping (e-commerce), social media and mobile devices (such as smartphones and tablets). The use of such technologies has increased internationally, with growing broadband internet use, online shopping, mobile social media and mobile device use (e.g. smartphone use). These technologies provide mechanisms for the effective marketing and sales of New Zealand food and beverage products overseas.

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  • The key elements of success and failure in the NZ kiwifruit industry

    Kilgour, M.; Saunders, Caroline M.; Scrimgeour, F.; Zellman, Eva

    Book
    Lincoln University

    The study explores the nature and performance of the New Zealand kiwifruit industry from 1980 to 2006. As almost 94 per cent of kiwifruit produced in New Zealand is exported the focus of this study is on the export sector of the kiwifruit industry. Value chain theory is used to define the kiwifruit industry in New Zealand. The value chain links the key participants and organisations that ultimately bring kiwifruit to consumers. Therefore it incorporates the three main stages from the orchard to market - growing kiwifruit, post harvest operations, and exporting. The examination of the industry since 1980 can be separated into the following key focus areas: 1. changing market characteristics: production trends, target markets, changing consumer preferences and increasing competition. 2. operating environment: how different factors have changed to impact on the industry. 3. industry structure: changes at the firm and industry level in response to changing circumstances and environments. 4. conduct and performance: analysis of broad performance measures, extent of sharing of information, knowledge and resources within the industry, and the degree of interdependence along the value chain. In particular this study explores the kiwifruit industry’s current single desk seller structure – Zespri. It examines how it evolved by looking at the structural developments that preceded its existence and the factors that influenced its formation. It also looks at the recent consolidation amongst post-harvest operators and explores the factors that have bought about this change. It reviews how the industry has responded to changing market conditions by producing new products and how the role of marketing (i.e. branded products) has influenced export turnover.

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  • Sustainable development and cultural capital

    Dalziel, Paul C.; Saunders, Caroline M.; Fyfe, R.; Newton, Bronwyn

    Book
    Lincoln University

    It has become common for countries to create a framework of sustainable development indicators (SDI) to measure progress in raising the social, economic and environmental well-being of their regional and national communities. Standard practice is to focus on changes in stock measures of physical capital, financial capital, human capital, natural capital and social capital. An unusual feature of New Zealand’s approach is that it pays explicit attention to cultural well-being alongside social, economic and environmental well-being. This practice raises important issues about how measures related to cultural well-being can be incorporated into a national SDI framework. The research for this report explored whether cultural capital is best conceptualised as a component of social capital, or whether it warrants treatment as a separate category. In arguing for the latter the report proposes that cultural capital be defined as a community’s embodied cultural skills and values, in all their community-defined forms, inherited from the community’s previous generation, undergoing adaptation and extension by current members of the community, and desired by the community to be passed on to its next generation.

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  • Business models and performance indicators for agribusinesses

    Saunders, Caroline M.; Kaye-Blake, William H.; Hayes, P.; Shadbolt, N. M.

    Book
    Lincoln University

    The purpose of the research is to provide information to assist in policy development for the New Zealand agribusiness sector. This project investigated business models and performance indicators for agribusiness firms, exploring the relevance and applicability of these models particularly for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). The project has issued interim reports at several milestones in this year-long project. The first report reviewed the literature, both national and international on business models of development and their associated suite of indicators. The second report reviewed the indicators currently used in agribusiness, including governmental statistics and industry data. This report examined success models specific to agriculture and brought together the research from the prior report on general business models and the research specific to agriculture to identify the important information gaps. The third report presented the results of fieldwork collected through case studies, qualitative interviews, and questionnaires conducted to assess how applicable models of business success are to the agribusiness sector. The fourth report briefly reviewed business model theory including taxonomy and function before proposing a firm level model and indicators for New Zealand agribusinesses. This report, the final for the project summarises previous findings and presents a new model for business success tailored to agribusiness. From this indicators are developed and policy conclusions are drawn. The report is organised into chapters. The second chapter provides a review of several standard business models including the Firm Foundations, Five-Stage SME, Balanced Scorecard, Business Culture and Personality, Sustainability-oriented, and Best Practice. Chapter 3 reviews the indicators currently collected and provides an analysis of the gap between standard and agribusiness model indicators, and between the information currently collected and that required for monitoring agribusiness health or success. The fourth chapter outlines the fieldwork completed for this project, providing a summary of the findings from the interviews and survey of kiwifruit growers and sheep and beef farmers. Chapter 5 outlines the proposed firm level model for agribusinesses. This chapter describes the key elements of the model and their interrelationships, and discusses the model’s indicators. The final chapter of the report identifies the implications of this research, highlighting some potential gaps in government policy and support for the agribusiness sector.

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  • Economic policy and cultural well-being: the New Zealand experience

    Dalziel, Paul C.; Maclean, Gillis A. C.; Saunders, Caroline M.

    Book
    Lincoln University

    In 2002, the New Zealand government identified three sectors that would be the focus of public policy under its Growth and Innovation Framework. One of these three sectors was the creative industries, selected on the basis that ‘the creative industries can leverage New Zealand’s unique culture and as a knowledge based sector, it has the potential to generate wealth on a sustained basis and reposition New Zealand as a nation of new ideas and new thinking’. Also in 2002, New Zealand reformed its Local Government Act so that one of the two purposes of local government is to promote the social, economic, environmental, and cultural well-being of communities, in the present and for the future. This paper draws on New Zealand’s experiences under these policies to examine the links between economic policy and cultural well-being, highlighting the underlying principle that the use of cultural capital for economic benefit may damage cultural well-being if the cultural capital is not kept connected to its cultural context.

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  • Preliminary economic evaluation of biopharming in New Zealand

    Kaye-Blake, William H.; Saunders, Caroline M.; Ferguson, L.

    Book
    Lincoln University

    From the academic literature, this report derives an economic model or framework for considering biopharming. This model is based on a cost-benefit approach to valuing changes in products and production methods. The model indicates the product dimensions that are likely to be affected by biopharming methods and how these dimensions may affect the costs and benefits of production. It also identifies the uncertainties in existing analyses. Finally, it demonstrates a method by which careful analysis of the economic costs and benefits of biopharming could proceed. Two potential products are discussed using this model: recombinant human lactoferrin (rhLF) produced in cow’s milk and low-GI potatoes.

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  • Forecast of skills demand in the high tech sector in Canterbury

    Dalziel, Paul C.; Saunders, Caroline M.; Taylor, Gregory J.

    Book
    Lincoln University

    This report presents the results of a survey carried out by the AERU research unit to map skills demand in the Canterbury ICT sector. This completes the first stream of the Electrotechnology Industry Training Organisation (ETITO) Growth Pilot funded by the Tertiary Education Commission to develop a model and mechanisms to ensure the timely delivery of an appropriate number of suitably qualified individuals across the range of competence required by enterprises in the Canterbury ICT sector.

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  • Capital based sustainability indicators as a possible way for measuring agricultural sustainability

    Saunders, Caroline M.; Kaye-Blake, William H.; Campbell, Rachel

    Book
    Lincoln University

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