32 results for Simmons, David G., Book

  • Tourism in Christchurch and Akaroa : challenges for planning and recommendations for management

    Simmons, David G.; Fairweather, John R.; Shone, Michael C.

    Book
    Lincoln University

    This report provides a synthesis of eight separate reports (listed in Appendix 1) on key aspects of tourism in Christchurch and Akaroa, and makes recommendations for the future management of the sector. The overall goals of the research programme that encompasses these case studies are the improved management of tourism growth, and the development of better guidelines to ensure its sustainability. The studies focus primarily on the important private/public sector interface in tourism planning and development. They are not marketing studies per se (although significant data are produced to inform marketing decisions) but are focused on public sector responses, and community adaptations to tourism, with a long-term view toward sustainable tourism at the local and national level.

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  • The values associated with Maori-centred tourism in Canterbury

    Zygadlo, F. K.; McIntosh, Alison J.; Matunga, Hirini P.; Fairweather, John R.; Simmons, David G.

    Book
    Lincoln University

    The overall aim of this study was to analyse Maori tourism development in the Canterbury region according to values of Maori-centred tourism. The objectives to achieve this aim were to validate the relevance of the values of Maori-centred tourism to Maori tourism business practices in Canterbury and to identify the strategies for achieving Maori-centred tourism business ethics in Canterbury. A Kaupapa Maori research approach was used to achieve the objectives. This approach was seen appropriate given the need for a culturally relevant perspective. This included employing Maori values derived from a Maori epistemology as measures to analyse Maori tourism development.

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  • Visitors’ and locals’ views of environmental management in Christchurch, New Zealand

    Fairweather, John R.; Maslin, Crystal L.; Swaffield, Simon R.; Simmons, David G.

    Book
    Lincoln University

    The objective of the research presented in this report was to develop an understanding of visitors' and locals' views of environmental management in Christchurch. A total of 63 people were selected in a diverse, non-random sample with roughly equal proportions of men and women, and including 21 overseas visitors, 33 domestic visitors and 22 local people. Each subject sorted a pre selected set of structured photographs into nine piles, ranging from those that represented good environmental management to those that represented poor environmental management, to create their own Q sort. All Q sorts were factor analysed to identify three factors or views on environmental management. Subjects' attitudes, beliefs and expectations in making their selections were recorded in interviews and provide an additional basis for interpreting the three different factors. The themes distinctive to the factors, and the themes that are common to the factors, are discussed to develop some theoretical implications. Finally, a number of implications for policy are considered, in particular the need to retain a breadth of approaches to environmental management.

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  • The economic impact of tourism on Christchurch city and Akaroa township

    Butcher, G.; Fairweather, John R.; Simmons, David G.

    Book
    Lincoln University

    In recent years tourism has been one of the fastest growing sectors of the New Zealand economy, and has become particularly important in some smaller communities. Some of the larger cities also have high visitor numbers, and tourism may be a reasonably significant part of their economy. Those who administer community resources have a strong interest in knowing something about the scale of tourism in their economy so that they can judge the value of allocating resources to the sector. The first objective of this study was to estimate the size of direct tourism in Christchurch and Akaroa, and then calculate tourism multipliers (the ratio of direct impacts to total impacts for various types of visitor expenditure) at the level of each geographic entity. Application of these multipliers enables the calculation of total economic impacts of tourism on both Christchurch and Akaroa. The second objective of this study was to develop and trial such a method, drawing on the experience of previous case studies and making use of existing data bases on commercial accommodation bed-nights and visitor flows.

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  • Tourism, water and waste in Akaroa : implications of tourist demand on infrastructure

    Cullen, Ross; Dakers, Andrew J.; McNicol, J.; Meyer-Hubbert, Gerit K.; Simmons, David G.; Fairweather, John R.

    Book
    Lincoln University

    There are three components to this research project. The first is the quantitative analysis of the impact of tourist flows to Akaroa on the town's water supply services and wastewater management services. The second is the quantitative analysis of the impact of tourist flows to Akaroa on the town's solid waste management services. The third component is the investigation of the way in which water supply, wastewater and solid waste systems are funded. This analysis investigates whether there are alternative funding systems that are more efficient, moderate demands, and are more equitable than present funding systems. It also considers how best to allocate any additional costs of water supply if there is growth in tourist numbers.

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  • Understanding visitors' experiences in Kaikoura using photographs of landscapes and Q method

    Fairweather, John R.; Swaffield, Simon R.; Simmons, David G.

    Book
    Lincoln University

    The primary objective of this study was to develop an understanding of visitors' experiences of the Kaikoura landscape using photographs of landscape and Q method. The literature on landscape perception shows that there is a range of paradigms extending from the expert to the experiential, and that there is a need to focus on the latter. Therefore, this study examines: the way individuals represent their subjective experience of landscape through the selection of a particular array of photographs; verbal explanations of their choice; and the social and cultural significance of those representations. The results concur with other research on landscape perception showing that 'naturalness' is an important component of preferred experiences. However, they also show that this preference is expressed in different ways, largely reflecting the cultural context of the visitor. The particularity of the responses highlights the need for locally grounded contextual understanding in order to interpret variations around and within generic themes. The results also show that Q method has significant potential for landscape research, especially for research that seeks to combine the experiential and socio-cultural paradigms.

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  • Estimating the number of visitors to Kaikoura over one year by developing a vehicle observation method

    Fairweather, John R.; Simmons, David G.

    Book
    Lincoln University

    The annual total of visitors to Kaikoura was estimated at 873,000. This number was derived from a method that involved four key steps: counting all traffic entering Kaikoura, observing a sample of vehicles to record licence plates and the number of people in each vehicle, identifying vehicles from outside of Kaikoura, and then estimating all visitor vehicle numbers and numbers of visitors.

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  • Summertime visitors to Kaikoura : characteristics, attractions and activities

    Simmons, David G.; Horn, Chrys M. I.; Fairweather, John R.

    Book
    Lincoln University

    This report presents an analysis of summertime visitors to Kaikoura. Detailed information is presented on descriptive visitor characteristics, the attractions of Kaikoura, and activities undertaken, for a systematic sample of visitors in January and February 1998. For short stop visitors (those staying less than two hours), Kaikoura primarily fills the role of a 'convenient break' (79.7 per cent of first choice of attraction to Kaikoura). The core of this group comprises domestic (New Zealand) visitors (75 per cent) engaging in more extensive trips. While average expenditure per person per visit is relatively low (estimated at $2.40 per visitor) some activities are undertaken, including 15.6 per cent who visit the Kaikoura Information Tourism Inc. (KITI) visitor centre. This activity alone indicates a wider interest in Kaikoura, and signifies a potential for increasing length of stay or repeat visitation. Short stop visitors represent a large group – 43.5 per cent of all visitation or an estimated 380,000 visitors annually. Day visitors to Kaikoura (those staying more than two hours, but not overnight) are numerically the smallest of the three visitor groups. Visitors' numbers are estimated at 137,000 annually. For these visitors, Kaikoura is a specific destination as evidenced by their high interest in whale watching (48.1 per cent) and visiting the seal colony (43.6 per cent). Engagement in commercial activities and supporting industries lifts daily average daily per person expenditure for this group to $47.50 the highest of all three groups. Overnight visitors to Kaikoura, (those staying one or more nights) are mainly international tourists who make up seven of eight overnight visitors. Overnight visitors are estimated at 356,000 annually. Average length of stay is reported as 1.8 days. Within this pattern, domestic tourists tend to stay for shorter periods. Lower cost forms of accommodation (backpackers and motor camps) are used mostly, while commercial activities (whale watching and swimming/viewing dolphins especially) provide the key focus for commercial activity. Informal activities (visiting the seal colony, (63 per cent); and the visitor centre; (77.4 per cent) are nonetheless important to their overall experience in Kaikoura. These activities are paced throughout their visit to indicate an average daily per person expenditure of $45.73. Indices of satisfaction, measured as willingness to refer Kaikoura to others, and/or to re-visit, indicate high overall satisfaction by visitors of their experience in Kaikoura.

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  • Visitors to Rotorua : characteristics, activities and decision-making

    Moore, Kevin; Fairweather, John R.; Simmons, David G.

    Book
    Lincoln University

    This report presents results from two surveys of visitors to Rotorua, New Zealand, which investigated visitors' general characteristics (e.g., age, gender, origin country, accommodation, group type and size, length of stay, etc.) and their decision-making processes (when decisions were made and itineraries planned, what influenced those decisions and purpose of travel).

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  • The impact of tourism on the Māori community in Kaikoura

    Poharama, A.; Henley, M.; Smith, Ailsa L.; Fairweather, John R.; Simmons, David G.

    Book
    Lincoln University

    The objectives of this report were to describe and evaluate the interaction between Kaikoura Māori, their culture and tourism. To achieve these objectives a cross section of the Māori community was canvassed to reflect both age and gender differences and iwi and hapu affiliations. The report presents a comprehensive coverage of the Kaikoura Māori community, tracing their history and development, identifying events that have influenced and impacted upon them, and outlining their participation in tourism. Research results are presented in terms of Māori perceptions of tourism. Most respondents shared a strong commitment to ensuring that their cultural heritage is kept intact and this report reflects that commitment by freely using Māori terms. Respondents also shared a strong desire to be involved in all aspects of the tourism industry, so that their priorities are recognised, their views heard, and their knowledge taken into account.

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  • Understanding visitors' and locals' experiences of Rotorua using photographs of landscapes and Q method

    Fairweather, John R.; Swaffield, Simon R.; Simmons, David G.

    Book
    Lincoln University

    The objective of this study was to develop an understanding of visitors' and locals' experiences of the Rotorua landscape using photographs of landscape and Q method. The interest in landscape experience reflects the central role that both passive and active involvement in landscape plays in the Rotorua tourism industry. The selection of photographs for Q sorting was based on three sampling frames including landforms, features and attractions, and activities. There were significant groupings of preferred experience which reflects both generic marketing of geothermal and Maori attractions and the presence of distinctive preferences attracted to new facilities and hydrological features. Some of the factors highlight the continuity in the aesthetic values that underpin Rotorua. Least preferred settings included exotic forestry and commercial signs, the former raising issues for the management of forestry. Comparisons to an earlier study of visitors in Kaikoura shows some similar factors. Finally, theoretical and policy implications are briefly noted.

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  • Evolving community response to tourism and change in Rotorua

    Horn, Chrys M. I.; Simmons, David G.; Fairweather, John R.

    Book
    Lincoln University

    The aim of this report is to outline how the Rotorua community experiences tourism and tourism development and how they have adapted to it. The objectives are to: give an historical account of the history of the development of tourism in Rotorua; give an account of broader community issues which influence the community's attitudes to tourism development in their town; record the perceptions that residents have of tourism and show how these have changed over time; describe how the host community copes with the type of tourism development that exists in the area; and suggest what factors might be important in influencing residents' perceptions of tourism and their adaptation to it. This report argues that the community in Rotorua is generally very accepting of tourism, and that tourism in the town is well managed due to the proactive role taken by the local Council in relation to tourism development and promotion. Local people see tourism as a source of stability at a time of great change. For local decision-makers, tourism is a means to address the problems of unemployment and poverty which appear to be increasing in the area.

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  • Visitors to the West Coast : characteristics, attractions and decision-making

    Moore, Kevin; Simmons, David G.; Fairweather, John R.

    Book
    Lincoln University

    This report presents results from a survey of visitors to the West Coast, New Zealand, which investigated visitors' general characteristics (e.g., age, gender, origin country, transport type, group type, etc.), perceived attractions of the West Coast and their decision-making processes (purpose of visit, the timing of itinerary planning and destination decisions, perceived influences on those decisions).

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  • Tourism and Maori development in Westland

    Zygadlo, F. K.; Matunga, Hirini P.; Simmons, David G.; Fairweather, John R.

    Book
    Lincoln University

    The main aim of this report is to provide an understanding of Maori tourism in order to enhance the ability of both new and established Maori tourist operators, their organisations and the wider Maori community to develop Maori tourism in ways that sustain Maori culture in a manner acceptable to Maori. To achieve this aim, the report has the following objectives: to document accurately the current state of Maori involvement in the tourism industry; to describe and interpret the perceptions that Maori have of tourism and how these have changed over time; to identify the current use of Maori culture as attractions; to record Maori responses to the changes in the relationship between themselves and the natural environment; and to identify barriers to Maori tourism development.

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  • Visitors' and locals' experiences of Westland, New Zealand

    Fairweather, John R.; Newton, Bronwyn; Swaffield, Simon R.; Simmons, David G.

    Book
    Lincoln University

    The objective of this study was to develop an understanding of visitors' and locals' experiences of the Westland landscape and infrastructure. The interest in landscape experience reflects the central role that both passive and active involvement in landscape plays in the Westland tourism industry. The interest in infrastructure reflects the critical role that provision of basic services to support tourists, and the management of the tourists' impact on the environment, will have in the development of sustainable tourism.

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  • The economic impact of tourism on Rotorua

    Butcher, G.; Fairweather, John R.; Simmons, David G.

    Book
    Lincoln University

    In recent years tourism has been one of the fastest growing sectors of the New Zealand economy, and has become particularly important in some of the smaller communities. What is uncertain is just how important the industry is, both in terms of its direct impacts and also its indirect impacts. The objective of this study was to estimate the relationship between such direct and indirect effects by surveying a sample of tourism businesses to find out their expenditure patterns, to incorporate this information into a model of the regional economy and calculate tourism multipliers (the ratio of direct impacts to total impacts for various types of visitor expenditure), and to see if this ratio is changing over time. During the research it became necessary to calculate the direct visitor expenditure by a survey of visitors to Rotorua to establish relative rates of expenditure in different sectors, and to apply these ratios to existing data on output of the accommodation industry. An estimate of direct employment in the visitor attractions industry was made on the basis of this project's census of businesses involved in visitor activities and attractions. This was used with this project's estimates of employment : output ratios to also calculate output for the attractions industry.

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  • Tourism, water and waste in Westland : implications of increasing demand on infrastructure

    Cullen, Ross; Dakers, Andrew J.; Fairweather, John R.; Simmons, David G.

    Book
    Lincoln University

    The growth of tourism, and its consequent benefits, are dependent on the maintenance, if not enhancement, of the West Coast's unique natural environment. Parts of this natural environment have been described as ecologically fragile. There are a range of tourist activities that consume water and produce solid waste and wastewater. An important issue is the tourists' additional demand for potable water and their production of additional wastewater. The major objectives of this research were to: develop models to estimate and project aggregated tourist water use and wastewater production at Hokitika, Harihari, Franz Josef, and Haast; and assess the adequacy and resourcing of the facilities to provide water, manage wastewater and solid wastes associated with tourism.

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  • The economic impact of tourism on Westland District

    Butcher, G.; McDonald, G.; Fairweather, John R.; Simmons, David G.

    Book
    Lincoln University

    In recent years tourism has been one of the fastest growing sectors of the New Zealand economy, and has become particularly important in some smaller communities. It has become particularly important in regions (such as Westland) which have suffered from a decline in long-established industries (timber in the case of Westland). What is uncertain is just how important the industry is, both in terms of its direct impacts and also its indirect impacts. The original principal objective of this study was to estimate the relationship between such direct and indirect effects by surveying a sample of tourism businesses to find out their expenditure patterns, to incorporate this information into a model of the regional economy and calculate tourism multipliers (the ratio of direct impacts to total impacts for various types of visitor expenditure), and to see if this ratio appears to be changing over time. During the research it became apparent that the existing estimates of direct visitor expenditure were unreliable (particularly estimates broken down by type of expenditure) and the measurement of the level of direct expenditure became a further objective of the research. Another objective of this study was to pilot an environmental accounting mechanism (if possible, based on input-output models) for tourism at the regional level.

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  • Evolving role of local government in promoting sustainable tourism development on the West Coast

    Cameron, A. M.; Memon, A.; Simmons, David G.; Fairweather, John R.

    Book
    Lincoln University

    The objective of this study is to examine the perspectives West Coast tourism stakeholders hold about the local government's emerging roles and responsibilities for tourism planning in the region. Local government authorities examined include the Buller, Grey and Westland District Councils, the West Coast Regional Council and Tourism West Coast, (the Regional Tourism Organisation, which forms the promotional 'arm' of the three District Councils). 'Tourism stakeholders' includes tourism-related businesses and NGOs as well as local government staff.

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  • Tourism in Westland : challenges for planning and recommendations for management

    Simmons, David G.; Fairweather, John R.

    Book
    Lincoln University

    This report provides a synthesis of nine separate reports on key aspects of tourism in Westland, and makes recommendations for the future management of the sector.

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