38 results for Simmons, David G., Book

  • The recreational hunter : central North Island study

    Groome, Kathryn H.; Simmons, David G.; Clark, Lester D.

    Book
    Lincoln University

    This research has been undertaken under contract to the New Zealand Forest Service. In 1981 Simmons and Devlin completed the first study of recreational hunting which was based on the Canterbury region with emphasis on the use of Lake Sumner Forest Park. The Central North Island study is a replication of that Canterbury study, with additional attention given to management questions particular to Kaimanawa and Kaweka Forest Parks. Both of these studies have arisen from issues concerning the management and future directions of Recreational Hunting Areas (RHA's).

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  • The St. James walkway study

    Simmons, David G.; Cessford, Gordon R.

    Book
    Lincoln University

    Prior to the opening of the St James Walkway in 1981, David Simmons of the Department of Parks, Recreation and Tourism at Lincoln College, proposed a five year research programme to the New Zealand Walkways Commission. This proposal took advantage of the 1981 opening to initiate a longitudinal study which could identify any subsequent changes in use or use impacts on the Walkway. The general aims of this research were to: (i) Describe the user population of the Walkway and any changes to it over the study period; (ii) Describe the role played by the Walkway in the recreation life histories of users; and (iii) Identify any physical impacts from use that occurred following the opening of the new track. This paper presents a compilation, summary and assessment of data gathered from the research programme.

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  • Yield-relevant tourist decision making: technical background report

    Moore, Kevin; Smallman, Clive; Wilson, Jude; Simmons, David G.

    Book
    Lincoln University

    This report presents findings from Objective 2 of the FRST funded research programme. The project title is: Enhancing the Spatial Dimensions of Tourism Yield.

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  • Tourist itineraries and yield: technical background report

    Becken, Susanne; Wilson, Jude; Forer, Pip; Simmons, David G.

    Book
    Lincoln University

    The aim of this research was to identify yield based visitor and itinerary prototypes. An examination of tourist itineraries (i.e. tourist behaviour across space and time) as reported in the International Visitor Survey revealed that – when itineraries are sufficiently simplified – patterns of similarity emerge. However, the diversity was still too large to be able to derive a manageable set of ‘itinerary prototypes’. For this reason a simplified approach was taken, in which spatial implications of tourist travel where measured through visitation to Regional Tourism Organisations. It could be seen that the spatial distribution is shaped by a wide range of factors, including country of origin, port of arrival, travel style, repeat visitation, purpose of travel, and presence of children under 15. The weakest amongst the analysed factors was whether tourists travelled with children or not. Importantly, it has to be noted that most of the factors analysed are interrelated. In turn, it could also be shown that the spatial distribution of tourists is related to yield, for example average expenditure per day by tourists who visit major centres is higher than that of tourists who include more remote areas in their itinerary. Knowing that country of origin has an important influence on distributional patterns and its relationship to other key drivers of itineraries (see also the Ministry of Tourism’s Flows Model), made origin a useful variable for an a priori segmentation of yield analyses in relation to itineraries. The country of origin analysis provided useful insights into travel behaviour (e.g. length of stay, expenditure, transport choices), tourist decision making (where information was available), and financial yield. It could be seen, for example, that the behaviour of Australian tourists is largely driven by its strong visiting friends/relatives component (e.g. high repeat visitation), whereas behaviour by British and German visitors seems strongly influenced by the long distance from home (e.g. length of stay, expenditure). While the Chinese and Japanese markets share some similarities (e.g. shorter stays, propensity to tour group travel) the main difference lies in the greater travel experience by Japanese tourists. American visitors were found to fall between European and Asian visitors in their travel behaviour. The yield associated with the six main countries of origin was analysed for the financial dimension. Financial yield was chosen as it can be measured as a national-level or ‘systemic’ indicator rather than local or ‘site-specific’ indicators for yield, such as environmental or social impacts. Further analyses of yield at a local level will be undertaken later on in the research programme. The analysis of expenditure, Value Added and Economic Value Added shows that the ‘preferability’ of a certain market depends on the indicator selected and also whether yield per trip or per day is calculated. In all cases, the German market appears favourable, mainly as a result of their high spending on rented vehicles, which is associated with high financial yield. In the light of the findings above, this component of the research developed a framework for the further analysis of decision making in the Spatial Yield research programme. The framework incorporates the dimensions of country of origin and itinerary type (in the form of a matrix). Such a framework could be useful to explore the decision making behind key yield variables such as: length of stay, overall expenditure (budget), allocation of budget, and travel (geographic dimension).

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  • Tourism, growth and infrastructure demands: data review and gap analysis

    Dakers, Andrew J.; Simmons, David G.

    Book
    Lincoln University

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  • Visitors’ and locals’ views of environmental management in Christchurch, New Zealand

    Fairweather, John R.; Maslin, Crystal L.; Swaffield, Simon R.; Simmons, David G.

    Book
    Lincoln University

    The objective of the research presented in this report was to develop an understanding of visitors' and locals' views of environmental management in Christchurch. A total of 63 people were selected in a diverse, non-random sample with roughly equal proportions of men and women, and including 21 overseas visitors, 33 domestic visitors and 22 local people. Each subject sorted a pre selected set of structured photographs into nine piles, ranging from those that represented good environmental management to those that represented poor environmental management, to create their own Q sort. All Q sorts were factor analysed to identify three factors or views on environmental management. Subjects' attitudes, beliefs and expectations in making their selections were recorded in interviews and provide an additional basis for interpreting the three different factors. The themes distinctive to the factors, and the themes that are common to the factors, are discussed to develop some theoretical implications. Finally, a number of implications for policy are considered, in particular the need to retain a breadth of approaches to environmental management.

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  • Enhancing financial and economic yield in tourism: public sector: local government and regional yield report

    Butcher, G.; Lennox, J.; Becken, Susanne; Simmons, David G.

    Book
    Lincoln University

    The programme “Enhancing Financial and Economic Yield in Tourism” has included a range of investigations into various dimensions of private sector yield of tourism businesses, as well as public sector yield of tourism at local and national levels. In this report the focus is on yield from a regional perspective. Yield in this report is understood as net financial or economic benefit. For the private sector, the measure of yield used is Economic Value Added, while for local government the measure of yield is the difference between costs and revenue. Local government yield related to tourism can best be interpreted within the context of regional total value added from tourism. While local government may have a negative yield for its own tourism-related business, it judges this to be worthwhile from the community perspective because of the commercial benefits to the community as evidenced by total value added and employment In this report the focus is on regional yield in Christchurch City, and Rotorua District, from the perspective of both the private sector and local government. We show private sector yield as Economic Value Added (EVA), which is the relevant measure for private investors, as well as the more common national accounting measure of total value added and total employment. We have estimated the private sector commercial yield on the basis of surveys of visitor expenditure and analysis of private sector financial yield ratios by sector, and the net costs and benefits to the local government sector on the basis of an analysis of local government revenue and spending.

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  • The economic impact of tourism on Christchurch city and Akaroa township

    Butcher, G.; Fairweather, John R.; Simmons, David G.

    Book
    Lincoln University

    In recent years tourism has been one of the fastest growing sectors of the New Zealand economy, and has become particularly important in some smaller communities. Some of the larger cities also have high visitor numbers, and tourism may be a reasonably significant part of their economy. Those who administer community resources have a strong interest in knowing something about the scale of tourism in their economy so that they can judge the value of allocating resources to the sector. The first objective of this study was to estimate the size of direct tourism in Christchurch and Akaroa, and then calculate tourism multipliers (the ratio of direct impacts to total impacts for various types of visitor expenditure) at the level of each geographic entity. Application of these multipliers enables the calculation of total economic impacts of tourism on both Christchurch and Akaroa. The second objective of this study was to develop and trial such a method, drawing on the experience of previous case studies and making use of existing data bases on commercial accommodation bed-nights and visitor flows.

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  • Tourism, water and waste in Akaroa : implications of tourist demand on infrastructure

    Cullen, Ross; Dakers, Andrew J.; McNicol, J.; Meyer-Hubbert, Gerit K.; Simmons, David G.; Fairweather, John R.

    Book
    Lincoln University

    There are three components to this research project. The first is the quantitative analysis of the impact of tourist flows to Akaroa on the town's water supply services and wastewater management services. The second is the quantitative analysis of the impact of tourist flows to Akaroa on the town's solid waste management services. The third component is the investigation of the way in which water supply, wastewater and solid waste systems are funded. This analysis investigates whether there are alternative funding systems that are more efficient, moderate demands, and are more equitable than present funding systems. It also considers how best to allocate any additional costs of water supply if there is growth in tourist numbers.

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  • Garden tourism and its potential organization in Canterbury

    Thomas, R. P.; Porteous, G.; Simmons, David G.

    Book
    Lincoln University

    This paper had its origin as a final year tourism research report at Lincoln University. In it we briefly review the concept of garden tourism which includes garden tours, garden festivals and special events, and the potential organization of this particular type of tourism in the Canterbury region. The origins of garden tourism in England and Germany are examined, followed by a review of models, objectives and management for organising garden festivals and special events. A description of a variety of New Zealand garden festivals follows. Results of a recent garden tourism survey are presented prior to a summary of the types of commercial garden tours offered in the Canterbury region. Recommendations and conclusions focus on the possible organisational structure of garden tourism in Canterbury, and on the goals, objectives and organisational development of garden tours and festivals in the region.

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  • Christchurch and Canterbury visitor profile

    Sleeman, R.; Simmons, David G.

    Book
    Lincoln University

    The purpose of this report is to provide an up to date assessment of the visitor industry profile (international and domestic) for the Christchurch and Canterbury marketing region. The report specifically covers: visitor arrivals; accommodation statistics (guest nights); visitor spending; and regional comparisons of performance.

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  • Tourism in Christchurch and Akaroa : challenges for planning and recommendations for management

    Simmons, David G.; Fairweather, John R.; Shone, Michael C.

    Book
    Lincoln University

    This report provides a synthesis of eight separate reports (listed in Appendix 1) on key aspects of tourism in Christchurch and Akaroa, and makes recommendations for the future management of the sector. The overall goals of the research programme that encompasses these case studies are the improved management of tourism growth, and the development of better guidelines to ensure its sustainability. The studies focus primarily on the important private/public sector interface in tourism planning and development. They are not marketing studies per se (although significant data are produced to inform marketing decisions) but are focused on public sector responses, and community adaptations to tourism, with a long-term view toward sustainable tourism at the local and national level.

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  • West Coast visitor report

    Moran, D.; Sleeman, R.; Simmons, David G.

    Book
    Lincoln University

    This report provides assessment of the visitor profile for the Tourism West Coast region, and specifically covers: visitor arrivals; accommodation statistics; and visitor spending.

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  • Visitors to the West Coast : characteristics, attractions and decision-making

    Moore, Kevin; Simmons, David G.; Fairweather, John R.

    Book
    Lincoln University

    This report presents results from a survey of visitors to the West Coast, New Zealand, which investigated visitors' general characteristics (e.g., age, gender, origin country, transport type, group type, etc.), perceived attractions of the West Coast and their decision-making processes (purpose of visit, the timing of itinerary planning and destination decisions, perceived influences on those decisions).

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  • Visitors' and locals' experiences of Westland, New Zealand

    Fairweather, John R.; Newton, Bronwyn; Swaffield, Simon R.; Simmons, David G.

    Book
    Lincoln University

    The objective of this study was to develop an understanding of visitors' and locals' experiences of the Westland landscape and infrastructure. The interest in landscape experience reflects the central role that both passive and active involvement in landscape plays in the Westland tourism industry. The interest in infrastructure reflects the critical role that provision of basic services to support tourists, and the management of the tourists' impact on the environment, will have in the development of sustainable tourism.

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  • Tourism and Maori development in Westland

    Zygadlo, F. K.; Matunga, Hirini P.; Simmons, David G.; Fairweather, John R.

    Book
    Lincoln University

    The main aim of this report is to provide an understanding of Maori tourism in order to enhance the ability of both new and established Maori tourist operators, their organisations and the wider Maori community to develop Maori tourism in ways that sustain Maori culture in a manner acceptable to Maori. To achieve this aim, the report has the following objectives: to document accurately the current state of Maori involvement in the tourism industry; to describe and interpret the perceptions that Maori have of tourism and how these have changed over time; to identify the current use of Maori culture as attractions; to record Maori responses to the changes in the relationship between themselves and the natural environment; and to identify barriers to Maori tourism development.

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  • The economic impact of tourism on Westland District

    Butcher, G.; McDonald, G.; Fairweather, John R.; Simmons, David G.

    Book
    Lincoln University

    In recent years tourism has been one of the fastest growing sectors of the New Zealand economy, and has become particularly important in some smaller communities. It has become particularly important in regions (such as Westland) which have suffered from a decline in long-established industries (timber in the case of Westland). What is uncertain is just how important the industry is, both in terms of its direct impacts and also its indirect impacts. The original principal objective of this study was to estimate the relationship between such direct and indirect effects by surveying a sample of tourism businesses to find out their expenditure patterns, to incorporate this information into a model of the regional economy and calculate tourism multipliers (the ratio of direct impacts to total impacts for various types of visitor expenditure), and to see if this ratio appears to be changing over time. During the research it became apparent that the existing estimates of direct visitor expenditure were unreliable (particularly estimates broken down by type of expenditure) and the measurement of the level of direct expenditure became a further objective of the research. Another objective of this study was to pilot an environmental accounting mechanism (if possible, based on input-output models) for tourism at the regional level.

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  • Tourism, water and waste in Westland : implications of increasing demand on infrastructure

    Cullen, Ross; Dakers, Andrew J.; Fairweather, John R.; Simmons, David G.

    Book
    Lincoln University

    The growth of tourism, and its consequent benefits, are dependent on the maintenance, if not enhancement, of the West Coast's unique natural environment. Parts of this natural environment have been described as ecologically fragile. There are a range of tourist activities that consume water and produce solid waste and wastewater. An important issue is the tourists' additional demand for potable water and their production of additional wastewater. The major objectives of this research were to: develop models to estimate and project aggregated tourist water use and wastewater production at Hokitika, Harihari, Franz Josef, and Haast; and assess the adequacy and resourcing of the facilities to provide water, manage wastewater and solid wastes associated with tourism.

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  • The economic impact of tourism on Rotorua

    Butcher, G.; Fairweather, John R.; Simmons, David G.

    Book
    Lincoln University

    In recent years tourism has been one of the fastest growing sectors of the New Zealand economy, and has become particularly important in some of the smaller communities. What is uncertain is just how important the industry is, both in terms of its direct impacts and also its indirect impacts. The objective of this study was to estimate the relationship between such direct and indirect effects by surveying a sample of tourism businesses to find out their expenditure patterns, to incorporate this information into a model of the regional economy and calculate tourism multipliers (the ratio of direct impacts to total impacts for various types of visitor expenditure), and to see if this ratio is changing over time. During the research it became necessary to calculate the direct visitor expenditure by a survey of visitors to Rotorua to establish relative rates of expenditure in different sectors, and to apply these ratios to existing data on output of the accommodation industry. An estimate of direct employment in the visitor attractions industry was made on the basis of this project's census of businesses involved in visitor activities and attractions. This was used with this project's estimates of employment : output ratios to also calculate output for the attractions industry.

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  • Evolving role of local government in promoting sustainable tourism development on the West Coast

    Cameron, A. M.; Memon, A.; Simmons, David G.; Fairweather, John R.

    Book
    Lincoln University

    The objective of this study is to examine the perspectives West Coast tourism stakeholders hold about the local government's emerging roles and responsibilities for tourism planning in the region. Local government authorities examined include the Buller, Grey and Westland District Councils, the West Coast Regional Council and Tourism West Coast, (the Regional Tourism Organisation, which forms the promotional 'arm' of the three District Councils). 'Tourism stakeholders' includes tourism-related businesses and NGOs as well as local government staff.

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