1,839 results for Book

  • Financial budget manual 2012

    Book
    Lincoln University

    The Financial Budget Manual 2012 is an invaluable reference book for farmers and growers, consultants and students. It contains a wealth of up to date information on farm and orchard costs and prices, the profitability of different enterprises, and income taxation. Following its successful introduction in 1999, the manual is in the process of moving to the web. However, many users find having the information in a book is the most convenient and efficient format, and this manual is the result of the Universities commitment to the wide readership. Unless stated otherwise, data contained in the Manual are current mid-2012 and are exclusive of GST. Prices do not remain stationary so the Manual should be used as a guide only. Market movements and exchange rate changes are just two of the factors which can rapidly alter costs and prices. The availability of discounts for bulk purchases, and deferred payment arrangements, may also affect final costs for budgeting purposes. In addition, some commodity price information is becoming increasingly sensitive and remains confidential between the client and the supplier and/or buyer. It is therefore unavailable for publication in this Manual.

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  • Guide for subterranean clover identification and use in New Zealand

    Book
    Lincoln University

    This project, initiated in 2015 and funded by the Sustainable Farming Fund (SFF Project 408090), was created to identify, describe and promote methods to increase the subterranean clover content on summer dry farms throughout NZ. This first edition of “Guide for subterranean clover identification and use in New Zealand” provides information for dryland farmers to; gain knowledge of sub clover; identify the main sub clover cultivars currently available in New Zealand, and understand their suitability for different dryland farm environments.

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  • Evolutions or Revolutions? Interaction and Transformation at the 'Transition' in Island Melanesia

    Cath-Garling, Stephanie (2017)

    Book
    University of Otago

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  • Management of Osteoarthritis: A guide to non-surgical intervention

    Abbott, J. Haxby (2014-07-16)

    Book
    University of Otago

    The MOA trial (Management of Osteoarthritis, or Maimoatanga Mate Köiwi) was a randomised clinical trial that aimed to investigate the long-term effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of both a multi-modal, individualised, supervised exercise therapy programme, and an individualised manual therapy programme, compared with usual medical care, for the management of pain and disability in adults with hip or knee OA. The first chapter of this book provides an introduction to OA and its management. The subsequent chapters provide the detailed treatment protocols delivered in the MOA trial.

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  • Official handbook of the first Australasian soil judging competition, 11-12 December, 2016, Wanaka, New Zealand

    Smith, Carol; Carrick, Samuel T.; Owens, J.

    Book
    Lincoln University

    This manual has been produced for the first Australasian soil judging contest to be held in Wanaka, New Zealand in 2016 as part of the New Zealand Soil Science Society (NZSSS) and Soil Science Australia (SSA) Joint Conference: “Soil, A Balancing Act Down Under”.

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  • Resource use options for the Upper Manuherikia Valley : 603 case study

    Bussières, M.

    Book
    Lincoln University

    Current resource development in New Zealand is unprecedented in its pace and scale. Development activities have implications for other resource uses and for future generations. Conflicts generated must be recognized and a comprehensive framework for resource planning developed for their reconciliation at all levels. The goal of this study is to understand resource use options in the Upper Manuherikia Valley of Central Otago. This area contains two of nine lignite deposits in the South Island which are being considered for processing into transport fuels (Figure 2). Development of the lignite will affect present and potential resource uses in the valley. The study area is defined on the west by the St Bathans Range, on the north by the boundary of the Manuherikia catchment, on the east by the Hawkdun Range and Idaburn Hills, and on the south by the road linking St Bathans and Hills Creek (Fig. 1). Part A identifies present and potential resource users in the study area. Agriculture and recreation are present uses. Forestry, lignite mining and processing, down-valley irrigation and reserves are examined as potential uses. The characteristics and physical requirements of these options are determined and discussed. Part B comprises four scenarios which represent a broad range of resource use alternatives. Implications for the physical and social environment are outlined in each scenario, as are the implications for local, regional and national policy. In Part C, recommendations are made for a comprehensive planning framework which may be used to reconcile the conflicts identified in each scenario.

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  • Environmental energy flows in the New Zealand economic system

    Baines, James T.; Smith, D. J.

    Book
    Lincoln University

    An understanding of the energy basis for human societies is incomplete if the current and recent energy flows in the global system are not recognised. These contributions include sunlight, wind, rain, ocean waves and tides. If, as we believe, mankind's long term future is constrained by the limits imposed by sustainable energy supplies, then we must acknowledge the relationship that exists between socio-economic systems and their supporting environmental systems. For a long time people have recognised that the sun is an important source of energy supporting economic activity. However, some points of view have been advanced recently which discount the need to evaluate environmental energy flows and to include such evaluations in planning. Some argue that energy flows derived from current and recent solar energy inputs to the global system are beyond the sphere of interest of economic analysis since they do not have a money value. Such flows are beyond man's direct influence and the economic system regards them as "free goods". Others assert that such flows are so large that their inclusion in calculations dwarfs all other energy sources. Much has been done recently to assess the validity of these arguments and to overcome the theoretical and practical problems in such energy analyses. Analysis based on the concept of Embodied energy now enables the assembly and interpretation of previously disjointed information to provide a more holistic view of the world in which we live. This paper is a first attempt to rationalise and extend energy analyses of the systems of New Zealand by including environmental energy flows. The major flows are evaluated as annual averages and the relative utilities of the various flows are assessed in terms of their Energy Transformation Ratios. The calculations provide preliminary estimates only and are described in detail to enable others to improve upon them later as better information and clearer perceptions evolve.

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  • Pastoral high country : proposed tenure changes and the public interest : a case study

    Blake, H.

    Book
    Lincoln University

    This study was undertaken in response to the report of the Clayton Committee and the findings of the trial assessments. Its goal is to investigate the public interest in relation to present and proposed future tenure of the South Island pastoral hill and high country (hereafter referred to as high country). By focussing on the public interest, we are able to encompass within a unifying framework, a diverse range of the issues raised by the Clayton Report and the subsequent public debate. The concept helps us to discuss the values held by society with respect to the high country and the way in which these have been accommodated in the recent recommendations as to tenure. Chapter Two provides background on the characteristics of the resource and the history of the relationship between land use and tenure in the high country. Chapter Three discusses the implications of the present tenure system and the proposed tenure changes with respect to the major present and potential land uses of the high country. Chapter Four investigates the concept of the public interest, beginning with a critical review of approaches to the public interest, then developing our own approach in terms of procedural democracy. Chapter Five applies our approach to the public interest to the recommendations of the Clayton Committee and the role of the Land Settlement Board in the light of our understanding of the implications of the proposed changes of tenure.

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  • Distribution of sweet brier, broom and ragwort on Molesworth Station : a report to the Department of Lands and Survey

    Stevens, E. J.; Hughes, J. G.

    Book
    Lincoln University

    This report is based on a survey of distribution of sweet brier, broom and ragwort on the property made by Mr Stevens during the period November 1972 to February 1973. Most of the property, including the principal weed-infested areas, was reconnoitred on horseback or on foot. The Clarence River was also inspected from the air to enable the upper altitudinal limits of broom to be plotted. Country west of the Wairau River was viewed from the valley road. The Severn, Saxton and Cat River catchments were not inspected. Mr Chisholm and the head stockman, Mr D. Reid, gave information about the comparatively few weeds in these areas. The relative abundance of weeds in a region was ranked on a five-class scale: dominant, abundant, frequent, occasional or rare. In practice, although a weed such as sweet brier was dominant on some favoured sites, in no zone was any weed mapped as more than abundant. The word "locally" was used to qualify abundance where necessary. For example "locally frequent" indicates dumpiness rather than dispersed distribution. The overall scale is illustrated in Plates 1-4.

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  • Economic benefits of Mt. Cook National Park

    Kerr, G. N.; Sharp, B. M. H.; Gough, Janet D.

    Book
    Lincoln University

    Market and non-market valued decisions are associated with New Zealand's system of national parks. The use benefits of Mount Cook National Park are not priced by the market mechanism, whereas many of the inputs necessary to operate and maintain the Park are priced. Estimates of the economic benefits are relevant information when deciding upon the allocation of resources to, and within, a system of national parks. In 1984, the consumers' surplus for adult New Zealand visitors was about $2.2 million. An estimate of the net national benefits is given by the consumers' surplus obtained by New Zealand visitors, plus the net benefits associated with foreign visitors, less the cost of Park management and land rental. The net benefit of Mount Cook National Park, as it was in 1984, is likely to be positive, indicating that the benefits associated with the current use pattern of resources exceeds their opportunity cost to the nation. However, this result cannot be used to establish the optimality of current expenditure and management. Approximately 170,000 adults visited Mount Cook National Park over 1984; 29% were from New Zealand, 25% were from Australia, 18% were from the United States, and 7% were from Japan. Visitors to the Park spend money in towns and villages in the Mackenzie Basin area. Average adult visitor expenditure in the Mackenzie Basin area is $58. These expenditures give rise to secondary economic benefits and create opportunities for regional development. Visitor expenditures in the Mackenzie Basin area are associated with $13.4 million of additional regional output, $6.8 million of additional regional income, and 196 jobs. These effects derive their significance from regional objectives; they are not indicators of the national benefits associated with Mount Cook National Park.

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  • Watershed management in New Zealand : status and research needs

    Dils, Robert E.

    Book
    Lincoln University

    Nature has endowed New Zealand with unique geologic, climatic, and biotic conditions. Her volcanic cones and majestic Southern Alps and her verdant plains and rolling hills provide a landscape as rugged and beautiful as will be found anywhere. Her indigenous fauna and flora are often quite different from that of the rest of the world and consequently have been of widespread interest to biologists everywhere. Her geologic youth and structure and her island climate, in combination with the biological resources, have made a land which is ecologically on edge. These natural endowments along with the manner in which she has utilized her land, have given New Zealand some of the most spectacular and rapid erosion to be found. It is quite evident that geologic and climatic conditions combine to give unusually high rates of natural erosion. Present topographic features indicate the past occurrence of large-scale flooding as well. Prior to the arrival of the Maori, it is very likely that most of the land mass of New Zealand below present bush lines was covered with indigenous bush or forest. Forest fires of a catastrophic nature undoubtedly occurred as a result of lightning, and volcanic eruptions. The exposed soils left by these catastrophes contributed to natural deterioration. While vast areas of forest cover were destroyed, they probably were healed by nature with forest or with grass or herbaceous cover. Further, it is probable that large areas in the mountains were, as they are now, subject to landslides and slipping due to earthquakes and excessive local rainfall. Again, the healing process was probably rapid in most of such exposed areas.

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  • High-country fencing

    Hughes, J. G.

    Book
    Lincoln University

    Fencing is now recognised as a major aid towards improved management of runs. With costs of both materials and labour high and rising, it is essential that all fences erected be well planned, and well constructed of the best but most economical materials for the site. This booklet will discuss materials, siting and construction of fences on hill and high country. The aim should be to build fences that are stock proof, low in maintenance, and constructed at reasonable cost with longest life.

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  • Electric fencing

    Weston, L. H.

    Book
    Lincoln University

    Since 1958, when details of electrified permanent fencing tried by Massey College became known, hundreds of miles of electric subdivision fence have been erected. The key to its popularity was the great saving in costs of materials, transport and labour. It was also easier to erect, so it became possible for farm labour to construct electric fences instead of waiting for contract fencers. This reduced the amount of cash to be raised still further. Six manufacturers are selling electric fence equipment, and all have well-illustrated leaflets or booklets giving details of erection. In addition, many farmers, encouraged by Massey College, have kept costs very low by using standard bobbin insulators (Type 436) or short pieces of polythene water-pipe as insulators. The success of electric fencing depends on: (a) Careful insulation of electrified wires. (b) A continuous earth-wire running the length of the fence and connected to the earth terminal of the electric fence unit. (c) Removal of stray wires and excessive green vegetation from the fenceline. In practice thistles, grass, clover, secondary growth and tussocks gradually reach the live wires and reduce the efficiency of the fence, particularly in wet or misty weather. Sometimes insulators slip, break or become coated with dirt, so that again electric leakage becomes serious. Further, the 'wind-charger’ units available for inaccessible places sometimes fail to keep the battery fully charged. Consequently a number of electric fences have become ineffective. On the other hand a 'mains' operated unit has been used, and the fence has been checked regularly, electric subdivision fences have been very effective. In fact once the stock learn to respect an electric fence over a period of months, they do not worry it if it happens to be off for some days. Nevertheless, ineffective electric fences are so prevalent that many people hesitate to regard them as permanent, and suggest that they should be reinforced or replaced by standard fences when finance becomes available. This makes it clear that there are definite requirements to be met and limits to its use as permanent fencing.

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  • The Waimakariri catchment; a study of some aspects of the present systems of land use, with recommendations for the future

    Hayward, John A.

    Book
    Lincoln University

    1. The Waimakariri River has been a constant threat to the Christchurch area. From the earliest days of settlement, river works have been carried out to control flooding, and the present value of these works now exceeds five million pounds. However, only in more recent times has it been suggested that the condition of the upper catchment could be an important factor in flood control. 2. This study describes the upper catchment, examines its use, and potential, and makes recommendations for future use and research. 3. The area is described as a high-altitude, mountain catchment with predominantly steep, unstable slopes, and shallow, infertile, and erodible soils. The vegetation has been drastically modified in pre-European and European times and consequently half the catchment is in a severely to extremely eroded condition. 4. In recent years the condition of some plant communities has improved but others, particularly above about 3,000 feet, continue to deteriorate. The deterioration is greatest on those areas grazed by both domestic and noxious animals. 5. These are areas of high precipitation with a considerable potential for water conservation and detention. However this potential will not be realised under continued grazing. This report therefore recommends that all stock should be excluded from high altitude land. 6. However, as most of the present occupiers have legal rights to the pastureage of this land it is recommended that they be adequately compensated for its loss. Compensation should be based on the productive value of the retired land, and reinvested in the remainder of the property. 7. Despite a reduction in the grazable area, agricultural production could be increased three-fold, an increase which would be consistent with the water and soil conservation requirements of the catchment as a whole. 8. Increased agricultural productivity will not be possible without major changes in the present system of farming. The feasibility and economics of the necessary changes are discussed, and twelve recommendations are made for their adoption. 9. As many decisions on future use have been based on rather inadequate data, six recommendations are made for further research and investigation. Results from the recommended studies would be of benefit to future planning. 10. The recommendations for future land use would be best implemented through the North Canterbury Catchment Board’s Run Plans. The estimated cost of £370,000 would be spread over a number of years as the proposals were progressively incorporated in future run plans.

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  • Some impressions of a visit to parts of the South Island, June 1962

    Costin, A. B.

    Book
    Lincoln University

    In June, 1962, at the invitation of the Tussock Grasslands and Mountain Lands Institute of New Zealand, I inspected parts of the South Island (Appendix 1), to make comparisons between high mountain areas of Australia and tussock grassland and mountain areas of New Zealand (Appendix 2) and thereby gain a clearer understanding of New Zealand problems. The inspections were arranged and conducted by the Director of the Institute, Mr L. W. McCaskill, usually in conjunction with other workers, runholders and administrators concerned with high country problems. Despite the necessarily selective nature of the visit, both as regards places and people, a reasonable cross-section of country, problems and opinions was encountered which, with recollections of an earlier visit in 1951, permitted some impressions to be formed. What is the solution to the deteriorated condition of New Zealand tussock grasslands and mountain lands, as manifest in many ways such as soil erosion, stream aggradation, flooding, weed and pest invasion, and declining stock-carrying capacity? Since there is a common denominator to most of these areas-tussock grassland-universal solution is sometimes expected. But the environment is so diverse, especially as regards topography, altitude and associated climate that no one solution can be possible and the illusion is best forgotten. There are many problems and each may require a separate solution. There is little point is discussing the many day-to-day problems with which New Zealand workers are already fully familiar, such as the need for cheaper effective fencing, and feral animal and weed control. The basic question is the determination of correct land use and this is the issue which is considered here.

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  • Recommendations for the future use of the Waimakariri catchment

    Hayward, John A.

    Book
    Lincoln University

    This report has been prepared by the staff of the Institute because of the vital importance of the Waimakariri Catchment. It attempts to collect under one cover all the relevant information from known sources and to make a series of recommendations in the light of this assembled knowledge. These recommendations are that a modification of traditional land use is desirable and that it can only be achieved with justice if adequate compensation is offered to the legal occupiers of the upper catchment. The survey also reveals a very large field of ignorance about the condition and trend of the catchment and about the economics of changes in land use. It recommends that investigation of these fields be undertaken.

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  • A computer program for capture-recapture studies of animal populations ; a Fortran listing for the stochastic model of G. M. Jolly

    White, E. G.

    Book
    Lincoln University

    White (1971) briefly describes the versatility of a Fortran computer program which analyses capture-recapture data from animal populations, using the stochastic model of G. M. Jolly (1965) . The listing and a fuller description are now given. The program is applicable to studies in which marked animals are individually recognisable, although White (1971) suggests two ways in which to adapt data from studies in which animals are not individually recognisable. The program is in five sections which store all the capture-recapture records and then organise any given selections of these data into trellis tables and the tables of derived population estimates. Data can be used from studies with or without intermediate recapture samples (described by Jolly (1965)), and any selection of consecutive data can be analysed separately for any subpopulation. To permit such a selection, the migration of marked animals (as well as unmarked) between sub-populations is accounted for, both in space and time, but in such applications there should be no repeated to-and-fro migration since a basic assumption of Jolly's model is that all emigration is permanent. Certain restrictions can be placed upon the analysis of data and animals can be added to or withdrawn from the population during a study. The program is written in Fortran IV and was compiled and tested on an 8K IBM 1130 computer using the IBM 1130 Monitor Fortran.

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  • High country river processes : a technical discussion of results from research on the Kowai River system, Springfield, Canterbury

    Blakely, R. J.; Marden, M.; Ackroyd, Peter

    Book
    Lincoln University

    A sub-catchment (Torlesse Stream) of the Kowai River, Canterbury, has been the site of an interdisciplinary study of the relationships between erosion and stream sedimentation (Hayward 1975). It was logical to extend the stream sediment investigation of that study (Hayward 1978) into the Kowai system proper in order to establish changes in the nature and distribution of the stream sediments with distance downstream. The sediment sampling study, comprising Part I of Paper A in this volume, analyses the changes in size, distribution, form and rock type of the river gravels from ahead water mountain stream to the wide braided river beds of the middle reaches of the Kowai River. Part 2 of Paper A discusses the possible implications for the management that these sediment studies have for this and other similar river systems. It is believed that if thought necessary it is possible to design a river training programme to guide the river towards a more manageable pattern. Paper B of this volume compares the results of the present river gravel survey with those from a sedimentological analysis of fluvio-glacial outwash gravels deposited several thousand years ago within the lower reaches of the Kowai system. This comparative study is used to indicate differences in the hydrologic environment prevailing at their respective times of deposition, and aids in our understanding of the processes at work in hill and high country rivers today. Both Papers A and B relate to the Kowai River system, but the authors wish to emphasise that the findings from these studies are believed to have application to other similar gravel bed river systems.

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  • Thyme in Central Otago : a summary of studies by biology students at Dunstan High School, Alexandra

    Wilkinson, E. L.; Dann, G. M.; Smith, G. J. S.

    Book
    Lincoln University

    Thymus vulgarais L. (Labiatae) is a plant which has become an increasingly prominent member of the adventive flora of Central Otago since its introduction into the area last century. Its distribution is confined to the valleys of the Clutha, Kawarau and Mauherikia Rivers. Seed dispersal methods were investigated, with the role of animals, wind and mechanical methods being considered. From the studies so far, it would seem that the latter two are the most important methods of dispersal open to the plant. Germination studies revealed that acidity, cold treatment of seed prior to planting, and the exposure of seed to light on sowing, enhanced the germination rate. The effects of thyme oil on germination was also tested. Thyme appears to prefer a well-drained soil, and a relatively sheltered, well-lit, warm situation. The success of the plant in arid areas may be attributable to the reduction in competition from grasses and other herbs. Thyme can be controlled either mechanically or chemically; its future in Central Otago, though, may lie in its use as a source of honey, its harvest as a culinary herb, and its value as an object of study.

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  • Proceedings of the 1979 Hill and High Country Seminar, Lincoln College, 2-4 July 1979

    Robertson, B. T.

    Book
    Lincoln University

    The proceedings of the 1979 Hill and High Country Seminar includes the full text of the following papers: Rent - I. G. C. Kerr, Rentals for pastoral leases; R. Frizzell, Some problems; New Horizons - G. A. Joll, Opportunities for commercial recreation; J. G. Newson, New livestock opportunities; P. J. Morrissey, Commentary; A. H. Nordmeyer, A major forestry option; Dr. W. A. N. Brown, Commentary; Managing the Hills - Dr. J.A. Hayward, Understanding the hills; M. Douglass, Regional resource planning – the process of selecting objectives; Problem-solving research- Dr. D. Scott, Pastures; Dr. A. J. Allison, Animals; Dr. J. G. H. White, Crops; J. S. Dunn, Machines; J. R. Cocks, Commentary; Profitability - N. W. Taylor, G. T. Mars, Economics of hill and high country production; I. G. C. Kerr, Production and performance in the high country; A. R. Sykes, Achieving better stock performance; K. F. O’Connor, A forward look.

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