2,010 results for Book

  • Provisional targets for soil quality indicators in New Zealand

    Sparling, Graham; Lilburne, Linda; Vojvodić-Vuković, Maja (2008)

    Book
    Landcare Research

    To judge the quality of a soil for production and environmental goals, the physical, chemical and biological properties of the soil need to be compared against the desirable condition for that land use. Ideally, a response curve is needed that shows the relationship between a quantitative soil characteristic and the quality ranking. Currently, soil quality response curves are poorly defined and there are no internationally agreed standards. This report explains how response curves were obtained for a number of key soil properties used for soil quality assessment in New Zealand, and presents the curves in graphical and numeric form.

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  • Review of Canada goose population trends, damage, and control in New Zealand

    Spurr, Eric B.; Coleman, Jim D. (2005)

    Book
    Landcare Research

    The history and management of the Canada goose (Branta canadensis L.) in New Zealand are briefly reviewed. Population trend counts in the South Island have been relatively stable over the last decade, after about 80 years of rapid increase. However, they are expanding their range outside trend count areas. Population trends in the North Island indicate rapidly increasing numbers. Most geese breed around inland high-country lakes and rivers and then move to coastal lakes and rivers to moult and feed for the remainder of the year. Damage by geese is multifaceted, but their economic impacts are largely unknown. Numbers are considered too high by both farming interests and urban authorities. Goose management both within New Zealand and overseas is discussed. Further research is needed to quantify the costs of goose damage, develop cost-effective methods of goose control, and improve the monitoring of goose population trends.

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  • Looking at soils through the natural capital and ecosystem services lens

    Samarasinghe, Oshadhi; Greenhalgh, Suzie; Vesely, Éva-Terézia (2013)

    Book
    Landcare Research

    Land degradation impairs the soil’s ability to support our well-being through loss of actual or potential productivity or utility; and further deterioration is expected (Eswaran et al 2001). Land degradation has been identified as one of the most insidious and under-acknowledged global challenge of this century (Montgomery 2010). Conveying the importance and value of soil to society is therefore critical. The framing of soil as a natural capital stock that yields a flow of valuable goods and services into the future, together with other forms of capital, is expected to resonate with those who have a human centric utilitarian view.

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  • How to put nature into our neighbourhoods : application of low impact urban design and development (LIUDD) principles, with a biodiversity focus, for New Zealand developers and homeowners

    Ignatieva, Maria; Meurk, Colin; van Roon, Marjorie; Simcock, Robyn; Stewart, Glenn (2008)

    Book
    Landcare Research

    Low Impact Urban Design and Development (LIUDD) is a sustainable living concept. Urban sustainability and health are achieved through effective management of stormwater, waste, energy, transport and ecosystem services. The greening of cities by planting ecologically with local species is also a vital part of the overall well-being of ecosystems and citizens. Biodiversity or nature heritage contributes to enduring sense of place or identity - a key element of nationhood. This manual is for the town dweller, developer, landscape designer and planner - and provides practical applications from nearly a decade of LIUDD research across New Zealand. It summarises and links to information regarding the physical and built environment, but its focal point is nature heritage and overcoming attrition and critical loss.

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  • Tiaki para : a study of Ngāi Tahu values and issues regarding waste

    Pauling, Craig; Ataria, James (2010)

    Book
    Landcare Research

    Tiaki Para is a research project that examined existing literature (key texts and policies) on traditional and contemporary views and cultural practices of Māori and waste management. The research has undertaken an extensive survey (postal and interviews) of the views, values and opinions of members of one iwi grouping (Ngāi Tahu) relating to these issues and current waste management practices. This collaborative research study was instigated by Te Rūnanga o Ngāi Tahu, Manaaki Whenua Landcare Research and Scion as part of the Foundation for Research, Science and Technology programme Waste to Resource (W2R). The report gives background to the research project, the methodology employed to collect the data, and the findings and results from the study. The discussion focuses on the principal cultural values and issues relating to waste management and their applicability and importance to current and future waste management practice in New Zealand.

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  • Guide to the Soils of Kaihiku-Hokonui land region

    McIntosh, Peter D. (1994)

    Book
    Landcare Research

    The Kaihiku-Hokonui land region covers about 410 000 hectares of land underlain by predominantly tuffaceous sandstone and mudstone rocks in central and eastern Southland and south Otago, New Zealand. Previous studies have established the parent material and soil variation within the region. This report collates this research, updates the soil classification, provides keys and models for the soil distribution pattern, extrapolates the information of detailed surveys to the wider area and assesses advantages and disadvantages of land for pastoral, horticultural and forestry use.

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  • A profile of tourism in the Lake Waikaremoana region : independent visitation in rural New Zealand

    Fitt, Helen; Horn, Chrys; Wilson, Jude (2007)

    Book
    Landcare Research

    This report provides the results of a survey of 191 visitors to Lake Waikaremoana, a remote area in Te Urewera National Park. Lake Waikaremoana has few established tourism services but significant tourist flows. Visitation is dominated by domestic tourists and the surrounding population is predominantly of Maori ethnicity. Lake Waikaremoana thus provided a case study that might be used to enhance understandings of the wider demand for tourism in isolated rural areas and to look at opportunities for the development of tourism and Maori tourism experiences in these areas.

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  • Classification of land according to its versatility for orchard crop production

    Webb, T. H.; Wilson, A. D. (1994)

    Book
    Landcare Research

    This report presents a land evaluation system to classify land in New Zealand according to its versatility for orchard crop production. The report applies the principles presented in the 'Manual of Land Characteristics for Evaluation of Rural Land' by Webb and Wilson (1994) to update the 'Soil Evaluation and Classification System for Orchard Crop Production' proposed by Wilson and Giltrap (1984). This is the first of a series of classifications to be developed from the principles outlined by Webb and Wilson. The first three sections are written to provide a description of the classification together with a general understanding of the philosophy, basic methodology, and value of the classification. The next two sections are written to enable land resource scientists and consultants to classify land according to its versatility for orchard crop production.

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  • Land use capability classification of the Marlborough region : a report to accompany the second edition, New Zealand land resource inventory

    Lynn, I. H. (1996)

    Book
    Landcare Research

    This report describes and presents keys to the recognition of the 154 land use capability units established for the Marlborough Region land use capability extended legend. The Marlborough Region covers approximately 1.3 million hectares in the north east of the South Island, New Zealand. The regional extended legend, accompanying map unit delineations and inventory descriptions at a scale of 1:50 000, form part of the second edition of the New Zealand Land Resource Inventory. The report provides a detailed description of each land use capability unit outlining its physiography, rock types, soils, erosion status and potential, vegetation, agricultural and forestry productivity, present and potential land use. A decision tree utilizes the framework of the classification to provide keys to recognition of the land use capability units.

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  • Criteria for defining the soil family and soil sibling : the fourth and fifth categories of the New Zealand Soil Classification

    Webb, T. H.; Lilburne, L. R. (2011)

    Book
    Landcare Research

    The New Zealand Soil Classification has defined 15 soil orders, each of which is divided successively into soil groups and subgroups (Hewitt 2010). The soil family is a fourth category, below the subgroup, that is needed to identify the physical attributes of soil profiles more precisely. Families are given a geographic name to aid in communication. The fifth category (sibling) is designated by a number and further refines the description of the physical attributes. The sibling is the primary entity depicted on soil maps. This report outlines a system for defining and naming soil families and siblings. It builds upon and replaces the 'Criteria for defining the soilform' (Clayden & Webb 1994).

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  • Resource monitoring by Hawke's Bay farmers

    Wilkinson, Roger (1996)

    Book
    Landcare Research

    Farmers have for years monitored the condition of their farms and their stock in an informal way. Some formal resource monitoring methods, such as soil tests, have also been used widely. However, farmers are coming under increased pressure from consumers, policy-makers and environmentalists to monitor the condition of their resources more, and more formally. This study was an initial examination of the nature of farmers' monitoring behaviour and the beliefs they held about monitoring. Two farm management decisions were chosen for detailed study: these were decisions about how much phosphate-based fertiliser to apply, and when to drench sheep. A random sample of 115 mixed livestock farmers in the hill country of Hawke's Bay was interviewed. Farmers were generally comfortable with and confident in the use of informal monitoring. For them, informal assessment of the condition of their farms and their stock was what a good farmer did automatically. Formal monitoring methods were used mainly to provide information to help solve a particular problem. Formal monitoring methods were used as an addition to, not as a replacement for, informal methods; formal monitoring merely provided extra information from which to make decisions. This tactical use of the tests contrasts with the strategic use of a few farmers, who used formal monitoring to evaluate their past management and plan for the future. There are several different tasks in the encouragement of formal monitoring of resource status by farmers. Attempting to convince tactical users of the benefits of strategic monitoring will require a different approach from attempting to convince non-users of the benefits of monitoring at all. Both will be made easier if monitoring for production reasons is promoted before monitoring for environmental reasons. The benefits of current monitoring must be reinforced, otherwise some farmers will cease to use it.

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  • Soils of the Conroy land system, Central Otago

    Hewitt, A. E. (1995)

    Book
    Landcare Research

    The Conroy land system includes rolling land, hill country and steeplands with a semi-arid climate around the margins of the Central Otago basins. The soils are dominantly Semiarid Soils and associated Recent Soils from schist. The land system is divided into four land components, and these in turn into land elements. The land elements form the basis of an empirical model which enables the location of soil types to be predicted. Land evaluation of soils in the Conroy land system identified the Hawksburn soils and Hawksburn bouldery soils as the most extensive versatile soils that (with irrigation) are capable of intensive use.

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  • Proceedings of a workshop on scientific issues in ecological restoration : held at Manaaki Whenua - Landcare Research, Ilam, Christchurch on 22-23 February 1995

    (1997)

    Book
    Landcare Research

    Compiled by M.C. Smale and C.D. Meurk.

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  • Geomorphology of the Wairau Plains : implications for floodplain management planning

    Basher, L. R.; Lynn, I. H.; Whitehouse, I. E. (1995)

    Book
    Landcare Research

    Likely future changes to the Wairau River floodplain that will be important to floodplain management (aggradation, channel avulsion, coastal progradation) are assessed from an understanding of the past and present behaviour of the river, coastal dynamics and tectonism. The major factors determining floodplain development have been changes of river gradient in response to sea level variation and tectonism, sediment source and sediment load variation, the passage of gravel waves down the Wairau, and coastal progradation. Future evolution of the Wairau Plains will be determined by the effect of climate change and sea level rise, continuing aggradation of both gravel and sand/silt, the effect of earthquakes, and the possibility of stopbank failure or overtopping.

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  • New Zealand soil classification

    Hewitt, A. E. (1993)

    Book
    Landcare Research

    Version 3.0 of the Zealand Soil Classification is the culmination of a period of development from its initiation in 1983 to wide circulation of versions 1.0 and 2.0 (Hewitt 1989) for comment and testing. It represents the best attempt, given the current state of knowledge, to classify New Zealand soils. As the knowledge and understanding of New Zealand soils grows, further revisions will be necessary. Accounts of the methods used in developing the soil classification and the rationale for the classes and differentia used are in preparation. The New Zealand Soil Classification is a national soil classification intended to replace the New Zealand Genetic Soil Classification (Taylor 1948; Taylor and Cox 1956; Taylor and Pohlen 1962). The New Zealand Genetic Soil Classificaltion grew out of the need for reconnaissance mapping of the nation's soil resources. It was successful as a unifying factor in New Zealand soil science, and it played a vital role in the development of pastoral agriculture. However, modern soil surveys and land evaluations required precise definition of classes and keys for their recognition. Furthermore, a new synthesis was needed of the large body of information collected since the 1950s. The present work has grown out of the New Zealand Genetic Soil Classification and, where possible, preserves successful parts of that classification. It has also been influenced by experience in testing the US Soil Taxonomy (Leamy et al. 1983).

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  • Public attitudes to rabbit calicivirus disease in New Zealand

    Wilkinson, Roger; Fitzgerald, Gerard (1998)

    Book
    Landcare Research

    Since our earlier survey of public attitudes to rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) and rabbit control in 1994, Rabbit Calicivirus Disease (RCD) has been the subject of considerable media attention and public debate. This document reports on our ongoing monitoring of New Zealand public attitudes to rabbits and RCD, as the debate unfolded. This work involved seven focus groups with members of the public and selected interest groups throughout New Zealand in mid-1996, followed by a national random survey of 600 people. Half of these had been interviewed in our 1994 survey. Despite the publicity given to rabbits and RCD, people's views of rabbits and the rabbit problem changed little between our two surveys. Most people continued to hold ambivalent views of rabbits: that they were a pest and a problem, but also ""cute and furry"" and an economic resource. Public recognition of RCD was widespread, yet little was actually known about it. RCD was perceived more favourably than was poisoning rabbits, but generally less favourably than shooting. Although RCD was favoured over shooting for its effectiveness and affordability, it was less attractive than shooting on the important public criteria of safety and humaneness. The respondents were fairly evenly divided between those who gave unconditional support to the introduction of RCD to New Zealand, those who were unconditionally opposed, and those who had a conditional position. Although the attitudes of those with unconditional positions on RCD appear stable, there was still a substantial proportion of respondents with unstable, conditional positions. The unofficial release of RCD in August 1997, nearly a year after our survey, affords an opportunity to monitor public attitudes to rabbits and RCD some time after the initial wave of media coverage and public attention has passed. This would provide high quality data on the monitoring of public perceptions of a major vertebrate pest and its biological control, which could be applied to the prediction of public responses to the potential biological control of other important vertebrate pests, such as possums.

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  • Criteria for defining the soilform : the fourth category of the New Zealand Soil Classification

    Clayden, B.; Webb, T. H. (1994)

    Book
    Landcare Research

    The New Zealand Soil Classification has 15 soil orders, each of which is divided successively into soil groups and subgroups (Hewitt 1992). This report formally introduces a new soil class, the soilform, which is a division of a subgroup based mainly on lithological characteristics. It should be emphasised that the soilform is an integral part of the NZ Soil Classification. Each soilform is defined by the (inherited) criteria that define its subgroup, as well as the additional criteria described in this report that are used for differentiating soilforms within subgroups. The "soilform" has been adopted as the name for the classes in the fourth category of the system because it has few or no connotations with earlier work in New Zealand. The "soil series" (Clayden 1991) and "soil family" (Clayden and Webb 1993) were used in earlier proposals for classes based on similar criteria to those set out here. The soilform, without a geographic name, has been introduced to avoid confusion with the soil series as used in New Zealand, and the soil series and family as used in the USA. It is planned to prepare a further report in which the soilform is related to the soil series and soil types used to identify map units in soil surveys.

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  • Guide for users of the Threatened Environment Classification : ver 1.1

    Walker, S.; Cieraad, E.; Grove, P.; Lloyd, K.; Myers, S.; Park, T.; Porteous, T. (2007-08)

    Book
    Landcare Research

    The Threatened Environment Classification is a source of broad (i.e. national) scale background information: specifically, how much native (indigenous) vegetation remains within land environments; its legal protection status; and how past vegetation loss and legal protection are distributed across New Zealand's landscape.

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  • Soils of the Edendale District

    McIntosh, Peter D. (1995)

    Book
    Landcare Research

    Soils of the Edendale district, Southland, New Zealand have been mapped as Edendale silt loam (5563 ha), Edendale silt loam on loamy silt (640 ha), Fleming silt loam, poorly drained phase (1158 ha), Otama loamy silt (14 ha), Otikerama silt loam, mottled phase (1405 ha) and Waimumu silt loam (19 ha). Edendale silt loam and Edendale silt loam on loamy silt are Typic Firm Brown Soils. Fleming silt loam, poorly drained phase, is a Fragic Perch-gley Pallic Soil. Otama loamy silt is a Typic Laminar Pallic Soil. Otikerama silt loam, mottled phase, is a Mottled Orthic Recent Soil. Waimumu silt loam is a Mottled Fragic Pallic Soil. The well drained Typic Firm Brown and Typic Laminar Pallic Soils are formed in deep silty loess and are versatile, high-class soils suitable for a wide range of land uses, including the growing of horticultural crops. Because of imperfect or poor drainage and subsoil pans, the remaining soils are not considered to be high-class soils. Threats to high-class soils are urbanisation and potentially damaging land-use practices. The Typic Firm Brown and Typic Laminar Pallic Soils cover 70% of the mapped area. Surplus water in these soils will mostly infiltrate into the underlying gravels, while surplus water in the remaining imperfectly and poorly drained soils will mostly flow laterally into streams. Taking into account potential evapotranspiration and contributions to streamflow from land to the west of the terrace, calculations show that the contributions of surplus water to groundwater, and thence to springs, will be about 0.75 m3/s, and the contribution to streams will be about 0.54 m3/s. Effluent disposal on imperfectly or poorly drained soil would risk contamination of streams. It is recommended that effluent disposal from dairy farming activities be restricted to the well drained Typic Firm Brown Soils, mapped as Edendale silt loam and Edendale silt loam on loamy silt. In these soils of moderate moisture-holding capacity, effluents are likely to stay in the root zone of plants for the longest time.

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  • Community attitudes to vegetation in the urban environment : a Christchurch case study

    Kilvington, Margaret; Wilkinson, Roger (1999)

    Book
    Landcare Research

    Loss of biodiversity throughout New Zealand landscapes is receiving increasing attention from local and regional authorities, spurred on by international agreements such as the 1992 Convention on Biological Diversity and, nationally, by the 1991 Resource Management Act and the recent release of a draft New Zealand biodiversity strategy. In developing plans for biodiversity restoration in strongly people-oriented urban environments, consideration must be given to people's values about and attitudes to urban vegetation, their understanding of natural ecosystems, and the acceptability of native compared with exotic vegetation within this landscape. The most important sets of attitudes are those that present opportunities for community involvement in landscape transformation, and those that may result in barriers to change. This research explored the potential social issues likely to be faced by those interested in transforming urban landscapes to enhance biodiversity. The work involved eight focus groups: seven with Christchurch residents of varying backgrounds, and one with staff of the Christchurch City Council.

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