149 results for Book item, 2016

  • Multi-GNSS positioning

    Odolinski, Robert; Khodabandeh, Amir (2016)

    Book item
    University of Otago

    Full text available through link only

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  • Some key issues in post-admission language assessment

    Read, John (2016)

    Book item
    The University of Auckland Library

    This chapter introduces the volume by briefly outlining trends in English-medium higher education internationally, but with particular reference to post-entry language assessment (PELA) in Australian universities. The key features of a PELA are described, in contrast to a placement test and an international proficiency test. There is an overview of each of the other chapters in the book, providing appropriate background information on the societies and education systems represented: Australia, Canada, Hong Kong, the USA, New Zealand, Oman and South Africa. This is followed by a discussion of three themes running through several chapters. The first is how to validate post-admission language assessments; the second is the desirability of obtaining feedback from the test-takers; and the third is the extent to which a PELA is diagnostic in nature.

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  • Reflecting on the contribution of post-admission assessments

    Read, John (2016)

    Book item
    The University of Auckland Library

    This chapter examines a number of issues arising from the earlier contributions to this volume. It considers the decision by a university about whether to introduce a post-admission language assessment in terms of the positive and negative messages such a decision may convey, as well as the costs versus the benefits. There is some discussion of the need to develop professional communication skills as attributes to enhance the employability of graduates and how such skills can be fostered, along with the development of academic literacy in the disciplines, through various forms of collaboration between English language specialists and academic teaching staff. Finally, it explores ideas related to the concept of English as a lingua franca and what implications they may have for the assessment of university students from different language backgrounds.

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  • Deviance Information Criterion (DIC)

    Meyer, Renate (2016)

    Book item
    The University of Auckland Library

    The deviance information criterion (DIC) was introduced in 2002 by Spiegelhalter et al. [1] to compare the relative t of a set of hierarchical Bayesian models. It is similar to Akaike's information criterion (AIC) in combining a measure of goodness-of- t and measure of complexity, both based on the deviance. While AIC uses the maximum likelhood estimate, DIC's plug-in estimate is based on the posterior mean. Since the number of independent parameters in a Bayesian hierarchical model is not clearly de ned, DIC estimates the e ective number of parameters by the di erence of the posterior mean of the deviance and the deviance at the posterior mean. This coincides with the number of independent parameters in xed e ect models with at priors, thus the DIC is a generalization of AIC. It can be justi ed as an estimate of the posterior predictive model performance within a decision-theoretic framework and it is asymptotically equivalent to leave-one-out cross- validation. The DIC has been used extensively for practical model comparison in many disciplines, works well for exponential family models but due to its dependence on the parametrization and focus of a model, its application to mixture models is problematic.

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  • Character and Character Swapping in Mozart's Così fan tutte

    Davies, Stephen (2016-12-01)

    Book item
    The University of Auckland Library

    This chapter on Mozart’s opera Così fan tutte (“Thus Do They All”) offers a discussion of a number of topics covered by other chapters—the portrayal of fictional characters, mixed motivation, promise keeping, the influence of character, and situational variables, respectively, in determining behavior and individual differences among people. Così’s libretto is about two couples who swap partners. Così is typically seen as a character-swapping farce, with one-dimensional characters. The chapter quotes Peter Kivy, according to whom the heroes and heroines are not even real characters—rather, they are voices: the soprano, the mezzo-soprano, the heroic tenor, and so on. The chapter, however, makes a compelling case that this is not so. The opera has a moral seriousness often overlooked by interpreters due to lack of attention to the individual differences among the characters and to character development.

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  • Live Farm Animal Exports

    Dare, Tim (2016-07-25)

    Book item
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Postcolonial security, development and biopolitics: targeting women’s lives in Solomon Islands

    Lacey, Anita (2016-01-28)

    Book item
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • What can reverse mentoring models contribute to communities of practice involving developed and rising economies?

    Dunham, Annette; Ross, M (2016)

    Book item
    The University of Auckland Library

    Communities of practice have been proposed as effective means of building cooperative knowledge sharing relationships between locals and experts from emerging and developed economies (including divisions within some multinational companies). Mentoring relationships in general have been found to support the work of communities of practice. Reverse mentoring relationships are the reverse to what is traditionally expected of a mentoring relationship; they involve the mentoring of a mature or more experienced employee by a younger or generally less experienced employee, but also have the potential to offer much to communities of practice. In the context of communities of practice involving developed and emerging economies, reverse mentoring relationships have the potential to facilitate nationals' (the reverse mentors) sharing of local knowledge while at the same time providing them with leadership development courtesy of the developed country's representative(s) (the reverse mentee(s)), a winning solution for communities of practice and multinational companies. This chapter outlines the benefits of reverse mentoring relationships for communities of practice, and identifies some potential challenges for these partnerships. The implications of these for managers and practitioners are outlined. An agenda for research into reverse mentoring arrangements will complete this chapter. The aim of the chapter is to show how reverse mentoring relationships can complement the work of communities of practice in fostering co-operative knowledge sharing between those in developed and emerging economies.

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  • A dynamic metacognitive systems perspective on language learner autonomy

    Zhang, Lawrence (2016-02-08)

    Book item
    The University of Auckland Library

    Afterword.

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  • Context and complexity on the arid margins of Australia: Assessing human reponses to an unpredictable environment

    Holdaway, Simon; Shiner, J; Fanning, Patricia; Douglass, MJ (2016)

    Book item
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Culture and agency in Mormon women’s lives

    Inouye, Melissa (2016)

    Book item
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • A religious rhetoric of competing modernities: Christian print culture in late Qing China

    Inouye, Melissa (2016)

    Book item
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Model-Based Interpretation of Skin Microstructural and Mechanical Measurements

    Jor, JWY; Parker, MD; Nash, MP; Taberner, Andrew; Nielsen, PMF (2016)

    Book item
    The University of Auckland Library

    Accurate characterization of skin mechanics requires model-based interpretation of skin mechanical and structural measurements. Due to difficulties in measuring properties of in vivo skin, research efforts have focused largely on the characterization of in vitro skin. In this chapter, we review state-of-the-art constitutive models, with particular focus on structural models that can provide valuable insights into the relationship between tissue microstructure and mechanical response of skin. Constitutive parameter estimation remains a challenge and relies on the availability of a comprehensive range of deformation measurements of skin under various loading conditions. We provide a summary of current imaging techniques to visualize and quantify skin microstructure (such as collagen fiber organization) and instrumentation used for measuring the mechanical response of the skin. To enhance our understanding of skin mechanics, future research effort should focus on the integration of noninvasive in vivo imaging modalities, mechanical testing, and computational modeling.

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  • Extending post-entry assessment to the doctoral level: New challenges and opportunities

    Read, John; von Randow, J (2016)

    Book item
    The University of Auckland Library

    Since 2011, first-year doctoral candidates at The University of Auckland have been required to take the Diagnostic English Language Needs Assessment (DELNA) as part of a university-wide programme to identify students who are in need of significant language enrichment. This step was taken in response to research by the School of Graduate Studies suggesting that language difficulties often impacted on effective relationships between supervisors and their doctoral candidates, and progress in general. To ensure that such difficulties are addressed early in their study, candidates whose performance in DELNA indicates they need further language development attend an advisory session to discuss appropriate academic English enrichment programmes, and set specific goals to be achieved by the end of their provisional year. Although the doctoral learning process has often been studied from a variety of perspectives, there has been considerably less investigation of the language learning experiences of international doctoral students. This study focuses on 20 doctoral candidates in their first year and includes their reaction to DELNA, their response to the language advice they received, their evaluation of the language enrichment activities they engaged in, the strategies they used to adapt to their new environment, and their relationship with their supervisors. Results suggest that they welcome the fact that the University is proactive in responding to their language needs, and find that the specific programmes undertaken have increased their confidence in writing and their ability to express themselves better in all academic contexts.

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  • Cell Division and Cell Differentiation

    David, Karine (2016-10-01)

    Book item
    The University of Auckland Library

    Plant growth and development is driven by the continuous production of new cells. The processes involved in making it possible for a cell to give rise to two daughter cells define the cell division cycle. Plant development requires a fine control of cell division (rate, cell cycle exit and reactivation, endoreplication) and differentiation. By affecting cell numbers and organ formation, cell division and differentiation will affect plant growth and can therefore have a profound impact on yield and biomass production. Understanding the balance between cell division and cell differentiation, the key players in those processes, will help in the breeding of new, high-yielding varieties as well as improving plant regeneration processes in vitro.

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  • And Everything Nice

    Davies, Stephen (2016-07)

    Book item
    The University of Auckland Library

    This chapter critically reviews evolutionary psychologists’ accounts of sexual attractiveness. They focus on female physical beauty and its appeal to heterosexual men. Judgments of physical attractiveness tend to track both health and genes that are good either in general or because they complement those of the chooser. This account of sexual attraction is thin and one-dimensional, however. How we assess people, and whether we are sexually drawn to them, depends importantly on aspects of character and performance that go beyond physical appearance. Indeed, these further assessments can even affect our rating of a person’s physical appearance. So, sexual attraction and attractiveness are bound up generally with social performance. In addition, making oneself sexually attractive can be part of making the best of one’s social self-presentation. In this case, it invites the other’s appreciation but not an overtly sexual response.

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  • Funds of knowledge

    Hedges, Helen (2016)

    Book item
    The University of Auckland Library

    Sociocultural theories explain ways that humans participate intently in informal family, community, and cultural activities and practices; learn naturally through these; and construct multiple identities. Diversity of, and within, families and cultures is now a global theme. Adopting culturally sensitive and equitable approaches and constructs to guide the education of children from diverse backgrounds is therefore vital. Funds of knowledge is an empowering construct developed as an early example of culturally responsive pedagogy. Previously, responses to educational achievement lags by ethnic minority children had taken on a deficit approach based on an assumption that the poor quality of these children’s home experiences meant they were not able to manage the demands of academic learning. Instead, funds of knowledge approaches explore the rich knowledge and lived experiences of families and cultures that can be drawn on in educational settings to enhance learning. It is therefore a concept of potential value to early childhood education where partnerships between families and educators are strongly promoted. The concept is dynamic, as it changes with each relationship in each family and evolves to new circumstances and cultures. Funds of knowledge can be considered as a theoretical, methodological, and pedagogical tool.

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  • Architecture of a Distributive Submarine Fan: The Ross Sandstone Formation

    Pyles, DR; Strachan, Lorna (2016-06)

    Book item
    The University of Auckland Library

    The Ross Sandstone Formation contains some laterally continuous exposures of turbidites, and is an excellent outcrop analogue for distributive submarine fans, which form important oil and gas reservoirs around the world. This chapter presents an overview of the geological setting of the formation, together with its lithofacies and main characteristics. It discusses some excursions, which provide an opportunity to visit the principal outcrops of the Ross Sandstone Formation and examine the wide array of sedimentary structures and facies that comprise this beautifully exposed ancient distributive submarine fan. Pyles described twelve lithofacies in the Ross Sandstone, that are characterised by bed thickness, grain size, internal stratification and nature of lower bounding surfaces of beds. The chapter documents five outcrops of the Ross Sandstone in the axis of the basin. The palaeogeographic map represents a time slice through the upper Ross Sandstone.

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  • Evolving Depocentre and Slope: The Gull Island Formation

    Strachan, Lorna; Pyles, DR (2016-06)

    Book item
    The University of Auckland Library

    The Gull Island Formation is the uppermost lithostratigraphic unit of the Namurian Shannon Group and is best exposed on the Atlantic coast of southern and northern County Clare. This chapter presents excursion summaries and builds upon published observations and interpretations of the Gull Island Formation, with an emphasis on the stratigraphic architecture at several key outcrops, including those at Gull Island, Fisherstreet Bay and the Cliffs of Moher. It describes outcrops in the south and north of County Clare, where the varied nature of the Gull Island Formation can be viewed in a series of spectacular cliff sections. This review and field excursions has unearthed some lost data that has enabled refinement of the understanding of the formation. The base of the Gull Island Formation is a diachronous boundary between the coeval Ross Sandstone and Clare Shales, which was initiated in the SW and migrated north and east with time.

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  • Radiation Health and Protection

    Bacal, Kira; Romano, J (2016-12-13)

    Book item
    The University of Auckland Library

    Astronauts in low Earth orbit and outside the confines of the protection of the Van Allen belts are continuously exposed to a variety of energetic particles referred to as space radiation. Space radiation consists of high energy particles originating from galactic cosmic and solar event sources. These charged particles can damage living tissue and impact health in both the short and long term. Astronauts and other space travelers must be protected from radiation to the greatest extent possible, by physical space craft shielding, and through managing mission timing and crew selection policies. This chapter addresses different types of space radiation, their respective mitigation strategies, and associated potential health risks and clinical consequences. Current and future technological and administrative risk mitigation strategies and practices are discussed.

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