1,885 results for Book item

  • Philosophical perspectives on music's expressiveness

    Davies, Stephen (2001)

    Book item
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Face Value. Perception and Knowledge of Others’ Happiness

    Zamuner, Edoardo (2009)

    Book item
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Child Nutrition Guidelines and Gender

    Jonas, Monique (2014)

    Book item
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Auckland's Centrepiece: Unsettled Identities, Unstable Monuments

    Bell, Leonard (2006)

    Book item
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Some key issues in post-admission language assessment

    Read, John (2016)

    Book item
    The University of Auckland Library

    This chapter introduces the volume by briefly outlining trends in English-medium higher education internationally, but with particular reference to post-entry language assessment (PELA) in Australian universities. The key features of a PELA are described, in contrast to a placement test and an international proficiency test. There is an overview of each of the other chapters in the book, providing appropriate background information on the societies and education systems represented: Australia, Canada, Hong Kong, the USA, New Zealand, Oman and South Africa. This is followed by a discussion of three themes running through several chapters. The first is how to validate post-admission language assessments; the second is the desirability of obtaining feedback from the test-takers; and the third is the extent to which a PELA is diagnostic in nature.

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  • Reflecting on the contribution of post-admission assessments

    Read, John (2016)

    Book item
    The University of Auckland Library

    This chapter examines a number of issues arising from the earlier contributions to this volume. It considers the decision by a university about whether to introduce a post-admission language assessment in terms of the positive and negative messages such a decision may convey, as well as the costs versus the benefits. There is some discussion of the need to develop professional communication skills as attributes to enhance the employability of graduates and how such skills can be fostered, along with the development of academic literacy in the disciplines, through various forms of collaboration between English language specialists and academic teaching staff. Finally, it explores ideas related to the concept of English as a lingua franca and what implications they may have for the assessment of university students from different language backgrounds.

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  • Networking Learners Using Online Asynchronous Discussions

    Datt, Ashwini (2017)

    Book item
    The University of Auckland Library

    Online asynchronous discussions (OADs) are a prospective tool for creating learning networks that can minimize transactional distance and humanize distance learning. Using it to support effective communication and interaction among learners in video-based distance courses requires special skills and consideration. This research evaluates the use of OADs in a second and third year sociology undergraduate video-broadcast course (VBC). Patterns of participation and interaction were examined using the network and content analysis tools to determine the effectiveness of OADs as a pedagogical strategy. The role of the teacher in establishing a learning network between on-campus and distance students was also investigated.

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  • Deviance Information Criterion (DIC)

    Meyer, Renate (2016)

    Book item
    The University of Auckland Library

    The deviance information criterion (DIC) was introduced in 2002 by Spiegelhalter et al. [1] to compare the relative t of a set of hierarchical Bayesian models. It is similar to Akaike's information criterion (AIC) in combining a measure of goodness-of- t and measure of complexity, both based on the deviance. While AIC uses the maximum likelhood estimate, DIC's plug-in estimate is based on the posterior mean. Since the number of independent parameters in a Bayesian hierarchical model is not clearly de ned, DIC estimates the e ective number of parameters by the di erence of the posterior mean of the deviance and the deviance at the posterior mean. This coincides with the number of independent parameters in xed e ect models with at priors, thus the DIC is a generalization of AIC. It can be justi ed as an estimate of the posterior predictive model performance within a decision-theoretic framework and it is asymptotically equivalent to leave-one-out cross- validation. The DIC has been used extensively for practical model comparison in many disciplines, works well for exponential family models but due to its dependence on the parametrization and focus of a model, its application to mixture models is problematic.

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  • Evaluation of the linkage disequilibrium method for estimating effective population size

    Russell, James; Fewster, Rachel (2009)

    Book item
    The University of Auckland Library

    Data on linkage disequilibrium at unlinked loci provide an estimate of the inbreeding effective population size of the parental generation of the sampled cohort. The inbreeding effective population size, Ne, is the reciprocal of the probability that two gametes, selected at random without replacement from those that produced the sampled cohort, derive from the same parent. Effective population size is an important parameter for measuring the rate of inbreeding in a population. We detail the construction of the linkage disequilibrium estimator of Ne, and evaluate its performance by simulation. We simulate populations which are dioecious and non-selfing. We use the simulations to examine the effects of several types of deviation from ideal population conditions, and of sample size, genotyping errors, number of loci typed, and polymorphic loci. We find substantial bias in the Ne estimator when there have been recent fluctuations in census population size, when the index of breeding variability is greater than one, and when the ratio of sample size to effective population size differs substantially from one. Due to high variability, estimators that have low bias for the reciprocal of Ne can present substantial bias when used as estimators of Ne itself. We consider a recent small sample size bias correction proposed for the method, and find that it improves bias in the reciprocal, but at the expense of increased bias for Ne. The improvements in the bias of the reciprocal are usually small, but are substantial when sample size is much less than Ne, while the increase in bias for Ne is often substantial. We test the method on two exhaustively sampled rat populations, and find it performs as expected from simulation. For practitioners, we recommend that resources are spent first in ensuring that the sample size is likely to be greater than the effective population size, and only then that the number of loci is increased to improve the precision of the estimate.

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  • The eradication of mammals from New Zealand islands

    Clout, Michael; Russell, James (2006)

    Book item
    The University of Auckland Library

    Data on eradication operations against alien mammals on New Zealand islands show that there was a substantial increase in the number of successful eradications in the 1980s and 1990s. The most significant change has been in the ability to eradicate rodents from increasingly large islands (to over 11,000ha), using aerial poisoning techniques. Based on the New Zealand experience, there are good prospects for further eradications of alien mammals from islands around the world, facilitating ecological restoration and the recovery of threatened species. However, instances of reinvasion of rats (Rattus spp.) and stoats (Mustela erminea) onto previously cleared islands illustrate the importance of prevention, effective monitoring and a fuller understanding of invasion risks.

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  • Cell growth

    Harris, Philip; McQueen-Mason, S; Darley, C; Roberts, P; Jones, L (2017)

    Book item
    The University of Auckland Library

    Growth can be defined as an irreversible increase in size or volume. In plants, growth is brought about by a combination of cell division and cell enlargement. Cell division alone does not constitute growth but rather increases the potential for growth by increasing the number of cells that can subsequently undergo expansion. Growth itself relies on the process of cell expansion and, in plants, this mechanism is highly dependent on the mechanical properties of the cell wall. These properties are, in turn, governed by the molecular components of the cell wall. The cell wall is key to much that exemplifies higher plants, providing both a skeletal role as well as determining many developmental processes that give rise to specialized plant structures. This article covers the molecular architecture of plant cell walls, especially as it relates to the process of cell expansion.

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  • Character and Character Swapping in Mozart's Così fan tutte

    Davies, Stephen (2016-12-01)

    Book item
    The University of Auckland Library

    This chapter on Mozart’s opera Così fan tutte (“Thus Do They All”) offers a discussion of a number of topics covered by other chapters—the portrayal of fictional characters, mixed motivation, promise keeping, the influence of character, and situational variables, respectively, in determining behavior and individual differences among people. Così’s libretto is about two couples who swap partners. Così is typically seen as a character-swapping farce, with one-dimensional characters. The chapter quotes Peter Kivy, according to whom the heroes and heroines are not even real characters—rather, they are voices: the soprano, the mezzo-soprano, the heroic tenor, and so on. The chapter, however, makes a compelling case that this is not so. The opera has a moral seriousness often overlooked by interpreters due to lack of attention to the individual differences among the characters and to character development.

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  • Making a difference in bilingual education: Biliteracy learning as curricular appropriation

    Zhang, Lawrence (2013)

    Book item
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Mediation and Mimicry

    Kavka, Misha (2014-12-05)

    Book item
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Progression in the knowledge and philosophy of technology

    Compton, Vicki; Compton, AD (2011)

    Book item
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Prioritising International Sex Crimes before the Special Court for Sierra Leone: Another Instrument of Political Manipulation?

    Mahony, Christopher (2012)

    Book item
    The University of Auckland Library

    Introduction Over the past two decades the prosecution of international crimes1 has be-come increasingly common, with international organisations and individ-ual States taking political positions over their legitimacy and conduct. Ef-forts to ensure impartiality and independence in the selection of cases prosecuted however, have largely failed. Independent case selection has been compromised because States have sought to impede prosecution where they view doing so as antithetical to their interests. ...

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  • Enhancing Students Conceptual Understanding of Chemistry through the SOLO Taxonomy

    Gan, Joo (2007)

    Book item
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Grammaticalization and Strategies in Resolving Subject Marking Paradoxes: The Case of Tsimshianic

    Brown, Jason; Peterson, T (2008)

    Book item
    The University of Auckland Library

    This paper presents a case study of what we will call ergative/nominative paradoxes, which we claim are found in the Tsimshianic language family, but which are possibly found in other languages as well. Such paradoxes are said to arise when both nominative and ergative morphology is simultaneously indexed or related to the same subject. Although these languages manifest this subject marking paradox in different ways, we conjecture that the paradox itself is the result of an ergative system decaying into an accusative one, and that one strategy for languages to relieve the pressure of such a paradox is to develop new paradigms of differential subject marking.

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  • The Wisdom Hierarchy and a Culture of Safety and Improvement in General Practice: Where Do We Now Stand?

    Wallis, Katharine; Dovey, SM (2014-05)

    Book item
    The University of Auckland Library

    This chapter introduces ideas about how a safety culture is a necessary part of providing safer primary health care. Taking a definition of “culture” as the shared assumptions that underlie how people perceive and act, we consider how these assumptions and values might change within the framework of Ackoff’s “wisdom hierarchy”. We suggest that a culture of safety includes: holding a perception of the data held in medical records as the main tool for everyday protection of patient safety in primary care; developing understanding of patients and the healthcare environment; considering engagement in research a professional responsibility; promoting the dissemination of research via other methods than publication in scientific journals; and acquiring skills in judgement that lead to deliberate actions to provide safer care.

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  • Teachers’ use of research to improve practice: Why should we, how could we?

    Sinnema, Claire; Aitken, G (2014)

    Book item
    The University of Auckland Library

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