1,880 results for Book item

  • The Wisdom Hierarchy and a Culture of Safety and Improvement in General Practice: Where Do We Now Stand?

    Wallis, Katharine; Dovey, SM (2014-05)

    Book item
    The University of Auckland Library

    This chapter introduces ideas about how a safety culture is a necessary part of providing safer primary health care. Taking a definition of “culture” as the shared assumptions that underlie how people perceive and act, we consider how these assumptions and values might change within the framework of Ackoff’s “wisdom hierarchy”. We suggest that a culture of safety includes: holding a perception of the data held in medical records as the main tool for everyday protection of patient safety in primary care; developing understanding of patients and the healthcare environment; considering engagement in research a professional responsibility; promoting the dissemination of research via other methods than publication in scientific journals; and acquiring skills in judgement that lead to deliberate actions to provide safer care.

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  • Teachers’ use of research to improve practice: Why should we, how could we?

    Sinnema, Claire; Aitken, G (2014)

    Book item
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Does employee downsizing really work?

    Datta, DK; Basuil Tobias, Dynah (2014)

    Book item
    The University of Auckland Library

    Over the past couple of decades, employee downsizing has become a fact of organizational life, not just in the U.S. but, increasingly so, in other countries, with unprecedented levels of downsizing occurring in several countries during the last recession. Seen as being inevitable in an increasingly competitive global marketplace, the high levels of downsizing activity attest to the deep-seated belief among managers that downsizing enhances organizational efficiency and leads to improved financial performance. Critics, on the other hand, argue that benefits are illusory and point out that attendant costs, both visible and invisible, can make downsizing a relatively ineffective tool for creating firm value. After a brief discussion of the factors that motivate and propel firms to engage in downsizing, we, in this article, examine the findings of extant research to assess whether downsizing does indeed improve organization performance. What we find based on our examination of 55 studies is that the findings are equivocal with very little agreement among researchers on the efficacy of employee downsizing to create organizational value. We explore possible reasons for the same and conclude by providing directions for future research that, we believe, will provide the insights that scholars and managers need to better understand the complex relationship between employee downsizing and firm value.

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  • Artistic Expression and the Hard Case of Pure Music

    Davies, Stephen (2006)

    Book item
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Contra the Hypothetical Persona in Music

    Davies, Stephen (1997)

    Book item
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Foundations for the Logic of Questions and Commands

    Girle, Roderic; McKeown-Green, J (2014)

    Book item
    The University of Auckland Library

    Recent interest in logics for questions and commands has been prompted partly by a recognition that reasoned argument often involves moves that are not truth-evaluable, and partly by the use of questions and commands in most procedural programming. The authors argue that certain methodological issues must be addressed before we can agree on the purpose and nature of logics for questions and commands. They deny that formulas in such logics should correspond to sentences in ordinary language. They consider how formulas should be interpreted, focusing especially on questions. The authors argue that logics designed to capture the conditions for correct reasoning involving questions require a semantics that treats question-answer pairs as values. This emphasis brings to the fore issues about questions in premise-conclusion arguments. In both premise-conclusion and dialogical argumentation, the authors argue that logic should aim to capture moves in reasoning, not facts about sentences.

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  • What Could the University Be?

    Sturm, Sean; Turner, SF (2014)

    Book item
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Othering “Lebs”: Racialised demonisation of Lebanese immigrants in Australia

    Poynting, Noel (2014)

    Book item
    The University of Auckland Library

    This paper demonstrates how the Lebanese immigrant population in Australia (and especially its largest city, Sydney) has quite a distinct experience from elsewhere in the Lebanese diaspora in the way they have been perceived and represented. Over the past two decades, Lebanese immigrants in Sydney have been ideologically associated with inherent criminality: they have been racialised and criminalised at the same time. A whole younger generation, of second- and third-generation Lebanese immigrants, has grown up having to live with, and to respond to, being defined in that way. This chapter traces that process of racialisation and criminalisation by focusing on some key flashpoints over this period, and also gives some indication of how Lebanese Australians in Sydney have experienced this ‘othering’.

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  • Music-to-listener emotional contagion

    Davies, Stephen (2013-07-11)

    Book item
    The University of Auckland Library

    The author advocates the notion that music elicits emotion through a process of emotional contagion, defined as a 'mirroring' response in which the listener is moved to feel the emotion that the music expresses. In this chapter the author develops this notion and contrasts it with various psychological theories of imitation or mimicry. In particular, the crucial idea concerning what is intentional object of a musically induced emotion must be examined. It is argued that the music is not the emotional object of the response because the listener does not believe anything of the music that would make it the intentional object of a sad response, namely, that the music is unfortunate, suffering, or regrettable.

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  • Emotions Expressed and Aroused by Music: Philosophical Perspectives

    Davies, Stephen (2010)

    Book item
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Encouraging notions of social justice through young children’s play: Experiences in Pasifika early childhood teacher education in Aotearoa New Zealand

    Leaupepe, Manutai (2013-05)

    Book item
    The University of Auckland Library

    When I think of the word 'play,' numerous ideas come to mind. Play has meant different things to different people across different cultural, historical, and social spheres. Play, within Early Childhood Education (ECE) in Aotearoa New Zealand, continues to be the driving force for curriculum planning decisions, and predominantly features in the educational programmes offered to young children (Hedges, 2003; Leaupepe, 2010). The national Early Childhood Curriculum, Te Whariki (Ministry of Education, 1996) recognizes the contributions play provides to the holistic development of the child, and emphasizes the need for Early Childhood teachers to create spaces and environments where children's play is valued as meaningul leaning. The acceptance of play within ECE settings appear to have been uncontested and unchallenged with reference to its relevance (Ailwood, 2003; Leaupepe, 20 11a). Since its early developments within the kindergarten movement, Frobel's idea of children playing within natural environments as free-spirited beings has been inluential to the kinds of practices evident within ECE environments (Leaupepe, 2011a; May, 2001). We have seen shifts in pedagogical paradigms that now challenge early childhood teachers to reconceptualise play in relation to its purpose and nature (Hill, 2006; Leaupepe, 201 l b).

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  • Marketing ethics in context: the promotion of unhealthy foods and beverages to children

    Jackson, M; Harrison, P; Swinburn, Boyd; Lawrence, M (2015)

    Book item
    The University of Auckland Library

    Marketing ethics has been described as an inherently relative concept whereby ethical problems and consequences result from interactions between individuals, but are also shaped by the context in which they occur (Chonko and Hunt 1985; Singhapakdi et al. 1996). In making ethical decisions, marketers are influenced by a complex interplay of factors in the broader cultural, economic and organizational environments (Singhapakdi et al. 1996). Within this field, issues arise from organizations’ marketing activities and their consequences (Chonko and Hunt 1985), and the way marketing decisions are shaped by moral standards (Murphy et al. 2005). During the past two decades the marketing of unhealthy foods and beverages, that is, energy-dense, nutrient-poor products such as confectionery and sugar-sweetened beverages, to children and adolescents has been a source of debate among marketers (‘Marketers regroup on junk food marketing’ 2006; Witkowski 2007; Chandon and Wansink 2010), the food and beverage industry (Australian Food and Grocery Council 2010; Cooper 2010; Jolly 2011) and public health professionals (Lobstein and Dibb 2005; Hastings et al. 2006; McGinnis et al. 2006; Palmer and Carpenter 2006; Matthews 2008; Harris et al. 2009c; Mehta et al. 2010). As public health professionals have argued, it is not only the promotional method that is in question but the products being marketed, of which only minimal consumption is recommended (Harris et al. 2009b). Other factors, such as to whom they are being marketed, by whom and for what purpose, add further complexity to this issue.

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  • Tribal Kings and Tattooed Chiefs: The Hidden Irish of the Pacific World

    Campbell, Malcolm (2014)

    Book item
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Crises and Opportunities: The Analysis of an Autobiographical Account of Bereavement and Growth

    Bray, Peter (2013)

    Book item
    The University of Auckland Library

    From the moment they occur, crisis events involving personal loss can disrupt people’s lives and irrevocably change how they engage with the world. Living with the crisis of irreplaceable loss in a world that has suddenly become unfamiliar and unpredictable is both existentially and psychologically challenging. In the aftermath of crisis, how does the survivor go about relearning his existence and incorporating the inconceivable into a newly emerging view of the world? In Western society it is quite common for individuals and groups to report that their experiences of powerfully disturbing crisis events have created a set of conditions that forced them to make significant personal changes which resulted in beneficial growth. Thus, in such crises, the survivor may oscillate between emotional distress and a fuller knowledge of reality, the questioning of old core beliefs and goals and the establishment of new ones, holding on to their past self-narrative and the creation and integration of a new one, whilst attempting to maintain psychic and physical balance. This oscillation gently accommodates the pre-crisis elements of the survivor’s whole experience and enables the possibility of movement toward continuing future growth and the recognition and use of opportunities. In the last decade or so, mirroring the trend to positively reframe these disrupting states, crisis and bereavement work has become increasingly interested in those outcomes that suggest: enhanced psychological well-being and health; personal and spiritual development and increased coping skills; and, improved relationships and enhanced personal resources. In this brief paper, an autobiographical account of loss is given to demonstrate how exposure to crisis can provide opportunity for significant personal transformation. The analysis uses the integrated conceptual frameworks of Lawrence Calhoun and Richard Tedeschi’s post-traumatic growth model and Stanislav and Christina Grof’s psycho-spiritual paradigm, blended with some current ideas about crisis, grief, and bereavement.

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  • Hamlet Is Sick: Patient Care in the Total Institution

    Bray, Peter (2014)

    Book item
    The University of Auckland Library

    William Shakespeare’s play Hamlet is conceived as an exploration of one patient’s experiences of the power of a total institution. In the unethical and unsuccessful processes of healing his step-son’s melancholia, Claudius the chief executive and senior consultant of Denmark’s Elsinore Castle transforms Hamlet’s condition from princely protégé to patient. As a noncompliant inmate Hamlet goes about creatively finding ways to both resist his helpers and assemble evidence that will prove the institution’s power base is corrupted by its new leader. His increasing reluctance to see the world as the state sanctions it gives the institution reason to treat his personal challenges as attacks on its integrity. Thus, Shakespeare’s play exposes the sickness of total systems that vest power in a single individual. It also shows how a diagnosis of complicated mourning, experienced as a difficult personal process of intra-psychic transformation, might be reframed by its onlookers as ‘madness.’ By showing the tragic consequences of withholding or intentionally ignoring the true source of a patient’s disease, Hamlet’s case demonstrates the difficulties of making correct diagnoses and giving appropriate treatment. At best there is a fragile symbiosis between a doctor and patient. In Hamlet the institution misdiagnoses, threatens, renders incompetent, and denies Hamlet the patient a say in his own healing processes. However, in his institutionally inconvenient condition he is provided with opportunities for the kind of unsupervised self-analysis and experimentation that ultimately risks his life and those of the community. After his assault on the body politic, steps are taken to fully remove him from the public gaze. Hamlet’s case serves to illustrate how a unitary approach to patient care that disenfranchises and disempowers, tragically disables the service relationship and totally restricts its staff in their work.

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  • Accentuating the Positive: Self-Actualising Post-Traumatic Growth Processes

    Bray, Peter (2014)

    Book item
    The University of Auckland Library

    It is not altogether uncommon, in the aftermath of traumatic life events, for individuals and groups to report that they have had experiences and faced processes that have led to significant personal changes and positive psychological growth. In the last half century psychology has begun to broadly recognise and understand the potential psychological benefits to individuals who have successfully managed the balance between the painful challenges of trauma on the one hand and the emerging effects of flourishing and personal growth on the other. Counter-intuitively, these life-enhancing outcomes can include: improved psychological well-being and health; personal and spiritual development; increased coping skills and deepening relationships; enhanced personal resources; and, changes in religious and spiritual assumptions and beliefs. As a consequence, mainstream psychology has broadened its position on trauma, moving beyond its concern with impairment and pathology, to a curiosity about the incidence, meaning, and positive potential that these growth outcomes may have post-trauma. Similarly, as these outcomes are increasingly able to be measured, this chapter suggests that psychology’s ordinarily Cartesian caution toward trauma as a singularly quantifiable experience is being gently shifted by the post-modern perspectives being applied to this phenomenon. Thus, as psychology repositions itself in the new millennium, this chapter offers a number of contributions to trauma theory, and specifically post-traumatic growth, that informs our fuller consideration of the role of psycho-spiritual transformation in the processes, outcomes, and management of trauma beginning with: Abraham Maslow’s theory of peak experience and self-actualisation and Carl Rogers’ organismic valuing process; Stanislav Grof’s holotropic paradigm and formulation of psycho-spiritual transformation; the research conducted by Lawrence Calhoun and Richard Tedeschi’s on post-traumatic growth; and, Martin Seligman and Stephen Joseph’s conceptualisations of positive psychology. Together, these interdisciplinary strands capture something of a prevailing optimism and shared understanding that the struggle of post-traumatic experience may, for some at least, offer the potential for personal growth.

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  • The Prince Is the Patient: A Shakespearean Tragi-Fantasy of Total Institutional Care

    Bray, Peter (2015)

    Book item
    The University of Auckland Library

    In this chapter William Shakespeare’s tragedy Hamlet is reconceived as an allegory of one patient’s countervailing experiences of the total institution. Purposely confined in the secure environment of Denmark’s Elsinore Castle his step-father and institutional senior consultant Claudius unethically, and yet largely successfully, transforms the public perception of Hamlet’s mourning and melancholia over his father into psychoneurosis and violent insanity - his identity from princely protégé to mortified patient. However, Hamlet, whilst appearing to fulfil his diagnosis, actively engages in creative ways to find evidence that will prove that Claudius is his father’s murderer. Nevertheless, the patient’s increasing reluctance to see the world as the state institution sanctions it, gives the powers-that-be even more cause to treat his challenges as a threat to its integrity. Shakespeare’s play exposes the sickness of systems that vest power in a single individual and Hamlet’s case illustrates how unitary approaches to patient care disenfranchise the client whilst tragically disabling the expert service relational. The latter also illustrates how complicated mourning can be experienced as a difficult personal process of intra-psychic transformation. In addition, by playing out the tragic consequences of withholding or intentionally ignoring the real source of a patient’s disease, Hamlet’s case exemplifies the outcomes of labelling, casual diagnoses and inappropriate treatment. Threatened, rendered incompetent, and denied a say in his own healing process, Hamlet’s institutionally inconvenient condition provides him with opportunities for the kind of unsupervised self-analysis and experimentation that ultimately risks his life and those of the community. Hamlet reminds us that when distinctions between the roles of the patient and doctor become blurred and the institution becomes either overly self-protective of itself or focused upon its own projects rather those it serves, its judgement and capacity to ensure that its work is undertaken ethically and sympathetically becomes sadly diminished. Key Words: Doctor-patient relationship, Elizabethan, Erving Goffman, madness, psychoanalysis, Shakespeare’s Hamlet, total institution, tragedy, transpersonal, treatment.

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  • Post-Crises Opportunities: A Personal Account of Bereavement and Growth

    Bray, Peter (2015)

    Book item
    The University of Auckland Library

    From the moment that they occur crisis events involving personal loss can disrupt people’s lives and irrevocably change how they engage with the world. Living with the crisis of loss in a world that has suddenly become unfamiliar and unpredictable is both existentially and psychologically challenging. In the aftermath of crisis how do survivors go about relearning existence and incorporating the inconceivable into a newly emerging view of the world? In Western society it is quite common for individuals and groups to report that their experiences of powerfully disturbing crisis events have created a set of conditions that forced them to make significant personal changes and resulted in beneficial growth. Thus, in situations perceived of as crises survivors, oscillating between emotional distress and fuller knowledge of reality, might question their core beliefs and goals and establish new ones, whilst simultaneously re-writing and integrating their life narratives in order to maintain psychic and physical balance. This oscillation gently accommodates the pre-crisis elements of survivor’s whole experience and enables the possibility of movement toward continuing future growth and the recognition and use of opportunities. In the last decade or so, mirroring the trend to positively reframe these disrupting states, crisis and bereavement work have become increasingly interested in outcomes that suggest: enhanced psychological well-being and health; personal and spiritual development and increased coping skills; and, improved relationships and enhanced personal resources. This chapter provides an autobiographical account of loss to demonstrate how exposure to crisis can provide opportunities for significant personal transformation. The analysis integrates the conceptual frameworks of Lawrence Calhoun and Richard Tedeschi’s post-traumatic growth model and Stanislav and Christina Grof’s psycho-spiritual, or ‘holotropic’, paradigm, blended with some current ideas about crisis, grief, and bereavement.

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  • The Fountain of Fish: Ontological Collisions at Sea

    Salmond, Mary (2015)

    Book item
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Preparing the Future Professoriate in Second Language Acquisition

    Thompson, AS; Li, Shaofeng; White, B; Loewen, S; Gass, S (2012)

    Book item
    The University of Auckland Library

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