1,843 results for Book item

  • Evaluation of the linkage disequilibrium method for estimating effective population size

    Russell, James; Fewster, Rachel (2009)

    Book item
    The University of Auckland Library

    Data on linkage disequilibrium at unlinked loci provide an estimate of the inbreeding effective population size of the parental generation of the sampled cohort. The inbreeding effective population size, Ne, is the reciprocal of the probability that two gametes, selected at random without replacement from those that produced the sampled cohort, derive from the same parent. Effective population size is an important parameter for measuring the rate of inbreeding in a population. We detail the construction of the linkage disequilibrium estimator of Ne, and evaluate its performance by simulation. We simulate populations which are dioecious and non-selfing. We use the simulations to examine the effects of several types of deviation from ideal population conditions, and of sample size, genotyping errors, number of loci typed, and polymorphic loci. We find substantial bias in the Ne estimator when there have been recent fluctuations in census population size, when the index of breeding variability is greater than one, and when the ratio of sample size to effective population size differs substantially from one. Due to high variability, estimators that have low bias for the reciprocal of Ne can present substantial bias when used as estimators of Ne itself. We consider a recent small sample size bias correction proposed for the method, and find that it improves bias in the reciprocal, but at the expense of increased bias for Ne. The improvements in the bias of the reciprocal are usually small, but are substantial when sample size is much less than Ne, while the increase in bias for Ne is often substantial. We test the method on two exhaustively sampled rat populations, and find it performs as expected from simulation. For practitioners, we recommend that resources are spent first in ensuring that the sample size is likely to be greater than the effective population size, and only then that the number of loci is increased to improve the precision of the estimate.

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  • Developing students’ cognitive / academic language proficiency: genre and metacognition in interaction

    Zhang, Lawrence (2016-12-26)

    Book item
    The University of Auckland Library

    Learning English as a foreign language (EFL) is not as easy as what is usually understood. Developing advanced proficiency in English, especially cognitive/academic language proficiency (CALP), is even more challenging. Generally speaking, cognitive/academic English is different from how English is used in daily situations in many ways, some of which are typically reflected in its lexical richness, syntactic complexity, and other subject or topic-specific features, among other things. Understandably, writing in EFL is a demanding task, and the degree of difficulty exacerbated when EFL students have to write in academic English (Zhang, 2013). Oftentimes, scholars have tended to associate the difficulty mentioned above only with students’ cognitive ability, without having taken into full consideration many sociocultural factors. More importantly, the value of teacher scaffolding in the learning process has not been given the credit that it deserves. In this paper, I attempt to highlight the role of the teacher in enhancing learner genre awareness and metacognition and the interaction between learner genre awareness and metacognition for developing EFL students toward high levels of academic English ability. Specifically, I maintain that provision of learning strategies guided by metacognitive instruction coupled with genre-sensitizing and enhancement will offer students opportunities to experience success because of their teachers scaffolding their learning of various language skills for possible language output (speaking, listening, reading, writing, vocabulary, and grammar). I conclude that such a pedagogical approach of creating opportunities for genre and metacognition to interact in students’ learning processes needs to be brought to the fore for maximizing their capacity for developing high levels of cognitive/academic English proficiency. Keywords: metacognition, metacognitive-scaffolding, genre awareness, cognitive/academic language learning, strategy-based instruction

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  • In the shadow of written history: An exploration of the Tehran bazaar as a non-place

    Haghighi, Farzaneh (2016-01-01)

    Book item
    The University of Auckland Library

    To answer the simple question ‘what is the Tehran bazaar?’, one will fall into an architectural and socio-political labyrinth of historical classifications, definitions and descriptions based on travellers’ accounts, map productions, the monarchies’ role in shaping cities, revolutions, theories of city evolution, the Iranian versus Islamic city controversies, archaeological approaches to civilisation and even linguistic approaches to Persian roots of the word ‘bazaar’. The commonly accepted definition is that the Tehran bazaar is a linearly structured marketplace, and a united socio-cultural entity consisting of several public buildings of varying forms, functions, and historical values. This labyrinthine approach firstly ignores the transformative nature of the bazaar and presents it as a still, immobile and silent complex of static places; and secondly leaves little room to investigate the plurality of events and multiplicity of meanings taking place perpetually in this market place. This chapter utilises concepts of ‘anthropological place’ and ‘non-place’ by the French anthropologist, Marc Augé, in order to open new possibilities of looking at the multivalent context of the Tehran bazaar. It aims to go beyond the conventional understanding, to present an insight to a marketplace, problematising any enduring meaning.

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  • The eradication of mammals from New Zealand islands

    Clout, Michael; Russell, James (2006)

    Book item
    The University of Auckland Library

    Data on eradication operations against alien mammals on New Zealand islands show that there was a substantial increase in the number of successful eradications in the 1980s and 1990s. The most significant change has been in the ability to eradicate rodents from increasingly large islands (to over 11,000ha), using aerial poisoning techniques. Based on the New Zealand experience, there are good prospects for further eradications of alien mammals from islands around the world, facilitating ecological restoration and the recovery of threatened species. However, instances of reinvasion of rats (Rattus spp.) and stoats (Mustela erminea) onto previously cleared islands illustrate the importance of prevention, effective monitoring and a fuller understanding of invasion risks.

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  • Market innovations: Renewal of traditional industrial networks

    Nenonen, Suvi; Möller, K; Storbacka, Kaj (2017)

    Book item
    The University of Auckland Library

    The study adopts a constructionist approach to markets, positing that markets are socially constructed human artifacts resulting from the actions and cognitive framing of the involved actors. The present research had three objectives: to develop a conceptual framework for categorizing managerial market definitions, to investigate empirically how practitioners frame novel markets, and to identify challenges associated with creating innovative market definitions in traditional industrial networks. The chapter draws on data collected within an extensive research program, carried out between March 2009 and December 2010. The program consisted of six academic research projects covering a wide range of theoretical backgrounds as well as interactions with 112 senior managers from ten major firms in a series of 52 workshops. The proposed conceptual framework supplements the current dominant product-based view of market definitions by positing that managers in industrial networks can also choose to define their markets based on (1) the firm ’ s resources and capabilities, (2) the network ’ s resources and capabilities, (3) the customers ’ processes, and (4) the end-consumers ’ practices. The results of the study additionally showed that current product-based theories of markets also influence managerial judgment: practitioners framed the vast majority of new market opportunities (73 %) around the product or service being sold.

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  • Cell growth

    Harris, Philip; McQueen-Mason, S; Darley, C; Roberts, P; Jones, L (2017)

    Book item
    The University of Auckland Library

    Growth can be defined as an irreversible increase in size or volume. In plants, growth is brought about by a combination of cell division and cell enlargement. Cell division alone does not constitute growth but rather increases the potential for growth by increasing the number of cells that can subsequently undergo expansion. Growth itself relies on the process of cell expansion and, in plants, this mechanism is highly dependent on the mechanical properties of the cell wall. These properties are, in turn, governed by the molecular components of the cell wall. The cell wall is key to much that exemplifies higher plants, providing both a skeletal role as well as determining many developmental processes that give rise to specialized plant structures. This article covers the molecular architecture of plant cell walls, especially as it relates to the process of cell expansion.

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  • Character and Character Swapping in Mozart's Così fan tutte

    Davies, Stephen (2016-12-01)

    Book item
    The University of Auckland Library

    This chapter on Mozart’s opera Così fan tutte (“Thus Do They All”) offers a discussion of a number of topics covered by other chapters—the portrayal of fictional characters, mixed motivation, promise keeping, the influence of character, and situational variables, respectively, in determining behavior and individual differences among people. Così’s libretto is about two couples who swap partners. Così is typically seen as a character-swapping farce, with one-dimensional characters. The chapter quotes Peter Kivy, according to whom the heroes and heroines are not even real characters—rather, they are voices: the soprano, the mezzo-soprano, the heroic tenor, and so on. The chapter, however, makes a compelling case that this is not so. The opera has a moral seriousness often overlooked by interpreters due to lack of attention to the individual differences among the characters and to character development.

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  • The ocean swim: Rethinking community in an early childhood education performing arts research initiative

    Lines, David (2016-05-26)

    Book item
    The University of Auckland Library

    This chapter describes a community research project called MAPS Move, Act, Play, Sing), which involved community artists in music, dance and drama working with three early childhood education centres in Auckland, New Zealand. The MAPS project developed a programme that focused on stimulating and encouraging performing arts teaching and learning through a community- inspired, practice-based research approach. The pedagogy enabled the three early childhood centres with different cultural dispositions to respond to arts provocations from community artists and develop their own cultural focal points, decisions and directions. This chapter describes the project’s aims and philosophy of practice and discusses how they can be viewed as alternatives to individualistic approaches to performing arts teaching and learning. A working metaphor of the ‘ocean swimmer’ provides a backdrop for rethinking community in performing arts learning in this context.

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  • Introduction

    Lines, David; Ashley, L (2016-05-26)

    Book item
    The University of Auckland Library

    Intersecting Cultures in Music and Dance Education: An Oceanic Perspective explores the interface of Oceanic cultures through the diversity, richness and critical differences encountered in their performing arts, educational paradigms and cultural worldviews. In this introductory chapter, the editors reflect on aspects of their personal histories that inform their thinking in the book. This is followed by an editorial discussion that outlines theoretical and practical contexts informing key concepts in the book including notions of culture and cultural diversity, ethnicity, identity, hybridity, indigeneity, colonialism, migrancy, multiculturalism, tradition, cultural interaction and difference.

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  • Making a difference in bilingual education: Biliteracy learning as curricular appropriation

    Zhang, Lawrence (2013)

    Book item
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Mediation and Mimicry

    Kavka, Misha (2014-12-05)

    Book item
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Foucauldian examinations of sport, sexuality and gender.

    Pringle, Richard (2014)

    Book item
    The University of Auckland Library

    French scholar Michel Foucault is regarded by many as one of the most influential social theorists of contemporary times and his oeuvre is well recognised within sport sociology. In presenting a keynote address to delegates attending the North American Society for the Sociology of Sport annual conference, for example, Toby Miller (2010) rhetorically asked: ‘Is anyone here who is not a paid up member of the Foucault fan club?’ His question reflects the contemporary significance of Foucauldian theorising within sociological studies of sport but also the now seemingly conventional manner within which Foucault is drawn upon.

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  • Information literacy curriculum & assessment: Implications for schools from New Zealand.

    Brown, Gavin (1999)

    Book item
    The University of Auckland Library

    The development of the ‘information society’ or ‘information age’ creates a global context for instruction in information skills. Ensuring that students have skills in handling, understanding, and producing information is increasingly considered a vital educational goal. This chapter reviews the literature on information literacy, focusing on the common elements and aspects of information skills sequences and components. The New Zealand curriculum, resource, and research scene relevant to information skills is reviewed and evaluated against international trends. Present trends and developments in the assessment and measurement of information skills are reviewed. Possible implications for the information literate school are examined.

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  • Assessing Assessment for Learning: Reconsidering the policy and practice

    Brown, Gavin (2013)

    Book item
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Progression in the knowledge and philosophy of technology

    Compton, Vicki; Compton, AD (2011)

    Book item
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Agent-based models: because they're worth it?

    O'Sullivan, David; Millington, JDA; Perry, George; Wainwright, J (2012)

    Book item
    The University of Auckland Library

    We address the question of when the relative complicatedness of spatial agent-based models (ABMs) compared to alternative modelling approaches can be justifi ed. The spectrum of ABM types from simple, abstract models to complicated models aspiring to realism makes a single answer impossible. Therefore we focus on identifying circumstances where the advantages of ABMs outweigh the additional effort involved. We fi rst recall the reasons for building any model: to simplify the phenomena at hand to improve understanding. Thus, the representational detail of ABMs may not always be desirable. We suggest that critical aspects of the phenomena of interest that help us to assess the likely usefulness of ABMs are the nature of the decisions which actors make, and how their decisions relate to the spatio-temporal grain and extent of the system. More specifi cally, the heterogeneity of the decision-making context of actors, the importance of interaction effects, and the overall size and organization of the system must be considered. We conclude by suggesting that there are good grounds based on our discussion for ABMs to become a widely used approach in understanding many spatial systems.

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  • Prioritising International Sex Crimes before the Special Court for Sierra Leone: Another Instrument of Political Manipulation?

    Mahony, Christopher (2012)

    Book item
    The University of Auckland Library

    Introduction Over the past two decades the prosecution of international crimes1 has be-come increasingly common, with international organisations and individ-ual States taking political positions over their legitimacy and conduct. Ef-forts to ensure impartiality and independence in the selection of cases prosecuted however, have largely failed. Independent case selection has been compromised because States have sought to impede prosecution where they view doing so as antithetical to their interests. ...

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  • Enhancing Students Conceptual Understanding of Chemistry through the SOLO Taxonomy

    Gan, Joo (2007)

    Book item
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Teachers' instructional beliefs and the classroom climate: Connections and conundrums

    Davies, Christine (2014)

    Book item
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Biochemistry - What Underlies The Signal? The Biochemistry of Creatine

    Turner, Clare; Gant, NR (2013)

    Book item
    The University of Auckland Library

    Creatine is a naturally occurring metabolite that is synthesized endogenously and absorbed from the diet. This chapter explores the biochemistry of creatine, its role in the creatine kinase/phosphocreatine energy shuttle and support of buffering, transport, and regulation of cellular energetics. Dysfunctional brain creatine metabolism occurs in creatine deficiency syndromes and other neurological disorders outlined in this chapter. The therapeutic potential of creatine supplementation to improve neural energy metabolism and the role of MRS in examining creatine energetics are discussed.

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