1,844 results for Book item

  • Marketing ethics in context: the promotion of unhealthy foods and beverages to children

    Jackson, M; Harrison, P; Swinburn, Boyd; Lawrence, M (2015)

    Book item
    The University of Auckland Library

    Marketing ethics has been described as an inherently relative concept whereby ethical problems and consequences result from interactions between individuals, but are also shaped by the context in which they occur (Chonko and Hunt 1985; Singhapakdi et al. 1996). In making ethical decisions, marketers are influenced by a complex interplay of factors in the broader cultural, economic and organizational environments (Singhapakdi et al. 1996). Within this field, issues arise from organizations’ marketing activities and their consequences (Chonko and Hunt 1985), and the way marketing decisions are shaped by moral standards (Murphy et al. 2005). During the past two decades the marketing of unhealthy foods and beverages, that is, energy-dense, nutrient-poor products such as confectionery and sugar-sweetened beverages, to children and adolescents has been a source of debate among marketers (‘Marketers regroup on junk food marketing’ 2006; Witkowski 2007; Chandon and Wansink 2010), the food and beverage industry (Australian Food and Grocery Council 2010; Cooper 2010; Jolly 2011) and public health professionals (Lobstein and Dibb 2005; Hastings et al. 2006; McGinnis et al. 2006; Palmer and Carpenter 2006; Matthews 2008; Harris et al. 2009c; Mehta et al. 2010). As public health professionals have argued, it is not only the promotional method that is in question but the products being marketed, of which only minimal consumption is recommended (Harris et al. 2009b). Other factors, such as to whom they are being marketed, by whom and for what purpose, add further complexity to this issue.

    View record details
  • Tribal Kings and Tattooed Chiefs: The Hidden Irish of the Pacific World

    Campbell, Malcolm (2014)

    Book item
    The University of Auckland Library

    View record details
  • Crises and Opportunities: The Analysis of an Autobiographical Account of Bereavement and Growth

    Bray, Peter (2013)

    Book item
    The University of Auckland Library

    From the moment they occur, crisis events involving personal loss can disrupt people’s lives and irrevocably change how they engage with the world. Living with the crisis of irreplaceable loss in a world that has suddenly become unfamiliar and unpredictable is both existentially and psychologically challenging. In the aftermath of crisis, how does the survivor go about relearning his existence and incorporating the inconceivable into a newly emerging view of the world? In Western society it is quite common for individuals and groups to report that their experiences of powerfully disturbing crisis events have created a set of conditions that forced them to make significant personal changes which resulted in beneficial growth. Thus, in such crises, the survivor may oscillate between emotional distress and a fuller knowledge of reality, the questioning of old core beliefs and goals and the establishment of new ones, holding on to their past self-narrative and the creation and integration of a new one, whilst attempting to maintain psychic and physical balance. This oscillation gently accommodates the pre-crisis elements of the survivor’s whole experience and enables the possibility of movement toward continuing future growth and the recognition and use of opportunities. In the last decade or so, mirroring the trend to positively reframe these disrupting states, crisis and bereavement work has become increasingly interested in those outcomes that suggest: enhanced psychological well-being and health; personal and spiritual development and increased coping skills; and, improved relationships and enhanced personal resources. In this brief paper, an autobiographical account of loss is given to demonstrate how exposure to crisis can provide opportunity for significant personal transformation. The analysis uses the integrated conceptual frameworks of Lawrence Calhoun and Richard Tedeschi’s post-traumatic growth model and Stanislav and Christina Grof’s psycho-spiritual paradigm, blended with some current ideas about crisis, grief, and bereavement.

    View record details
  • Hamlet Is Sick: Patient Care in the Total Institution

    Bray, Peter (2014)

    Book item
    The University of Auckland Library

    William Shakespeare’s play Hamlet is conceived as an exploration of one patient’s experiences of the power of a total institution. In the unethical and unsuccessful processes of healing his step-son’s melancholia, Claudius the chief executive and senior consultant of Denmark’s Elsinore Castle transforms Hamlet’s condition from princely protégé to patient. As a noncompliant inmate Hamlet goes about creatively finding ways to both resist his helpers and assemble evidence that will prove the institution’s power base is corrupted by its new leader. His increasing reluctance to see the world as the state sanctions it gives the institution reason to treat his personal challenges as attacks on its integrity. Thus, Shakespeare’s play exposes the sickness of total systems that vest power in a single individual. It also shows how a diagnosis of complicated mourning, experienced as a difficult personal process of intra-psychic transformation, might be reframed by its onlookers as ‘madness.’ By showing the tragic consequences of withholding or intentionally ignoring the true source of a patient’s disease, Hamlet’s case demonstrates the difficulties of making correct diagnoses and giving appropriate treatment. At best there is a fragile symbiosis between a doctor and patient. In Hamlet the institution misdiagnoses, threatens, renders incompetent, and denies Hamlet the patient a say in his own healing processes. However, in his institutionally inconvenient condition he is provided with opportunities for the kind of unsupervised self-analysis and experimentation that ultimately risks his life and those of the community. After his assault on the body politic, steps are taken to fully remove him from the public gaze. Hamlet’s case serves to illustrate how a unitary approach to patient care that disenfranchises and disempowers, tragically disables the service relationship and totally restricts its staff in their work.

    View record details
  • Accentuating the Positive: Self-Actualising Post-Traumatic Growth Processes

    Bray, Peter (2014)

    Book item
    The University of Auckland Library

    It is not altogether uncommon, in the aftermath of traumatic life events, for individuals and groups to report that they have had experiences and faced processes that have led to significant personal changes and positive psychological growth. In the last half century psychology has begun to broadly recognise and understand the potential psychological benefits to individuals who have successfully managed the balance between the painful challenges of trauma on the one hand and the emerging effects of flourishing and personal growth on the other. Counter-intuitively, these life-enhancing outcomes can include: improved psychological well-being and health; personal and spiritual development; increased coping skills and deepening relationships; enhanced personal resources; and, changes in religious and spiritual assumptions and beliefs. As a consequence, mainstream psychology has broadened its position on trauma, moving beyond its concern with impairment and pathology, to a curiosity about the incidence, meaning, and positive potential that these growth outcomes may have post-trauma. Similarly, as these outcomes are increasingly able to be measured, this chapter suggests that psychology’s ordinarily Cartesian caution toward trauma as a singularly quantifiable experience is being gently shifted by the post-modern perspectives being applied to this phenomenon. Thus, as psychology repositions itself in the new millennium, this chapter offers a number of contributions to trauma theory, and specifically post-traumatic growth, that informs our fuller consideration of the role of psycho-spiritual transformation in the processes, outcomes, and management of trauma beginning with: Abraham Maslow’s theory of peak experience and self-actualisation and Carl Rogers’ organismic valuing process; Stanislav Grof’s holotropic paradigm and formulation of psycho-spiritual transformation; the research conducted by Lawrence Calhoun and Richard Tedeschi’s on post-traumatic growth; and, Martin Seligman and Stephen Joseph’s conceptualisations of positive psychology. Together, these interdisciplinary strands capture something of a prevailing optimism and shared understanding that the struggle of post-traumatic experience may, for some at least, offer the potential for personal growth.

    View record details
  • Examining Erving Goffman’s Interactionist Observations on Relationships in the ‘Tinkering Professions’ in the Light of Carl Rogers’s Person-Centred Counselling

    Bray, Peter (2013)

    Book item
    The University of Auckland Library

    It is well established that in person-centred counselling the relationship between the client and the practitioner is the primary intervention in the client’s journey towards well-being. By closely examining Erving Goffman’s essay ‘The Medical Model and Mental Hospitalization’, this chapter will give a broadly Rogerian critique of the ideas of this perennially influential and unorthodox sociologist. After half a century, in an extended metaphor of good and bad ‘client-server’ relationships, Goffman’s satire continues to raise highly controversial points about the organisation and function of mental health institutions in the United States, and about the dominating role of the ‘total institution’. Casting his acerbic gaze upon the function and conduct of the psychiatric relationship, he generally ascribes the universal failure of the medical model to its inability to provide and maintain an ideal ‘service relationship’ with its clients. He suggests that this break-down in service is because the client-server relationship, rather than being organised to meet the needs of its clients or patients, serves the greater interests of the institutions and society. In the same year that Goffman presented his uncomfortably illuminating analysis of medical service relationships, humanistic psychologist Carl Rogers published his own approach to the therapeutic relationship, which vests agency in the client. In On Becoming a Person, Rogers, drawing from his overarching theory of the fully functioning person, specifically outlines a growth-promoting person/client-centred relationship. Effectively altering the dynamics of the traditional expert-led medical relationship, Rogers’s approach to the therapeutic service relationship makes sure that the client is acknowledged as the expert in his or her own life. As a contemporary of Goffman, Rogers’s philosophy and clear understanding of how to establish the ideal conditions for an effective therapeutic relationship, provide an alternative perspective from which to view Goffman’s report of the therapeutic client-server encounter. Similarly, Goffman’s ironic observations, so influential in changing America’s mental institutions, remind us of the important contribution that the client-server ideal continues make to effective client interactions and therapeutic outcomes.

    View record details
  • The Prince Is the Patient: A Shakespearean Tragi-Fantasy of Total Institutional Care

    Bray, Peter (2015)

    Book item
    The University of Auckland Library

    In this chapter William Shakespeare’s tragedy Hamlet is reconceived as an allegory of one patient’s countervailing experiences of the total institution. Purposely confined in the secure environment of Denmark’s Elsinore Castle his step-father and institutional senior consultant Claudius unethically, and yet largely successfully, transforms the public perception of Hamlet’s mourning and melancholia over his father into psychoneurosis and violent insanity - his identity from princely protégé to mortified patient. However, Hamlet, whilst appearing to fulfil his diagnosis, actively engages in creative ways to find evidence that will prove that Claudius is his father’s murderer. Nevertheless, the patient’s increasing reluctance to see the world as the state institution sanctions it, gives the powers-that-be even more cause to treat his challenges as a threat to its integrity. Shakespeare’s play exposes the sickness of systems that vest power in a single individual and Hamlet’s case illustrates how unitary approaches to patient care disenfranchise the client whilst tragically disabling the expert service relational. The latter also illustrates how complicated mourning can be experienced as a difficult personal process of intra-psychic transformation. In addition, by playing out the tragic consequences of withholding or intentionally ignoring the real source of a patient’s disease, Hamlet’s case exemplifies the outcomes of labelling, casual diagnoses and inappropriate treatment. Threatened, rendered incompetent, and denied a say in his own healing process, Hamlet’s institutionally inconvenient condition provides him with opportunities for the kind of unsupervised self-analysis and experimentation that ultimately risks his life and those of the community. Hamlet reminds us that when distinctions between the roles of the patient and doctor become blurred and the institution becomes either overly self-protective of itself or focused upon its own projects rather those it serves, its judgement and capacity to ensure that its work is undertaken ethically and sympathetically becomes sadly diminished. Key Words: Doctor-patient relationship, Elizabethan, Erving Goffman, madness, psychoanalysis, Shakespeare’s Hamlet, total institution, tragedy, transpersonal, treatment.

    View record details
  • Post-Crises Opportunities: A Personal Account of Bereavement and Growth

    Bray, Peter (2015)

    Book item
    The University of Auckland Library

    From the moment that they occur crisis events involving personal loss can disrupt people’s lives and irrevocably change how they engage with the world. Living with the crisis of loss in a world that has suddenly become unfamiliar and unpredictable is both existentially and psychologically challenging. In the aftermath of crisis how do survivors go about relearning existence and incorporating the inconceivable into a newly emerging view of the world? In Western society it is quite common for individuals and groups to report that their experiences of powerfully disturbing crisis events have created a set of conditions that forced them to make significant personal changes and resulted in beneficial growth. Thus, in situations perceived of as crises survivors, oscillating between emotional distress and fuller knowledge of reality, might question their core beliefs and goals and establish new ones, whilst simultaneously re-writing and integrating their life narratives in order to maintain psychic and physical balance. This oscillation gently accommodates the pre-crisis elements of survivor’s whole experience and enables the possibility of movement toward continuing future growth and the recognition and use of opportunities. In the last decade or so, mirroring the trend to positively reframe these disrupting states, crisis and bereavement work have become increasingly interested in outcomes that suggest: enhanced psychological well-being and health; personal and spiritual development and increased coping skills; and, improved relationships and enhanced personal resources. This chapter provides an autobiographical account of loss to demonstrate how exposure to crisis can provide opportunities for significant personal transformation. The analysis integrates the conceptual frameworks of Lawrence Calhoun and Richard Tedeschi’s post-traumatic growth model and Stanislav and Christina Grof’s psycho-spiritual, or ‘holotropic’, paradigm, blended with some current ideas about crisis, grief, and bereavement.

    View record details
  • Environmental and Human Rights in Ethical Context

    Bosselmann, Klaus (2015)

    Book item
    The University of Auckland Library

    There is increasing legal recognition that environmental degradation can result in deprivation of existing human rights, but also that mere recognition of such deprivations is not enough to promote and secure a healthy environment; hence the call for a human right to a decent (or healthy) environment. However, all human activities, including those associated with human rights, occur within ecological settings. This raises the issue of whether environmental ‘rights’ need to be complemented by ‘responsibilities’, either in the form of ecological limitations to human and environmental rights or by recognizing genuine ecological rights (‘rights of nature’). The ecological approach to environmental and human rights remains a crucially important, yet largely unresolved issue of contemporary jurisprudence and constitutionalism. The aim of this chapter is to demonstrate how the influence of ecological thought in environmental ethics is shifting our traditional thinking about human rights and how it is promoting a restructured framework of human rights in an ecological context.

    View record details
  • Energy and environmental refurbishment of the historical settlement. A sustainable village to translate earthquake into opportunities / La riqualificazione energetico-ambientale del tessuto storico. Un borgo eco-sensibile per tradurre il sisma in opportunità

    Belpoliti, V; Boarin, Paola; Calzolari, M; Davoli, P (2012-11)

    Book item
    The University of Auckland Library

    A critical situation of natural disaster may also considered, courageously, as an opportunity for to integrate the existing buildings' recovery action together with strategies for the energy and environmental improvement of the building fabric. The study presented in the contribution, called "Climate-Town" defines strategies for energy performance improvement of the overall town with regard to different levels of action on buildings related to their preservation level, addressing reuse, strengthening, and recovery issues.

    View record details
  • The Fountain of Fish: Ontological Collisions at Sea

    Salmond, Mary (2015)

    Book item
    The University of Auckland Library

    View record details
  • Monitoring for Surveillance and Management

    Suckling, David (2016)

    Book item
    The University of Auckland Library

    The identification of pheromones of many economically important moth pests has revolutionized their management. Pheromone-baited traps have been used in a wide variety of ways for pest management, including seasonal phenology, population estimation, and decision support, as well as early detection and delimitation of invasive species. All sectors affected by moth pests have benefited from these technologies. Moth sex pheromone traps are now widely deployed, and have contributed significantly to sustainable pest management. New developments, including lures and traps for additional species, the use of pheromones in the biological control of weeds, and self-reporting camera traps linked with geographical information systems are providing exciting opportunities for the expansion of the use of pheromones for surveillance and monitoring of pest populations, as well as detection and delimitation of new invaders.

    View record details
  • Preparing the Future Professoriate in Second Language Acquisition

    Thompson, AS; Li, Shaofeng; White, B; Loewen, S; Gass, S (2012)

    Book item
    The University of Auckland Library

    View record details
  • Korean Studies in New Zealand: current status and future prospects

    Song, Changzoo (2007)

    Book item
    The University of Auckland Library

    View record details
  • Is Architecture Art?

    Davies, Stephen (1994)

    Book item
    The University of Auckland Library

    View record details
  • Why Listen to Sad Music if It Makes One Feel Sad?

    Davies, Stephen (1995)

    Book item
    The University of Auckland Library

    View record details
  • Music, definitions of

    Davies, Stephen (2014)

    Book item
    The University of Auckland Library

    View record details
  • The Experience of Music

    Davies, Stephen (2003)

    Book item
    The University of Auckland Library

    View record details
  • twentieth-century Anglo-American aesthetics

    Davies, Stephen; Stecker, R (2009)

    Book item
    The University of Auckland Library

    View record details
  • Social Entrepreneurship as an INGO: Exploring the Challenges of Innovation and Hybridisation

    Newth, Jamie (2017)

    Book item
    The University of Auckland Library

    International non-governmental organizations are an under-researched context in entrepreneurship studies given the level of resources they mobilize for social value creation and the strategic threats they are currently facing. Shepherd and Patzelt’s (2011) sustainable entrepreneurship framework outlines the entrepreneurship opportunities that these organizations have available as a response to shifting aid policies, evolving donor expectations, the rise of the social enterprise and impact investment, and the changing humanitarian development landscape. However, the established institutional logic of such organizations can inhibit their ability to pursue innovative social entrepreneurship initiatives. This chapter explores, via a long-term qualtitative investigation, the hybridization of a large INGO as it attempts such initiatives. The key findings are that the points of tension in effectively blending institutional logics – hybridizing – lay in the organization’s financial and institutional compliance, risk appetite, business model, value proposition, and governance. Contributions are made through the empirical application of Shepherd and Patzelt’s (2011) framework and its combination with the theory of institutional logics.

    View record details