6,494 results for Conference item

  • Offshore post-harvest processing: Implications for the New Zealand seafood processing industry

    Stringer, Christina; Simmons, Glenn (2010)

    Conference item
    The University of Auckland Library

    The past twenty years has seen the offshore outsourcing of post-harvest fish processing gain unprecedented momentum. The growth in offshore processing is a further stage in an increasingly globalised fisheries value chain. Raw material is head and gutted, then frozen, and transported to processing sites in Asia (especially China). The fish is then thawed, valueadded processed, and refrozen for export to the original sourcing country or third country markets primarily Europe and North America. China is the worlds largest exporter of seafood principally due to its cost-efficient reprocessing trade. The growth in offshore processing has heightened concern in terms of traceability, food safety, country of origin labelling, and fraud. The performance of New Zealand's seafood processing industry is intrinsically linked to, and influenced by, market forces. New Zealand seafood companies first began to sub-contract processing to China in the early 1990s. A reduction in hoki quotas coupled with increasing processing costs as well as the disposal - and/or configuration changes - of trawlers contributed to moving value-added processing offshore. New Zealand companies have also transferred processing technology to China during the last fifteen years. In order to understand the drivers behind the move to offshore outsourcing, this paper critically examines the development of Chinas post-harvesting processing industry before exploring the changing nature of New Zealand seafood companys production practices. The paper ends with implications for the New Zealand seafood industry value chain.

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  • Contingency and Modes of Regulation: The Case of Labour Standards in the New Zealand Fishing Industry

    Haworth, Nigel; Stringer, Christina; Simmons, Glenn; Hughes, S; Whittaker, H (2014-09-15)

    Conference item
    The University of Auckland Library

    This paper commences with a case-study of a successful campaign for legislation to extend New Zealand employment protections to foreign-owned (Korean) charter vessels, employing mainly Indonesian crews, fishing in New Zealand waters on contract to New Zealand firms. The second half of the paper analyses the reasons for this success. It shows that a particular set of circumstances ??? the egregious nature of the exploitation of the crews, the popular outcry against their conditions, the campaigns that were launched against those conditions, the locational dimensions of fish stocks, and the nature of the global value chain (GVC) in which the contracting takes place ??? combined to pressure an otherwise unsympathetic government into action. The paper concludes with a discussion of the lessons of this case for other attempts to extend employment regulation into GVCs.

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  • Monetary Rewards for Open Source Software Developers

    Atiq, Arzoo; Tripathi, Arvind (2014-12-14)

    Conference item
    The University of Auckland Library

    Open source software (OSS) has changed the landscape and economics of software industry. Large software firms are changing their business models to incorporate OSS for long term success. As a result of greater organizational involvement in OSS, there is an increased prevalence of reward options for OSS developers. However, introducing compensation/rewards to these ideologically motivated communities may threaten their sustainability. We don't know the nature and type of rewards that would be acceptable in OSS developer community. Using grounded theory methodology, we extracted the concepts regarding developers' perception of rewards in OSS community and how developers prefer to be compensated. This paper contributes to the literature of open source software development by (1) providing in depth examination of the developers' intention to work on the OSS project if compensated (2) providing an initial theory for understanding when compensation helps an OSS project and when it hinders.

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  • Cyclic testing of a full-size stabilised flax fibre reinforced earth (Uku) wall system with openings

    Cheah, Jing; Morgan, Te Kipa; Ingham, Jason (2008)

    Conference item
    The University of Auckland Library

    Uku is a low-cost earthen construction method that has been developed to address the inadequate housing situation in rural M??ori communities resulting from legal, financial and physical obstacles. Rural M??ori communities are often isolated and lack affordable access to specialist equipment, technical expertise, skilled labour and building materials. In addition to this, many rural communities are located in earthquake prone regions. A cyclic load test was conducted on a full-size 5.5 metre long wall section based on a wall line, built in an existing Uku test house, incorporating a window and door opening. The current seismic design proposed for the Uku housing system uses conservative assumptions due to the lack of data pertaining to the seismic performance of the wall system. The wall test was conducted in order to ascertain the methods of failure, areas of structural seismic weakness, interactions between wall panels, and the structural performance of the wall system. The results of the tests will be used to update the existing design methodology for Uku houses. The cyclic wall test has proven that the Uku wall system has a non-linear capacity but shown that the wall exhibits non-ductile modes of failure within each individual earth panel. The test has provided a foundation on which to develop an efficient, seismically safe design methodology for future Uku housing developments in New Zealand.

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  • Out-of-plane assessment of an unreinforced masonry wall: Comparison with NZSEE recommendations

    Derakhshan, Hossein; Ingham, Jason; Griffith, Michael (2009)

    Conference item
    The University of Auckland Library

    Out-of-plane seismic assessment of unreinforced masonry (URM) walls is an important step in the assessment of a URM building. In this paper, a parametric study is performed on the assessment methodology proposed by the New Zealand Society for Earthquake Engineering, NZSEE, (NZSEE 2006). A single-degree-of-freedom (SDOF) model is then used in time-history analysis (THA), and an alternative assessment method is proposed based on the obtained results. The results are next compared with the NZSEE recommendations. To perform the THA, a well-known commercially available finite element (FE) program is first correlated with a special THA computer program written by researchers in Australia. The commercial program is then used to predict the behaviour of a single-storey 2-leaf URM wall subjected to several earthquake records. The selected wall, having dimensions of 4100 mm high by 220 mm thick, is one of the most common configurations of URM walls found in New Zealand. Earthquake records are selected based on New Zealand seismicity, and the analysis is repeated to account for several soil conditions.

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  • Effect of plywood retrofit on dynamic response of URM house subjected to forced vibration

    Abdul Karim, Abdul Razak; Oyarzo Vera, Claudio; M Sa'Don, N; Ingham, Jason (2009)

    Conference item
    The University of Auckland Library

    The results of non-destructive forced vibration tests on a small-scale unreinforced masonry (URM) house are presented. The main aim of the study was to assess the changes in system level response between the as-built and retrofitted structure. This includes assessment of diaphragm response, wall-diaphragm connection details, in-plane wall response, out-of-plane wall response, and the response of wall corners. Further, the test protocols were designed to investigate two types of retrofit techniques consisting of a plywood diaphragm retrofit and wall-diaphragm connection retrofit. However, this paper only presents the results of plywood retrofit as the experimental study is still in progress. From the results, it was found that the basic dynamic properties (natural frequency and mode shapes) and the force path of the as-built structure were significantly affected after applying the plywood retrofit.

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  • Testing of an earthquake-damaged unreinforced masonry building

    Dizhur, Dmytro; Lumantarna, Ronald; Derakhshan, Hossein; Ingham, Jason (2010)

    Conference item
    The University of Auckland Library

    In December 2007 a magnitude 6.8 earthquake had an epicentre located approximately 50 km from the city of Gisborne, New Zealand. This earthquake caused damage to a number of buildings in Gisborne, and in particular, to numerous unreinforced masonry buildings. One such building was damaged to the extent that significant post-earthquake repairs were necessary, and partial removal of two of the building???s gable ended walls was required. This reconstruction allowed an opportunity for a team of researchers from the University of Auckland to conduct field tests on the building, allowing comparison with companion experiments that had previously been undertaken in a laboratory setting. This field testing involved the extraction of clay brick and mortar samples, in-situ bed joint shear tests, diagonal shear tests on samples extracted from the gabled walls, an in-situ in-plane shear test and out-of-plane testing of the gable ended wall both in the as-built condition and after the installation of a near-surface mounted (NSM) carbon fibre reinforced polymer (CFRP) retrofit solution. Testing confirmed that the boundary conditions in real buildings can significantly affect experimental response, with vertical restraint resulting in large increases in out-of-plane load capacity, and also confirmed that the near-surface mounted FRP solution is an excellent low-invasive option for seismic strengthening of unreinforced masonry. Details of the history of the building, and the methods used to undertake the field testing are reported, and experimental results are presented.

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  • Experimental Study of Unreinforced Masonry Pier Sub-Structures

    Knox, Charlotte; Russell, Alistair; Ingham, Jason (2010)

    Conference item
    The University of Auckland Library

    Accurate assessment of the structural response of unreinforced masonry buildings when subjected to earthquake loading is essential for the design of efficient and effective seismic retrofit interventions. This study focused on determining the in-plane seismic performance of unreinforced masonry perforated shear walls in order to implement controlled rocking response as a hybrid retrofit solution. The experimental programme and the findings from a series of pseudo-static push-over tests performed on coupled unreinforced masonry pier sub-structures is presented. These sub-structures consisted of two piers with varying aspect ratio and absolute size and were subjected to different levels of vertical overburden. The walls were constructed in the common American bond formation using solid clay bricks and a 1:2:9 composition lime mortar, consistent with historical New Zealand unreinforced masonry buildings. The specimen geometries were chosen to not only replicate typical New Zealand unreinforced masonry perforated shear wall geometries but to also provide data on the three possible failure mechanisms ??? diagonal shear failure, sliding shear failure and rocking flexural response.When subjected to horizontal load the piers in both sub-structures exhibited a rocking response, with no diagonal shear cracking visible. The damage was concentrated in the spandrel section that spanned across the opening and this was attributed to both flexure and shear forces within the spandrel.

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  • Role of Fiber Orientation in Atrial Arrythmogenesis

    Kharche, S; Castro, S; Thomas, B; Colman, M; Jarvis, J; Smaill, Bruce; Zhang, H; Stevenson, R; Zhao, Jichao (2014)

    Conference item
    The University of Auckland Library

    Background: Electrical wave-front propagation in the atria is determined by local fiber orientation. Atrial fibrillation (AF) progresses with enhanced anisotropy. We illustrate AF due to myofiber structure. Methods: A 3D rabbit atrial anatomical model at 20 ??m resolution with realistic fiber orientation was constructed based on contrast-enhanced micro-CT imaging. The Fenton-Karma excitation cell model was adapted to reproduce rabbit atrial action potential period (APD) of 80 ms. Diffusivities were estimated for longitudinal (Dp = 0.0065 mm2 /ms for CV = 0.5 mm/ms) and transverse directions (Dp = 0.06 mm2 /ms for CV = 0.15 mm/ms) of the fiber orientation. The estimated diffusion constants were deployed in the 3D anisotropic atrial model (Figure) where pacing was conducted with a reducing S2 interval to facilitate initiation of atrial arrhythmia. Multiple simulations were conducted with varying values of diffusion anisotropy and stimulus locations to evaluate the role of anisotropy to evaluate propensity to initiate arrhythmia. BeatBox, a cardiac simulation package, was used throughout this work. Results: Under physiological anisotropy conditions, a rapid right atrial activation was followed by the left atrial activation. Excitation waves reached the AV border where they terminated. Upon reduction of conduction heterogeneity, re-entry was initiated by the rapid pacing and the activation of both atrial chambers was almost simultaneous. Conclusions: Myofiber orientation is an effective mechanism for regulating atrial activation. Modification of its myo-architecture is proarrhythmic.

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  • "The thing about walls is they became big murals": The rise of legal graffiti writing cultures

    Kramer, Ronald (2014)

    Conference item
    The University of Auckland Library

    Drawing from interviews conducted with 20 New York City graffiti writers and from unobtrusive observations, this paper seeks to rethink contemporary graffiti writing culture in two important respects. On the one hand, previous scholars have tended to explore graffiti writing as an illegal and criminalized (sub)culture. On the other, they have found it to be a practice that embodies a "critical" stance towards society. This paper shows that since 1990 a subset of graffiti writers who paint with permission has emerged, and that those who produce legal graffiti tend to lead lives and espouse values that most would not hesitate to recognize as "conventional." I conclude by suggesting that graffiti writing needs to be acknowledged as a multifaceted and historically fluid culture.

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  • A Dynamic Metacognitive Systems Perspective on L2 Learner Development

    Zhang, Lawrence (2015-03-28)

    Conference item
    The University of Auckland Library

    Invited panellist paper presented in the TESOL Research Standing Council Colloquium "Cognitive and Metacognitive Perspectives on English Language Development"

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  • Prosody perception, reading accuracy, nonliteral language comprehension, and music and tonal pitch discrimination in school aged children

    Kalathottukaren, Rose; Purdy, Suzanne; Ballard, Elaine (2014-10-15)

    Conference item
    The University of Auckland Library

    Twenty-five school aged children with normal hearing were tested on their perception of prosody using the receptive prosody subtests of the Profiling Elements of Prosody in Speech-Communication (PEPS-C) and Child Paralanguage subtest of Diagnostic Analysis of Non Verbal Accuracy 2 (DANVA 2). Performance of four children with hearing loss on the two prosody measures was compared with performance of normal hearing children. Children were also tested on their reading accuracy, comprehension of nonliteral language, and music and tonal pitch discrimination. Overall results showed that younger children aged 7;1 to 9;11 years had significantly poorer scores than 10;1 to 12;11 year olds on the Contrastive Stress Reception subtest of PEPS-C and the DANVA 2 Child Paralanguage subtest, indicating a developmental effect on speech prosody perception. Children with hearing loss had poorer scores and greater variability on PEPS-C and DANVA 2 assessments compared to normal hearing controls. Statistically significant correlations were observed between prosody perception scores and musical pitch perception and reading measures for the normal hearing group. This is consistent with previous studies showing links between reading and prosody perception. Significant correlation between prosody perception and musical pitch discrimination indicates that pitch is an important cue for prosody perception.

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  • Teachers??? Research Engagement as and for Professional Development: A Multicase Study of English Teachers in Singapore

    Zhang, Lawrence (2014-08-10)

    Conference item
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • A 'rediscovery??? of metacognition for enhancing EFL students??? self-directed learning in Asian classrooms

    Zhang, Lawrence (2011-08)

    Conference item
    The University of Auckland Library

    Since Wenden???s (1986) call for giving more attention to learner metacognition in language learning and teaching, researchers in the field of applied linguistics have responded to the call to varying degrees (e.g., Cohen, 1998; Chamot & O???Malley, 1994; Oxford, 1990). However, even though such efforts have been made, criticisms are leveled against language learner strategy (LLS) research in relatively recent times (D??rnyei, 2005; Rees-Miller, 1993; Tseng, D??rnyei, Schmitt, 2006). In this paper I will argue that such criticisms are actually not based on a complete understanding of what metacognition entails, especially when such a construct is related to both the cognitive and sociocultural domains of learning undergirded by an understanding that metacognition comprises complex dynamic systems. I will elaborate on the dynamic metacognitive systems and their theoretical/practical implications and conclude that this rediscovery is necessary for both researchers and teachers alike to see its contribution to enhancing EFL teaching/learning in Asia.

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  • The ecology of communicative language teaching: Reflecting on the Singapore experience

    Zhang, Lawrence (2010)

    Conference item
    The University of Auckland Library

    This paper addresses the ecology of communicative language teaching (CLT) by reflecting on the Singapore experience. It reviews how CLT was conceptualized, advocated and implemented in stages/phases as reflected in the different syllabuses by the Ministry of Education, Singapore. In anchoring the discussion against a historical backdrop and examining the ecology and evolution of English language teaching in Singapore, it focuses on two English Language syllabuses published in 1991 and 2001 respectively. It illustrates the operational issues in reference to the two syllabuses, with a focus on the ecology of such pedagogical innovations and how the ecological nature of CLT is mirrored in the syllabuses. Highlighting issues such as mismatches between what the syllabus documents stipulate and what practitioners bring into English language classrooms and how success in implementation can be achieved when training is provided timely, it also discusses theory-practice connection and the integration issue that is most often debated in the teacher-education literature. It concludes with a discussion of possible implications of the Singapore CLT experience for ELT in China.

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  • Listening for a future: shared stories and shared solutions

    Buck, Ralph; Meiners, J; Chan, ACYY (2006)

    Conference item
    The University of Auckland Library

    In a global age, dance educators can learn from sharing each others practices and contexts. This paper examines teachers' stories from Australia, Hong Kong and New Zealand with a view to analyzing themes that may fuel future dance education practice: The paper builds on research by Buck (2003), Chan (2005) and Meiners (2005), identifying common issues around meanings of dance, curriculum, children and teaching and learning. By listening to teachers' stories, and noting their approaches and policy environment, we may learn about common barriers and opportunities that might assist the future provision and growth of dance education internationally.

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  • Comparison of CLEAN-SC for 2D and 3D Scanning Surfaces

    Legg, Mathew; Bradley, Stuart (2012-02-06)

    Conference item
    The University of Auckland Library

    We present experimental data comparing the accuracy obtained for 2D and 3D scanning surfaces using CLEAN-SC deconvolution of beamformed acoustic maps. A spherical array is used to obtain recordings from a dense point cloud of sound source locations. Beamforming and CLEAN-SC acoustic maps are generated using traditional 2D scanning surfaces and 3D scanning surfaces corresponding to the surface geometry of an object being acoustically imaged. Results for the 3D method show improved accuracy of measured positions and magnitudes of sound sources under a range of circumstances. The most benefit, in regard to position error, is for frequencies above 5kHz and sound sources located less than a metre from the array. In these circumstances, the three-dimensionality is more dominant.

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  • Seismic testing of connections in precast concrete floor systems

    Corney, S; Henry, Richard; Ingham, Jason (2015-05-18)

    Conference item
    The University of Auckland Library

    The use of precast concrete floor systems is widespread within New Zealand. Support connections for precast concrete floor units are subjected to earthquake induced deformations, including a relative rotation between the unit and support beam and a pull-off effect caused by beam elongation. Additionally, beam elongation can contribute to the failure of joints between precast units where the connection consists of a lightly reinforced insitu concrete topping. Damage to both support connections and connections between precast units were observed during the 2010/2011 Canterbury earthquakes in New Zealand and a testing programme was initiated to investigate these damage modes. Precast hollow-core units with a depth of 400 mm (400HC) were tested to investigate the seismic performance of the support connection details recommended in NZS 3101:2006. The hollowcore support connection was subjected to deformations simulating seismic and gravitational actions. Preliminary test results suggest that the existing support connection details recommended in NZS3101:2006 are suitable for 400HC units. Damage to precast ribs used in rib and timber infill floors can occur when the rib is locked into the support beam. An initial test has been conducted to investigate the reinforcement details at the rib support using the same test setup as the 400HC tests. The test indicates that a satisfactory seismic performance can be achieved when the ribs are seated on low-friction bearing strips with additional stirrups placed in the ends of the precast ribs. Lastly, tests were completed to investigate the seismic performance of the connection between precast units provided by the insitu concrete topping. The cyclic tests of topped units highlighted the poor performance of cold drawn steel mesh in comparison to ductile steel mesh and standard deformed reinforcing steel.

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  • Preliminary analysis of RC wall elongation

    Encina, E; Henry, Richard (2015-05-20)

    Conference item
    The University of Auckland Library

    Previous cyclic tests of beam-column subassemblies have highlighted the effect of plastic hinge elongation in reinforced concrete (RC) structures. This elongation is caused by both geometric effects and residual crack widths, and has been shown to have a significant impact on the seismic behaviour of RC framed structures. Recently researchers have started to focus on the potential for ductile RC walls to elongate during earthquakes. Despite extensive research into the effects of member elongation on framed structures, few studies have investigated the influence of elongation in RC walls. A series of existing experimental tests were analysed to calculate RC wall elongation when subjected to cyclic loading, and a series of nonlinear numerical models were developed to analyse the ability of the fibreelement models to represent the elongation of RC walls accurately. The experimental results confirmed that elongation is highly dependent on the axial load applied and reinforcement distribution within the cross section. The proposed fibre-element model was able to simulate observed elongation from the experimental tests with sufficient accuracy.

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  • Seismic behaviour of reinforced concrete walls with minimum vertical reinforcement

    Lu, Yiqiu; Henry, Richard (2015-05-20)

    Conference item
    The University of Auckland Library

    Recent research suggested that the current minimum vertical reinforcement limits in NZS 3101:2006 may be insufficient to ensure well distributed cracks in plastic hinge regions. A series of numerical analyses were used to investigate the behaviour of an example RC wall designed according to the minimum requirements in several different concrete design standards. The analysis results confirmed the observed failure mode of an RC wall damaged during the Canterbury earthquakes that had only half the current required minimum vertical reinforcement. Furthermore, RC walls built in accordance with current minimum vertical reinforcement requirements in both ACI 318-11 and NZS 3101: 2006 were shown to still be susceptible to limited flexural cracking and premature bar fracture. In addition to the modelling, six large-scale walls have been tested to examine the effect of axial load, shear span ratio, and reinforcement ties in the end region on RC walls with distributed minimum vertical reinforcement in accordance with NZS 3101:2006. The observed extent of crack distribution, hysteretic behaviour, failure mode, and drift capacity of four of the tested walls are discussed. The experimental results confirmed that current minimum vertical reinforcing limits in NZS 3101:2006 are insufficient to form a large number of secondary cracks. The failure mode for all walls was controlled by bar buckling and subsequent fracture. The lateral drift capacity of all four tested walls was 2.5% and both the shear span ratio and the anti-buckling ties had no significant influence on the drift capacity.

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