671 results for Conference paper, 2000

  • Ngā Tari Māori ki te Ao: Māori Studies in the World

    Reilly, Michael (2008)

    Conference paper
    University of Otago

    Paper presented at Te Kāhui Kura Māori (Schools of Māori Studies Assembly) held at Te Kawa a Māui, School of Māori Studies at Victoria University of Wellington.

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  • Pacific Island women, body image and sport

    Schaaf, Michelle R (2005)

    Conference paper
    University of Otago

    This article analyses the representation of Pacific women from an Orientalist theoretical framework. The analysis traces prominent representations of Pacific women within early colonial and Christian discourses, and dominant representations since colonisation. Included in this analysis is a discussion of the fantasy of Western men, that is, of the ‘easy’ Pacific women. One of the central arguments of this article is that the reality of the ideal Pacific female body-shape from a Pacific perspective is not only in stark contrast to the Western ideal, but is also in variance with the imagined erotic archetype of Western men. To locate this analysis within the contemporary diasporic milieu, case-studies of Pacific women in the sport of netball will be used to determine the impact of Orientalist-like representations of body-shape and erotic fantasy on Pacific women now residing in New Zealand, and to highlight the differences between the Pacific and Western body-shape ideals.

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  • Ngā Pūrongo o ia Tari Māori: Reflections on research, teaching, and other developments in Te Tumu

    Reilly, Michael (2008)

    Conference paper
    University of Otago

    Paper presented at Te Kāhui Kura Māori (Schools of Māori Studies Assembly) held at Te Kawa a Māui, School of Māori Studies at Victoria University of Wellington.

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  • He Kura Māori, he Kura Hāhi

    Matthews, Nathan (2005-11)

    Conference paper
    University of Otago

    Church initiated and operated Māori secondary boarding schools have existed in Aotearoa in various forms since the arrival of the missionaries in the early 19th century. Unfortunately, these schools have contributed to the colonization process, as they have in many other parts of the world, accelerating assimilation of the Indigenous people and the rapid decline of the Indigenous language, in this case, te reo Māori (Māori language). One of the Church boarding schools primary roles in Aotearoa is to act as a vehicle for the proliferation of Christian beliefs. As a result many educationalists have proposed that the “civilizing” intentions of the missionaries was to colonise Māori children. However, I propose that the amalgamation of both the Church schools and Māori communities created a hybrid of Māori culture; a Māori Catholic culture. As a result I propose that these schools, since their inception, have contributed significantly to the development of Māori society, particularly in the production of dynamic Māori leaders who have had a compelling influence on their Māori communities and Māori society and in some instances on the nation state. Therefore, this paper will examine the development of Māori leadership within the Church secondary boarding schools. It will discuss the way in which these schools have, or have not, responded to the constantly changing social and political conditions, in which they exist. The ability to respond to these changes determines the type of leadership that is produced and how effective it is. Hato Paora College, a Catholic Māori boy’s school in Feilding, will be used as an example of this type of schooling. The way in which it has attempted to adapt to meet the social, educational and cultural needs, of its students and their communities in producing effective Māori leaders will be reviewed.

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  • Parallel processes and situation awareness display design

    Moyle, Sam A (2005-11)

    Conference paper
    University of Otago

    In recent years there has been trend away from single sensor/single (SS/SI) indicator boards as the means by which overall understanding of current work-flow is expressed. Rather, computer screen based Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems are being modified to meet this need. This paper discusses a continuing experiment that compares existing SCADA design elements and those with simple display modification; display changes that facilitate decision making by improving overall Situation Awareness (SA).

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  • Fixation of neutral alleles in spatially structured populations via genetic Drift: Describing the spatial structure of faster-than-panmictic configurations

    Whigham, Peter A; Dick, Grant (2005-11)

    Conference paper
    University of Otago

    This paper considers spatially-structured populations described as a network, and examines the properties of these networks in terms of their affect on fixation of neutral alleles due solely to genetic drift. Individuals are modelled as two allele, one locus haploid, diploid and tetraploid structures. The time to fixation for a variety of network configurations is discovered through simulation. The concept of hyperfixation is introduced, which refers to when time to fixation for a network of n nodes occurs more rapidly than the corresponding panmictic n node structure. A hyperfixation index, h, is developed that attempts to characterise a spatial arrangement such that when h < 1 hyperfixation will occur. Issues regarding fixation with ploidy independence, and possible improvements to the described hyperfixation index are discussed.

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  • The use of boundary conditions for inductive models

    Whigham, Peter A (2004-11)

    Conference paper
    University of Otago

    There is a large amount of interest in creating models from data using a variety of machine learning methods. Most of these approaches require a good distribution of observed values to produce reliable models. The use of background knowledge to augment the observed values has also been explored as a method to supplement the original feature set of training data. This paper argues that there is an additional set of data that can be created for many types of problems, based on the concept of boundary conditions. This boundary data incorporates an understanding of the modeled system behaviour under certain extreme values and therefore reduces the degrees of freedom within the inferred model. This paper argues that by using this information when training an inductive model a more robust generalization of the data can be achieved under some circumstances.

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  • The contribution of goal setting to the success of eCommerce systems among small and medium enterprises

    Ghandour, Ahmad; Benwell, George L; Deans, Kenneth R (2007-06)

    Conference paper
    University of Otago

    The purpose of this paper is to explore the role of goal setting as contributing factor for eCommerce systems (ECS) success in small and medium enterprises (SMEs). Based on the literature review relative to eCommerce in SMEs, this research postulates that goal setting influence the success of ECS in SMEs. The success of ECS in SMEs is the dependent variable the dimensions of which are identified by using DeLone and McLean success model. The output result of this paper is a conceptual model identifying the relevant dimensions of both success and goal setting and the resultant hypotheses that require empirical research to validate the proposed model.

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  • PERFORMANCE EVALUATION

    Stringer, Carolyn (2009)

    Conference paper
    University of Otago

    Performance evaluations systems are a critical part of overall performance management systems. This intensive case study provides insights into how the use of subjective performance evaluations in a complex organisational setting has led to perceptions of injustices (e.g., procedural, distributional, interactional), and unintended consequences. The key injustices were mixed practices, unclear criteria, financial focus, little differentiation between good and poor performers, stickiness in ratings, inequities in target setting, higher ratings at higher grades, and the predetermined theory. The consequences include the lack of trust, generous bonuses, gaming, inability to influence, resource allocation, bonuses are expected and not performance-related, and the system is costly to administrate. Multiple sources of evidence support the findings, and the patterns are consistent over a three year period. Future research needs to develop a deeper understanding of how these parts interrelate, where subjective performance evaluations work, and where they do not work, and to encourage breaking down the divide between functional specialisations (e.g., human resources, accounting).

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  • The trustree for the visualisation of attribute and spatial uncertainty: usability assessments

    Kardos, Julian; Moore, Antoni; Benwell, George L (2004-11)

    Conference paper
    University of Otago

    Attribute and spatial uncertainty are defined and put into context for this research. This paper then extends on a research programme which has designed a visualisation of attribute and choropleth spatial uncertainty using the Hexagonal or Rhombus (HoR) hierarchical spatial data structure. Using the spatial data model in this fashion is termed – the trustree. To understand this progression, a brief explanation of this research programmes past history must be covered. The New Zealand 2001 census is used as an exemplarity dataset to express attribute uncertainty and choropleth boundary uncertainty (termed spatial uncertainty). An internet survey was conducted to test the usability of the trustree, which was used as a transparent tessellation overlay and a value-by-area (VBA) display within a population choropleth map. Two other visualisation of attribute uncertainty methods – blinking areas and adjacent value were also incorporated into the survey. Participants were required to rank, from 1 to 6, six grid cells which overlaid the uncertainty visualisations, in order from the most accurate to the most uncertain cell, respectively. These ranking results were correlated with the actual ranks, providing a metric of usability for each visualisation method. The blinking areas method was the most effective, followed by adjacent value, VBA trustree and the transparent HoR trustree. The time taken for a participant to rank each visualisation’s cells was collected – there is an 82% correlation between the time taken and the final usability results obtained.

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  • Digerud online GIS: developing an online community GIS resource in the Frogn municipal district of Norway

    Fritsvold, Tomas; Moore, Antoni; Chong, Albert K; Milosavljevic, Stephan (2004-11)

    Conference paper
    University of Otago

    An increasing community demand for accurate, user friendly and easily accessible geographic information has lead to the development of online resources to aid in the decision making process (Craig et al, 2002, Green et al, 2002, Peng et al 2003). These resources such as interactive maps are often used as tools to plan and review imperative and non-imperative requirements of community life. The results of this study demonstrate that it is possible to access, retrieve and convert spatial data to an acceptable format for use in an Internet-accessible and community-based geographic information system (GIS) for the settlement of Digerud in Norway. An Internetbased GIS was placed on a university supplied public access server and known subjects with links to the Digerud district were approached and invited to participate in given geographic identification and measurement tasks on the Digerud GIS online applet. Following the completion of the measurement tasks the participants were surveyed in order to assess ease of use and asked to provide comments on their interaction with the program. The outcome of this study demonstrates the feasibility of such a system and that Digerud online GIS has the potential to develop as a tool for the people of the Digerud and neighbouring communities for use as either an imperative (e.g. socio-economic) or non-imperative (e.g. recreational) geographical information package.

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  • Brand trust as quality cues in online tertiary education

    Chung, Kim-Choy; Tan, Shin Shin (2008-01-02)

    Conference paper
    University of Otago

    In Malaysia and Singapore, Internet-based education has not attracted as many students as had been expected. It is reckoned that trust decreases the perceived risk of using a service. Since online learners have no direct contact with the education providers, trust plays an important role in an online tertiary setting. In a review of the literature, hypotheses are developed that suggest that brand trust as quality cues in online tertiary education is related to institutional and courseware design assurance factors, site quality and public awareness. A conceptual model summarizing the hypotheses is subsequently validated in an empirical study.

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  • A preliminary investigation of the stability of Geographically-Weighted Regression

    Whigham, Peter A; Hay, Geoff (2007-12-06)

    Conference paper
    University of Otago

    This paper describes preliminary work analysing the stability of parameter coefficient estimates for Geographically-Weighted Regression (GWR). Based on a large dataset (35721 points) various random samplings of this data were performed and models built using GWR. An analysis of the coefficient values for the independent variables showed that these values could varying significantly both between runs and between sampling sizes. This suggests that the results from GWR must be carefully considered in terms of the form of data, assumed coefficient surface being modelled, and the confidence of the resulting parameter estimates.

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  • Model-based cartographic generalisation with uncertainty

    Moore, Antoni (2005-11)

    Conference paper
    University of Otago

    The aim of this paper is to outline a proposed project to holistically generalise spatial data using agents. Cartographic generalisation is a process that is fraught with uncertainty – for a particular spatial scale there are an infinite amount of combinations for the display (or non-display) of data in the map space. Each map element (e.g. objects such as roads or buildings can be map elements) is an agent, with the ability to self-diagnose for cartographic conflict and reason with uncertainty (using Dempster-Shafer theory) to choose how to display itself in conjunction with neighbouring objects. Synoptically, a legible map will have been created through the intelligent interaction of agents at the local scale. This paper will explore issues associated with the above process.

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  • MAPPING PROCESSES TOWARD STRATEGIC LEVERAGE

    Chia Cua, Francisco; Theivananthampillai, Paul (2006)

    Conference paper
    University of Otago

    Although corporate strategy helps in differentiation, positioning, and aligning the organisation to align itself internaly to be competitive, it is not enough. A separate enterprise information system (EIS) strategy must be put in place do deal with external realities. This is particularly crucial to a software start-up in its prototype development stage. Development time must be as short as possible. Two-way communications is possible through EIS. This paper examines a start-up, scans its business environments and explores opportunities, threats, and appropriate corporate strategy. Enterprise resource planning (ERP) and its evolution provides insights to understanding the concept of EIS strategy that folows

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  • A vector-agent paradigm for dynamic urban modelling

    Hammam, Yasser; Moore, Antoni; Whigham, Peter A; Freeman, Claire (2003-12)

    Conference paper
    University of Otago

    In the past, researchers and model developers were restricted by their theoretical knowledge about the city and how it might be simulated as well as constrained by technological limitations. Nevertheless, the simulation environment is now appropriate for the infusion of new ideas into urban modelling. Urban simulation is a relatively unique modelling problem. The urban systems commonly represented in urban models considering different factors (economic, social, environmental …. etc.) and are notoriously difficult to simulate. It is proposed that agents are more flexible than cellular automata at modelling the city, and in turn that vector-based agents are more suitable than cell-based agents at doing the same. Therefore, this paper is intended to review the limitations raised by using cell-based models with an agent simulation system, and introduce a new paradigm for integrating vector-based spatial model with agent system.

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  • Analysis of distortions in a mental map using GPS and GIS

    Peake, Simon A J; Moore, Antoni (2004-11)

    Conference paper
    University of Otago

    Mental maps are a cartographic illustration of a person’s internal representation of the spatial environment in which they live. They are often used to provide an insight into how different ethnic or social groups perceive their environment. A new method of measuring the distortions present in mental maps is developed and tested using a global positioning system (GPS) and a geographic information system (GIS). Results suggest distortions are apparent the further away subjects travel from their familiar environment and that there are consistent scales at which mental maps operate.

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  • Selection in space

    Star, B; Spencer, Hamish (2006-11)

    Conference paper
    University of Otago

    Only the abstract was published in the proceedings. There is no full text.

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  • Wine tourism and the generation Y market: any possibilities?

    Treloar, Peter; Hall, C Michael; Mitchell, Richard (2004)

    Conference paper
    University of Otago

    Changes in the operating environment for the wine industry in Australia and New Zealand have led to an increasing focus on wine tourism as a potential distribution method to grow a winery’s individual consumer base. Wine tourism is also seen as a strategy for encouraging growth in consumption amongst new markets. This research investigated the alcohol consumption behaviour of the Generation Y market to determine current purchasing behaviour, and their participation levels and interest in wine tourism. The aim of the research was to establish if potential for growth existed within the Generation Y market, and possible marketing strategies to increase levels of participation in wine consumption and wine tourism. To achieve this aim a survey was conducted of university students in Australia and New Zealand. The results showed that wine purchasing was limited within this group, as other alcohol such as beer and spirits were seen as easier and cheaper alternatives. However, the responses did show a potential for growth within this market. The research found that a large proportion of the respondents thought of wine tourism as an appealing tourism activity, and many had visited a winery. The results suggested that marketing which focuses on the leisure aspects of wine tourism, rather than highlighting the technical elements of a winery such as production and cellaring, would be most effective on this market. Furthermore, highlighting convenient travel methods and value for money was also found to be important, as the Generation Y markets financial situation was noted frequently as a limiting factor in wine purchase.

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  • The Use of Objective and Subjective Measures: Implications for Incentive System Design

    Stringer, Carolyn; Theivananthampillai, Paul (2009)

    Conference paper
    University of Otago

    This study examines the question, is the use of subjective measures an ex post adjustment of objective measures to take into account three types of risk: target difficulty (after controlling for budget loss), shared risk (after controlling for business unit strategy) and downside risk? We examine this question using data from a sample of 522 managers and professionals in period 0 (and 434 in period 1) from a large Australasian corporation over a two year period. Period 0 is a pre shock period and period 1 is a post shock period. We find that for the overall two years that the subjective is an upward adjustment to the objective to take into account: (1) target difficulty, the spread between upper limit and lower limit of unit performance; (2) shared risk, that is organizational interdependencies; and (3) downside risk, which is the opportunity loss function that the employees faced in not meeting the maximum bonus allowed. However, in examining the pre shock period and post shock period, the results indicate that the subjective evaluation has been used differently for each period for two type of risk (target difficulty, shared risk). (1) With regard to target difficulty for the pre shock period, the subjective makes an upward adjustment to the objective; but for the post shock, the subjective makes a downward adjustment. One plausible explanation is that during the post shock, quite a few managers and professionals were already on the maximum of the objective measures (given that there may have been gamesmanship at setting targets and upper limits for an anticipated poor economic period). Therefore, the subjective can be a downward adjustment to reflect this gamesmanship. (2) In regard to shared risk (the percentage of transfer revenues), for the pre shock period the subjective was a downward adjustment, while for the post shock period the subjective adjustment is an upward adjustment to the objective measure. This implies that for the pre shock or times of economic stability, the subjective could be used to reduce some of the free rider challenges that face incentive systems. Conversely for the post shock period, or during times of economic instability, the subjective adjustment is to encourage resource sharing and greater coordination and communication. Overall, our results indicate that the subjective measure is used as an ex post adjustment to the objective measure. This could be in response to flaws in the objective (financial) performance measures as subjective measures as this enables other factors to be taken into account.

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