130 results for Conference paper, 2010

  • Performance comparison of IPv4 and IPv6 in peer-peer and client server local area networks

    Kolahi, Samad; Soorty, Burjiz; Chand, Navneet; Qu, Zhang (2010-06-29)

    Conference paper
    Unitec

    In this paper, the performance of IPv4 and IPv6 are compared for both Client-Server and Peer-Peer networks. For both networks, IPv4 produced higher bandwidth for TCP protocol. For UDP, IPv4 and IPv6 showed insignificant bandwidth differences except for packet size of 384 bytes where IPv4 had better performance in client-server environment.

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  • Energy Cultures: A framework for interdisciplinary research

    Stephenson, Janet; Lawson, Rob; Carrington, Gerry; Barton, Barry; Thorsnes, Paul (2010)

    Conference paper
    University of Otago

    The Energy Cultures framework aims to assist in understanding the factors that influence energy consumption behaviour, and to help identify opportunities for behaviour change. Building on a history of attempts to offer multi-disciplinary integrating models of energy behaviour, we take a culture-based approach to behaviour, while drawing also from cultural theories, actor-network theory, socio-technical systems, and lifestyles literature. The framework provides a structure for addressing the problem of multiple interpretations of ‘behaviour’ by suggesting that it is influenced by the interactions between cognitive norms, energy practices and material culture. By conceptualising the research arena, the framework creates a common point of reference for the multi-disciplinary research team. The Energy Cultures framework has proven to be unexpectedly fruitful. It has assisted in the design of the 3-year research programme, which includes a number of different qualitative and quantitative methodologies. In application to a given example, it helps to position the complex drivers of behaviour change. Although the framework has not yet been fully tested as to its ability to help integrate findings from our various research methods, we believe the Energy Cultures framework has promise in furthering interdisciplinary studies of energy behaviours in a wide variety of situations, being relevant to different contexts and different scales.

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  • Metrics for eCommerce website

    Ghandour, Ahmad; Benwell, George L; Deans, Kenneth R (2010-08)

    Conference paper
    University of Otago

    There has been little empirical investigation of relationship between website usage (Web Metrics) and website content. The overall aim of the study reported in this article was to build on empirical evidence about a relationship, by achieving new insights from New Zealand business culture. The key purpose of the present paper is to learn whether metrics measures are related to website features. An online survey was used to gather data from businesses that have eCommerce website. The results from this study indicate that such relation exist with each metric is related to specific functions. For example, website stickiness is a measure of time spent by customers on the website, the findings pointed out that as a result of advertising promotions, visitors stay longer whenever there are new promotions. These indications prompt the seller to carefully monitor their website traffic for a possible downturn and remedy the situation prior to its occurrence.

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  • The relationship between website metrics and the financial performance of online businesses

    Ghandour, Ahmad; Benwell, George L; Deans, Kenneth R (2010)

    Conference paper
    University of Otago

    Online businesses are often engaged in web metrics to gauge the performance of their eCommerce website. This study examines the relationships between web metrics and the financial performance. The key purpose of the present paper is to learn whether metrics measures have an impact on profitability in eCommerce website. An online survey was used to gather data from companies that have eCommerce website. The results from this study indicate that companies with perceived successful financial performance have also enjoyed perceived success in the customer behaviour on their website. Furthermore, the study explores the role of five contingency variables,the markets it operates in, the effort of the company to make the website visible, the involvement of the owners, the percentage of the online business and the age of the website, on this relationship. The results indicate that these variables moderate the relationship between metrics measures and the performance of the website so that a positive association occurs under older website, higher percentage of online, and higher level of owner’s involvement with the website. The findings prompt the owners to carefully monitor their website traffic for a possible downturn and remedy the situation prior to its occurrence.

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  • Measuring the Performance of eCommerce Websites

    Ghandour, Ahmad; Benwell, George L; Deans, Kenneth R (2010)

    Conference paper
    University of Otago

    Measurements that capture website performance have long enabled businesses to improve strategies and operations. For an eCommerce website, there exists a limited understanding on how performance is measured. Measuring the performance of a website has been proposed in many ways and various contexts over the past decade. The study presented in this article used the owner perspective to theoretically develop and empirically test measurement model of website performance. The results suggest that performance is a second order factor model. The first order factors of the model are termed usage, financial returns and owner satisfaction. The resulting measurements are framed as a tool for benchmarking the performance of the website as well as a foundation for operationalising the website performance construct.

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  • Noise in the shearing industry

    McBride, David; Cowan, Elaine; Utumapu, Margaret; Walaart, John (2010-06)

    Conference paper
    University of Otago

    The aim of this study was to assess the risk of noise induced hearing loss (NIHL) in shearing and investigate practicable control methods. Woolshed surveys included shed construction data, noise dosimetry and area noise sampling. The noise exposures from 40 personal measurements were all above the 85 dB(A) action level, lying in the range 86-90 dB(A). Shearers had the highest exposure, “near field” noise coming from the action of the cutting edge in the shearing comb, but also from downtubes and gears. Noise for sorters and pressers was contributed to by the stereo system (found in all shearing sheds). Lined sheds seemed to have slightly higher noise levels than unlined sheds. None of the shearing crews had hearing protection available. Redesign of the shearing equipment primarily the handpiece but also the downtubes and gears could potentially reduce the exposure by 2-3 dB(A) and possibly more. In the meantime shearing crews need to wear hearing protection and be subject to audiometric surveillance.

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  • Australian snow tourist's perceptions of climate change: Implications for the Queenstown Lakes region of New Zealand

    Hopkins, Debbie; Becken, Susanne; Hendrikx, Jordy (2010)

    Conference paper
    University of Otago

    This qualitative research has emerged from the sustained discussion of the future of winter alpine tourism in the Australasian context. The ski industries of Australia and New Zealand are intertwined, with research requiring trans-Tasman cooperation (Hendrikx, 2010). When analyses are conducted at a national scale, they fail to incorporate this complex interdependent relationship. Australians account for over 35% of skiers in New Zealand, although this figure rises to 64% for some individual ski fields (NZ ski, 2010). The increasing number of Australians choosing New Zealand for snow-based tourism has been attributed to relative financial costs, the allure of an ‘overseas’ holiday and snow reliability. These reasons are connected, and will become increasingly so, with the climate change problematic. Physical sciences in the form of climate modelling have forecast ‘significant impacts’ for Australasian skiing (IPCC, 2007, Hennessey et al, 2004, Hendrix, 2010, Hendrix & Hreinsson, 2010), with prospects for Australia particularly dire, consequently placing New Zealand in a relatively positive position. Our paper follows on, and complements the climate modelling and forecasting provided by the IPCC (2007), Hennessey et al (2004), and Hendrikx & Hreinsson (2010), using qualitative methods to gain greater understanding of the potential behavioural adaptations available to Australian snow tourists in New Zealand. The depth, nuances and complexities of tourist’s perceptions and knowledge will be sought through semi structured interviews in the Queenstown Lakes region on the South Island of New Zealand during the winter season 2011. Although physical sciences can provide understandings of biophysical vulnerabilities, they neglect the sociocultural context of vulnerability and often frame it as an outcome of specific changes. Therefore the objectives of this research are; 1. To understand the way vulnerability is framed and perceived by demand-side stakeholders, 2. Recognise the types of knowledge which inform actors about climate change vulnerability, 3. To identify the types of behavioural adaptations which are available to Australian tourists and implications these could have for New Zealand’s ski industry. This paper represents part of a wider collaborative research project addressing the vulnerability of snow-reliant industries as a result of forecast climatic changes. It will identify a range of possible behavioural adaptations for demand-side stakeholders which will have applicability beyond the Australasian context. We will discuss the socio-economic, developmental, institutional and governance implications for alpine regions, as individual ski fields within a destination will face varying degrees of vulnerability resulting from climatic and behavioural changes. Therefore the opportunities and threats posed locally to individual ski fields and nationally to the wider ski industry will be highlighted and discussed with relevance to the global ski industry. Preliminary findings will be presented including scope for further applicability and development.

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  • Integrating expectation monitoring into Jason: A case study using Second Life

    Ranathunga, Surangika; Cranefield, Stephen; Purvis, Martin (2010-12-16)

    Conference paper
    University of Otago

    This is the final version of a paper that was peer reviewed and accepted for presentation at the 8th European Workshop on Multi-Agent Systems, 2010 (which has no formal proceedings).

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  • Relationships between Objective and Subjective Performance Ratings

    Merchant, Kenneth A.; Stringer, Carolyn; Theivananthampillai, Paul (2010)

    Conference paper
    University of Otago

    This study explored relationships between objective and subjective performance measures in a company setting where both were weighted equally in importance for allocating bonuses to high- and mid-level managers and professionals. We found that the correlation between the objective and subjective performance ratings was positive but small, which suggests no performance evaluation halo effect. Contrary to most prior studies, we found no evidence of the a subjective rating centrality bias; the subjective performance ratings were more highly differentiated than were the objective ratings. We found no evidence of a leniency bias in the subjective performance ratings, apparently because the company’s mandated maximum average subjective performance rating was rigorously enforced. However, we did find evidence of leniency in the objective measure portion of the system, and that leniency was particularly high in a time of economic stress. Finally, we found that the objective performance ratings were higher both for managers, as compared to professionals, and for employees at higher ranks, but they were lower for employees working at corporate level rather than in one of the SBUs. We discuss the possible causes and implications of these findings.

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  • On the testability of BDI agents

    Winikoff, Michael; Cranefield, Stephen (2010-12-16)

    Conference paper
    University of Otago

    This is the final version of a paper that was peer reviewed and accepted for presentation at the 8th European Workshop on Multi-Agent Systems, 2010 (which has no formal proceedings). It is a shorter version of the paper at http://hdl.handle.net/10523/1462.

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  • The everyday collective laboratory.

    Woodruffe, Paul (2010-09-15)

    Conference paper
    Unitec

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  • Industrial poetry

    Woodruffe, Paul (2010-09-15)

    Conference paper
    Unitec

    One of the great opportunities that increased access to technologies and information has brought, is interdisciplinary practice between the fine arts and industrial design.As a student, these two pathways had at first appeared separate, and requiring different skills and temperament to study and practice. But on further enquiry into the subject of Landscape Architecture, which is considered an industrial design discipline, I discovered a past and present rich with unbounded trans-disciplinary and interdisciplinary practitioners, where fine art methodologies have helped find identity and belonging in landscape, and have been used to influence and inform design. I have based my Masters of Landscape Architecture project on how fine art practice could contribute to Landscape Architectural site analysis,and through this project demonstrate possibilities in interdisciplinary practice.The relationships between fine art practice and the articulation of “sense of place” has always been evident in map making, and it is in this cross-over that I hope to find a usefulness to Landscape architecture within my work.In this paper I describe my methods and findings from this project so far.

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  • Narratives of relatedness in ecological sustainability in early childhood education in Aotearoa

    Ritchie, Jenny (2010-01-01)

    Conference paper
    Unitec

    This paper provides an overview of the context and some preliminary findings from a current two year Teaching and Learning Research Initiative (TLRI) funded study, “Titiro whakamuri, hoki whakamua: We are the future, the present and the past: caring for self, others and the environment in early years’ teaching and learning”. Central to the study has been the recognition of interdependent inter-relatedness as expressed in kaupapa Māori notions of manaakitanga, aroha, and kaitiakitanga, as well as in the ‘ethic of care’ outlined in the work of some western educational philosophers (P. Martin, 2007; Noddings, 1994). Whilst the data gathered from the ten different early childhood centres is extensive, this paper considers that contributed from Richard Hudson Kindergarten in Dunedin.

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  • Resources in unexpected places: Social cohesion and successful community internet

    Williams, Jocelyn (2010-01-01)

    Conference paper
    Unitec

    The assumption that internet access is a means of building stronger communities is commonly found in a number of sectors, such as in New Zealand government social services policy. In response to this assumption, case study research examined the experience of free home internet access among families participating in New Zealand’s Computers in Homes (CIH) scheme in low socioeconomic Auckland school communities between 2003 and 2005. The goal of the study was to assess how internet access and social cohesion are related in a free home internet scheme. Data from 22 participants at Case A and Case B over two waves of research showed internet use declined across the group as a whole. This negative overall outcome was mitigated not only by a range of positive experiences and some individual ‘high-connector’ internet users, but also evidence that greater social cohesion was associated with the activities and interpersonal influence of confident internet users at Case A. Here, significantly greater retention of ongoing internet use also occurred. Thus a positive relationship existed in this research between internet access and social cohesion in one case study of two, where conditions included the presence of opinion leaders and social solidarity. A key finding of the study is therefore that ongoing internet use may be more successfully embedded in a setting where social cohesion is more readily apparent at the time that a free internet scheme is implemented. The Computers in Homes concept extends participants’ social experiences of community through the way it is structured and implemented, creating opportunities for face to face social interaction and support. In combination with the mobilising behaviours of leader figures, these social experiences may be factors associated with longer term viability of a free home internet scheme as much as the presence of the internet itself. This paper responds in particular to the conference theme of ‘expecting the unexpected’. Contrary to expectation, at Case A top down stakeholder dynamics and confused accountability when external agencies are involved did not appear to harm longer term project viability. This paper explores possible reasons for this contradiction.

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  • Intentional immigrant entrepreneurs

    Cruickshank, Prue (2010-01-01)

    Conference paper
    Unitec

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  • The cluster approach revisited

    Kestle, Linda; Potangaroa, Regan (2010-05-14)

    Conference paper
    Unitec

    The UN Cluster approach came from the Humanitarian Response Review (HRR) commissioned by the UN in 2005. The intention of that review was to address apparent failures in the speed, quality and effectiveness of humanitarian responses and in addition the lack of any common basis for assessing and comparing levels of need. Levels and techniques of funding were also found to be inadequate. The Cluster Approach would identify lead organizations for typically 10 key areas or clusters such as Food and Nutrition, Water and Sanitation, Health, Emergency Shelter, Early Recovery and Reconstruction, IT Telecommunications, Logistics, Camp Management and Protection and Education (as happened in Pakistan after the 2005 Kashmir Earthquake). One of the case study areas used for the HRR was the West Darfur situation. And this paper re-visits that situation based on data collected there in June 2004 as part of testing of the Kestle Framework. The paper revisits the development and validation of that framework and then compares it to the Cluster Approach and suggests a way to move ahead by merging the framework into the Cluster Approach to produce an enhanced more robust approach.

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  • Destabilising the studio - teaching architectural design in China

    van Raat, Tony (2010-07)

    Conference paper
    Unitec

    Cooperative ventures in international education frequently involve transitioning students from one learning paradigm to another. This is particularly the case in joint programmes in architecture where lateral thinking and creativity, often assumed to be characteristics of western education, encounter a more didactic and teacher-focussed educational model in developing countries. This paper explores the strategies that have been employed in joint programmes in architecture developed between an educational provider in New Zealand and China. Many Chinese students are accustomed to an education "which emphasises not only the technical aspects of the discipline but also encourages them to generate responses to architectural problems based on a formulaic understanding of fundamental typologies. In order to prepare them for a more lateral and exploratory educational experience in the west it has proven necessary to first destabilise their understandings of the design process before introducing them to design studio projects typical of Australasian architecture programmes. This strategy described in this paper has been developed over 6 years of experience in teaching joint courses in several Universities in China, the students from which may transition into a programme in New Zealand and thereafter work globally. It is founded on an appreciation of work undertaken by the anthropologist Gregory Bateson and others on how people model their experiences of the world and how the adoption of new models can enlarge human creativity. Derived from this a major subtext to this project is to develop in the students' minds the conception of architecture as a humanistic discipline by replacing a model which emphasise the centrality of technology and 'given' solutions with one concerned with a less certain and more flexible, more intense and more personalised involvement with the questions which the next generation of architects will need to answer.

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  • Wasted opportunities: Developing resiliency in architecture through ecosystem biomimicry

    Balle, Brad; McConchie, Graeme (2010)

    Conference paper
    Unitec

    Surplus buildings are frequently demolished and replaced under the assumption that it is cheaper to replace than adapt. The demolished building becomes waste material, usually ending up in landfills. Yet in nature discarded waste does not exist – it instead becomes ‘food’ for other flora and fauna. So too can surplus artificial waste become ‘food’ for new construction, thereby prolonging the life-cycle of materials by seeking new opportunities for their reinvestment in a building. We can thus rethink a building as a long duration work-in-progress, constantly developing and changing incrementally under changing conditions of context; designed to be readily susceptible – not resistant – to adaptation and growth. The energy-conservative re-use of an existing building and materials represents a positive response to the environmental sustainability imperative. Yet, whilst gently adding layers and texture over time through gradual, incremental growth, this re-use paradigm also ensures a continuing social familiarity with the urban landscape and the sustainability of associated memory. This paper critically examines the reuse paradigm and appraises the application of re-use strategies, taking as its case study a post-graduate architectural research project based in the adaptive re-use of an electricity substation building and site in the city-fringe suburb of Kingsland in Auckland, New Zealand.

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  • Showcasing green urbanism on waterfronts: A comparative study of Porto Alegre and Auckland

    Bogunovich, Dushko; Wagner, Cesar (2010)

    Conference paper
    Unitec

    Porto Alegre and Auckland - being port cities on river estuaries, comparable in size and age, and sharing a number of morphological analogies - are similar enough to enable and justify a comparative analysis and evaluation of the physical opportunities for redevelopment. We are particularly interested in possibilities for a faster transition to environmentally sustainable and technologically resilient models of urban development. The context to this investigation is the imminent global environmental crisis and the growing political and scientific consensus that cities are at the centre of this crisis. They are the main culprit, and they will be the main victim if nothing is done. Cities must undergo a radical technological overhaul – which means replacing their obsolete infrastructure and architecture with cleaner and smarter solutions. This is a colossal task, which must be accomplished in the next 10 to 20 years, worldwide. Demonstrating what sustainable urban development looks like and how it works will be critical in mobilising governments, industries and populations. Such demonstration will be more effective if done on particularly prominent locations. In port and coastal cities, these spaces and locations are typically found on their waterfronts. Both Auckland and Porto Alegre have excellent opportunities to redevelop the unused, or poorly used, segments of their waterfronts. Both cities have started the redevelopment process and have aspirations and plans for even more transformation and investment. The areas compared in the study are the Auckland ‘CBD waterfront’ and Porto Alegre’s ‘Cais Mauá’. Both zones are about 2 km long and between 60 and 150 metres deep. The existing planning documents and declarations, as well as already executed projects, have been assessed in terms of their expected environmental performance and in terms of their perceived significance in promoting advanced forms of ecologically sound urbanism. Accomplished international examples of ‘green urban waterfronts’ have been used as benchmarks (Toronto; Vancouver; Melbourne; Hamburg; Malmo; and others).

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  • Experiments on common grounds: Four Auckland houses by Richard Hobin (1949-1953)

    Francis, Kerry; Smith, Gregory (2010-01-01)

    Conference paper
    Unitec

    In Auckland in the 1950s a group of architecture students and young graduates were exploring innovative techniques of small scale construction. While these explorations can be seen in the context of a broader, global post-war interest in rational construction, they did appear to have a particularly New Zealand flavour; working as they were with a local light timber frame and its supporting concrete technologies. Collectively known as Structural Developments, this group was concentrated around the structural and material interests of Richard Hobin. This paper examines four houses designed and built by Hobin in Auckland between 1949 and 1953; the now demolished Strewe house in Glen Eden, the Taylor house in Devonport, the Bryant house in Forrest Hill and the J.M. Hobin house in Point Chevalier. The examination reveals the beginnings of a life long interest in structural and material innovation, unfortunately lost to this country when Hobin left for London in 1954, where he remained for the rest of his career.

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