1,377 results for Conference paper

  • Analysis of results in simulation and modeling of CDMA systems

    Kolahi, Samad (2007-07-01)

    Conference paper
    Unitec

    In this paper, using discrete event stochastic simulation by batch-means, new results have been obtained by analysing the sensitivity of CDMA blocking probability for a given traffic load against various number of calls per batch and confidence intervals. It is found that for the system under study one long simulation with one million call arrivals produce approximately 99% confidence in results while it needs 100,000 calls to achieve 95% confidence. For system under study and with 27 Erlang of traffic, the blocking probability is 0.0202 with 99% confidence and 0.0192 with 95% confidence. The impact of warm-up period on CDMA simulation is discussed. Situation with three tiers of neighbouring cells are considered when mobile compares three base stations and chooses the base station with the strongest signal.

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  • Advances in conservation of Māori textiles; analysis and identification

    Smith, Catherine Ann; Lowe, Bronwyn J.; Paterson, Rachel A. (2016)

    Conference paper
    University of Otago

    A number of new methods and technologies for investigating Māori textiles have emerged from ten years of research in the Department of Applied Sciences - Clothing and Textile Sciences, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand. Research projects undertaken include development of numerous identification methods for textile plants endemic to New Zealand (bright field microscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Micro-Computed tomography (micro-CT), Polarised Light Microscopy (PLM)); exploration and improvement of safe display parameters for naturally-dyed Māori textiles (artificial light-ageing, microfading); and testing the efficacy of consolidants recommended for remedial conservation treatment of black-dyed muka (fibre) from harakeke (New Zealand flax, Phormium tenax). Of note is the collaborative and interdisciplinary nature of the work undertaken (research partnerships with iwi (Māori tribal grouping), customary weaving practitioners, New Zealand museums, conservation laboratories and other University departments), in addition to the adaptation of international standard textile testing methods to better reflect the artefact types of interest (for instance testing of fibre aggregates rather than woven European fabrics). Research outcomes are of relevance to practitioners and artists as well as those caring for Māori taonga, and have added to knowledge about both Māori textiles, and plants and dyes used in Māori textiles production.

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  • Flat tax in New Zealand : unemployment and social security taxes 1930-70

    Rankin, Keith (2016-06)

    Conference paper
    Unitec

    With the concept of a Universal Basic Income (UBI) being mooted this year as an important reform that can facilitate our adaption to a flexible work-world characterised by short-term contracts, inequality and automation, it becomes instructive to investigate historical precedents. In particular, unconditional income (including negative income tax) solutions are linked – at least in economists' minds – to a flatter (if not flat, ie proportional) income tax structure. The practical reconceptualisation and reform of income tax and benefits that I would argue for is indeed a proportional income tax, initially set at 33 percent, coupled with a minimum publicly-sourced personal credit set initially at $175 per week ($9,080 per year).1 Such a 'basic income flat tax' schema adapts easily to New Zealand's present tax and benefits levels, and will be affordable in the near future if not already. It would allow many people – especially young people – on benefits, student allowances or low wages to bypass the Work and Income bureaucracy and get on with their lives, leaving Work and Income to focus on addressing specific needs and deprivation, and allowing sole parents to benefit directly from Child Support agreements or impositions. In this paper I investigate the flat (sometimes 'flattish') income tax that existed, under various names, between 1930 and 1970. Initially an 'unemployment tax' (the mainstay of an Unemployment Fund), in 1936 it was repackaged as an 'employment promotion tax'. Then in 1938 it was boosted and further repackaged as a 'social security tax' (with its associated Social Security Fund). From the outset, the social security tax came to be closely associated in the public mind with the universal superannuation benefit that commenced in 1940 at a modest £10 ($20) per year. This new benefit co-existed with the means-tested age-benefit, then £78 per year. The mechanism set in the 1938 Social Security Act was that the superannuation benefit would increase by £2.5 each year until it reached the level of the age-benefit, at which point the universal superannuation would displace the age-benefit for persons over 65. However, there was no explicit provision for inflation-indexing in the legislation. Inflation had not been a problem in the 1920s and 1930s, but would become so from the 1940s and most of all in the 1950s.

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  • A mobile sensor activity for ad-hoc groups

    Parsons, David; Thomas, H.; Inkila, Milla (2017-05-10T05:37:51Z)

    Conference paper
    Unitec

    Designing mobile learning activities requires us to consider which key affordances of mobile devices can support the optimum learning experience. This short paper reports on the design and testing of a BYOD mobile learning activity that was based on an analysis of affordances and a survey of student preferences. It outlines the affordances and preferences that were identified and how these were included in a broader set of design requirements. It explains the choice of tools adopted for the activity, and how they were integrated into the overall learning experience based on using mobile devices to find locations and gather sensor data. Some interim observations are made around the experience and the collaborative data set gathered by the participants.

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  • Under the Mountain - how a volcanic peak has influenced the culture, ecology and landscape history of Taranaki, New Zealand

    Davies, Renee; Lambert, R. E. (2017-05-10T05:37:12Z)

    Conference paper
    Unitec

    Mount Taranaki/Egmont occupies a central place in the history and culture of Taranaki people – Maori and European. The mystical qualities of the volcanic mountain have influenced the culture, ecology and landscape history of the area and illustrate that cultural landscapes are often predominantly associative (having powerful spiritual, artistic or cultural associations with a natural element) and broad-reaching in their manifestation within a diversity of cultures. Our human need for a sense of identity and belonging is strongly linked to landscape and place. As Taylor notes [1] ‗Landscape therefore is not simply what we see, but a way of seeing: we see it with our eye but interpret it with our mind and ascribe values to landscape for intangible – spiritual – reasons‘. The mountain itself and the circular ring of protected forest surrounding the mountain– which forms the Egmont National park is a strong example of an associative cultural landscape that embodies both tangible and intangible values. The circle of fertile ring-plain contains and protects the original forest of the mountain which was one of the earliest of New Zealand‘s ecological reserves to be protected and surveyed off from settlement. This circle frames the wilderness of indigenous native forest within the taming grid of a farming culture. The heritage of New Zealand surveying, settlement and forest destruction is poignantly captured in this physical landscape feature and its mystery and symbolism is illustrated in the spiritual beliefs, artistic history and economic products of the inhabitants that live under it. To the indigenous people of Taranaki - Maori, the mountain (Te Maunga) has deeply cultural and spiritual signficance. To Mana Whenua (those with geneological and local tribal authority over the land) the mountain is part of the landscape and an ancestor, it is a reference point and the names and physical features have particular significance as symbols of the people that provide meaning, order and stability. European settlers arrived in the region in 1841 and profound cultural and landscape change resulted. Throughout this time, the mountain appears in imagery and marketing for the area and the conical peak with an idyllic farming scene in the foreground has featured as a regional and national icon represented in art, advertising and symbolism. This paper explores the Maori and European connections to Mount Taranaki as a case study of an associative cultural landscape that has shaped the social and landscape history of an entire region and that continues to influence the future of this special volcanic landscape.

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  • Conceptualizing brand consumption in social media community

    Davis, Robert; Piven, I.; Breazeale, M. (2017-05-10T05:37:28Z)

    Conference paper
    Unitec

    The emergence of social media is challenging the conceptualization of the brand. This paper develops a conceptual model of the consumption of brands in Social Media Community (SMC). The research triangulates a social media focus group and face-to-face interviews. This study identifies five core drivers of brand consumption in a SMC articulated in the Five Sources Model. Managerial implications are discussed.

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  • Fast Center Search Algorithm with Hardware implementation for Motion Estimation in HEVC Encoder

    Medhat, Ahmed; Shalaby, Ahmed; Sayed, Mohammed S.; Elsabrouty, Maha; Madipour, Farhad (2017-05-10T05:37:44Z)

    Conference paper
    Unitec

    This paper presents a Fast Center Search Algorithm (FCSA) and its hardware implementation design of integer Motion Estimation for High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC). FCSA achieves average time saving ratio up to 40% for HD video sequences with respect to full search, with insignificant loss in terms of PSNR performance and bit rate. The proposed hardware implementation shows that it meets the requirements of 30 4K frame per second with ±16 search window at 550 MHz. The prototyped architecture utilizes 8% of the LUTs and 4% of the slice registers in Xilinx Virtex-6 XC6VLX-550T FPGA

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  • A Highly Parallel SAD Architecture for Motion Estimation in HEVC Encoder

    Medhat, Ahmed; Shalaby, Ahmed; Sayed, Mohammed S.; Elsabrouty, Maha; Madipour, Farhad (2017-05-10T05:37:43Z)

    Conference paper
    Unitec

    The high computational cost of the motion estimation module in the new HEVC standard raises the need for efficient hardware architectures that can meet the real-time processing constraint. In addition, targeting HD and UHD resolutions increases the motion estimation processing cost beyond the capabilities of the currently existing architectures. This paper presents a highly parallel sum of absolute difference (SAD) architecture for motion estimation in HEVC encoder. The proposed architecture has 64 PUs operating in parallel to calculate the SAD values of the prediction blocks. It processes block sizes from 4x4 up to 64x64. The proposed architecture has been prototyped, simulated and synthesized on Xilinx Virtix-7 XC7VX550T FPGA. At 458 MHz clock frequency, the proposed architecture processes 30 2K resolution fps with ±20 pixels search range. The prototyped architecture utilizes 7% of the LUTs and 5% of the slice registers in Xilinx Virtex-7 XC7VX550T FPGA.

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  • Large-scale image retrieval using local binary patterns and iterative quantization

    Shakerdonyavi, M.; Shanbehzadeh, J.; Sarrafzadeh, Hossein (2017-05-10T05:38:08Z)

    Conference paper
    Unitec

    Hashing algorithm is an efficient approximate searching algorithm for large-scale image retrieval. Learning binary code is a key step to improve its performance and it is still an ongoing challenge. The inputs of Hashing affects its performance. This paper proposes a method to improve the efficiency of learning binary code by improving the suitableness of the Hashing algorithms inputs by employing local binary patterns in extracting image features. This approach results in more compact code, less memory and computational requirement and higher performance. The reasons behind these achievements are the binary nature and high efficiency in feature generation of local binary pattern. The performance analysis consists of using CIFAR-10 and precision vs. recall rate as dataset and evaluation criteria respectively. The simulations compare the new algorithm with three state of the art and along the line algorithms from three points of view; the hashing code size, memory space and computational cost, and the results demonstrate the effectiveness of the new approach.

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  • Distributed Incremental wLPSVM Learning

    Zhu, L.; Ban, T.; Ikeda, K.; Pang, P.; Sarrafzadeh, Hossein (2017-05-10T05:38:05Z)

    Conference paper
    Unitec

    Weighted linear proximal support vector machine (wLPSVM) is known as an efficient binary classification algorithm with good accuracy and class-imbalance robustness. In this work, original batch wLPSVM is facilitated with distributed incremental learning capability, which allows simultaneously learning from multiple streaming data sources that are geographically distributed. In our approach, incremental and distributed learning are solved as a merging problem at the same time. A new wLPSVM expression is derived. In the new expression, knowledge from samples are presented as a set of class-wised core matrices, and merging knowledge from two subsets of data can be simply accomplished by matrix addition. With the new expression, we are able to conduct incremental and distributed learning at the same time via merging knowledge from multiple incremental stages and multiple data sources.

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  • Relationship between rotational inertia of the upper limbs and latency period in the simple fast sensor motor reactions of young adults

    Gutnik, B.; Karganov, M.Yu.; Pankova, N.B.; Lebedeva, M.A.; Khlebnikova, N.N.; Zuoza, A.; Alekrinskis, A.; Zuozienė, I.; Mickevičiene, D.; Nash, Derek (2017-05-10T05:38:18Z)

    Conference paper
    Unitec

    One of the components of this response involves the latent period of simple sensor-motor reaction that is often viewed to be the result of integrative brain function [Bernstein,1967]. The influence of the motor component in the implementation of a simple motor response and reaction time, noted by the abovementioned authors, is Associated mainly with the type of nervous system rather than biomechanical and anthropometric characteristics of participants.. The period of muscular mechanical contraction is an important element which may delay reaction time [Jiménez- Jiménez et al.,2011] and according to Bernstein [Bernstein,1967] theory there is no simple linkage between motor neuronal output and movement. This theory implies that limb shape and current physical properties of contracted musculature distort motor output. It is also known that motor output involves inertial forces, which often impede the implementation of movement [Enoka,1994; Loeb, 1985, Murray et al., 1995]. These forces, in turn, depend on the mass and length of the driving segments, as well as the localization of the centers of mass of the reacting kinematic chain [Bernstein,1967] . Masses and lengths of reacting segments may affect reaction time [Chu, 1989; Gutnik, et al, 2001, Mignardot, et al.,2010, Samaras, 2007, Williams et al.,2008]. From a biomechanical perspective the masses and lengths of the reacting segments represent their inertial features and should be treated as peripheral elements of the motor system [Lieber, 2002]. Specifically, a relationship to rotational inertia can be considered, because all movement in the joints is rotary. Some authors studied the influence of rotational inertia of the reacting segments on the duration of motor reaction. For example, Anson [Anson, 1989] artificially increased the weight of the proximal and distal segments of tested limbs. He found some delay in reaction time corresponding with increasing rotational inertia of the reacting segment and vice versa. The main shortcoming of his study was that the experimental gravitational conditions for the test were very artificial and the motor program(s) selected for this new motor action had not been properly adapted to the new environmental force conditions. Other researchers have increasingly paid attention only to the length of the limbs or total body height [Chu, 1989, Samaras,2007]. They concluded that participants with short stature and relatively short upper limbs react to simple stimuli more quickly, and vice versa. However, it must be remembered that these data are indirectly related to the inertial features of the upper extremities, because their lengths may only partially reflect these features. Some researchers noted that people with higher mass had longer reaction time, but explanations of their results were linked to only purely neural factors, such as distortion of sensory and proprioceptive signals [Mignardot et al, 2010, Williams et al., 2008]. The aim of our study was to examine the dependence of reaction time on the moment of inertia of the limbs of participants during adduction of the forearm and hand. In contrast to Anson’s [Anson, 1989] study, our research involved a large array of participants of both genders with the same age. This approach offers two advantages; the opportunity to compare the inertial characteristics of a large number of participants, and, to avoid artificial loading of their segments and, in turn, exclude adaptive response of participants.

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  • Compatibility of measuring simple reaction time in individuals using computerized and fingertip visuomotor methods

    Gutnik, B.; Lyakh, V.; Gierczuk, D.; Nash, Derek (2017-05-10T05:38:14Z)

    Conference paper
    Unitec

    Many studies of the reaction time (RT) expressed this index as the interval between the time of signal detection and the beginning of motor response. Reaction time is widely used in various fields of science and practice: RT assessment is an important component of health science, developmental physiology, sports medicine and can increase the thoroughness of health and clinical examinations (Bernstein, 1967; Collins et al., 2003; Henneberg et al., 2001; Kolb & Whishaw, 1995; Lovell et al.,2001; Makdissi et al.,2001; Schendel & Robertson, 2002; Warden et al.,2001). It is clear that impaired RT has functional relevance given that a rapid RT is necessary for injury avoidance and good professional skill performances. Reaction time assessment is an important component in sports medicine, especially for identification of brain concussion (Broglio & Guskiewicz, 2009; Collie et al.,2006; Collins et al.,2003). There are 2 main tests that are useful to measure reaction time. The button push reaction time test measures how quickly a participant may click (push) a button. and the fingertip visuomotor test is a procedure for conducting a reaction time test using a ruler. Advantages of computerized measurement of RT are: 1) that stimulus presentation duration is carefully controlled, 2) the period between stimuli may be easily randomized, and 3) that the time of response is easily measured (Eckner et al., 2010). Despite the advantages of computerized neuropsychological testing, it has a limited role in practice especially on the playing field (Eckner et al., 2010). Reaction time assessment tools on a computer require specialized software and specific research skills that may limit its usage. The cost of computerized testing, at $669 to $677 per person, makes them unaffordable for many low profile athletes (Grindel, 2006). It is obvious that the fingertip visuomotor field reaction time test is a very important method that is broadly used in athletic training clinics (Eckner et al., 2009; Eckner et al.,2010; Eckner & et al.,2011a,b,c). Despite of broad usage of fingertip visuomotor tests measuring RT there is little available information comparing the computerized and fingertip visuomotor methods of determining RT. In other words, the existing literature doesn’t answer the question; is the simple reaction time, tested using the simplified fingertip visuomotor method compatible with the results from the computerized methods in the same individual. We also did not find a clear answer to the question how compatible is fingertip visuomotor method selectively for the dominant and nondominant hands. The purpose of our study was to determine the individual compatibility of the simplified fingertip visuomotor method of measuring simple RT selectively for the dominant and nondominant hands of untrained healthy young people of high school age.

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  • Storm water management and improvement case of Freemans Bay Auckland

    Bradbury, Matthew; De Costa, Gregory (2017-05-10T05:38:21Z)

    Conference paper
    Unitec

    Freemans Bay is a vast and recovered industrial zone, encompassed by a petrol chemical storage facility and a tank farm. Major storm water outfall from the surrounding Freemans Bay catchment can cause contamination in the ground around the tank farm and the sea. The entire Freemans Bay catchment anticipated 244hactares, 72.7% of impervious surfaces (178hactares). The impervious surfaces are divided into 64hactares of building roofs and roads, 114hactares of driveways and footpaths. The remaining 27.3% or 66hactares of the catchment are pervious surfaces (parks, lawns and vegetated buffers which have been found to be the source of large amounts of storm water flowing through Wynyard Quarter at the bottom of the catchment), where storm water can penetrate through the ground layers as a filter for initial treatment before reaching the storm water network for discharge. However, most of the storm water is assembled and discharged via a four meter by three meter drainage pipe below Wynyard Quarter This study focuses on storm water issues identified within the Freemans Bay area. The purpose of the study is to find solutions to help manage land contamination, sea pollution and improve the storm water system within the area. A thorough investigation occurred throughout the entire catchment with the aid of Auckland GIS viewer. The findings include a design of a wetland storm water treatment system to treat the storm water produce by the 2 year storm event within the area before discharge, reduce the speed of run-off to prevent erosion and also to increase the aesthetic and recreational nature of the area.

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  • Developing a co-­design methodology for school ground greening

    Wake, Sue; Wang, Qian (2017-05-10T05:38:22Z)

    Conference paper
    Unitec

    If school  grounds  are  developed  as  ecologically  diverse  and  environmentally  stimulating  places  that  encourage   student  engagement and learning,  they  can  contribute  to  children demonstrating,what  researchers  such  as  Chawla   and  Cushing  (2007)  have  termed, pro-environmental  behaviour.    School  ground  greening  is  the  general  term  used  for   the  transformation  of  school  grounds from  asphalt, concrete  and  grass  to  spaces  that  invite children  to  explore  and   experiment  (Dyment,  2005),and  a  significant  rationale  for  its current popularity  is  the  potential  for  developing   positive  environmental  values  and  attitudes as  a  result  of  these  nature  encounters  (Williams  & Brown,  2012).   Further,  if  children  participate  in  the  design  of  these  environments  it  can  foster creativity  and imagination,  develop   communication  and  thinking  skills,  and  engender  ownership, sharing  and  belonging  (Christidou,  Tsevreni,  Epitropou   &  Kittas,  2013).   Architectural  codesign  with  children  may  be  defined  as  them working  directly  and  collaboratively   with  designers to  contribute  and make decisions  within  the  design  process,and  this  kind  of  spatial  advocacy  is   known  to  be  empowering (Parnell,  2014). This  presentation  considers  different  ways  that  co-design  could  occur  within  the  school  environment  as  part  of  a   study investigating how  landscape  architects  can work  with  schools  to  help  with  school  ground  greening  projects   that  promote  environmental  and design  learning.  

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  • Projetos urbanos e a construção social da cidade: intervenções nas áreas portuárias de Porto Alegre e Auckland

    Melchiors, L. C.; Wagner, Cesar (2017-05-10T05:38:21Z)

    Conference paper
    Unitec

    Nas últimas décadas as cidades contemporâneas tem sido marcadas por profundas transformações em seus centros históricos. A partir dos anos 80, tornou-se uma constante mundial a discussão em torno de políticas visando a reestruturação de áreas portuárias centrais que se encontravam em processo de deterioração e abandono. Essas áreas representam a possibilidade de construção de espaços que possibilitem não apenas o encontro e a sociabilidade na esfera pública, mas também o seu resgate enquanto patrimônio cultural e ambiental, restituindo o seu protagonismo referencial para a cidade. Buscando discutir a importância destes espaços na concertação e construção social da cidade contemporânea, e de que modo ações políticas podem influenciar, positivamente ou negativamente, este processo, o trabalho aqui exposto procura refletir sobre as diferentes formas de abordagens nas transformações e reestruturações urbanas de dois projetos contemporâneos de intervenção portuária: o projeto Cais Mauá, em Porto Alegre, e o projeto Waterfront CBD em Auckland. No caso de Auckland, embora apenas parte do projeto da orla tenha sido implementado, vê-se que os espaços públicos são a ênfase da transformação. Observa-se também a participação ativa dos cidadãos neste processo, onde suas reivindicações e demandas por mais espaços públicos e parques, acarretaram em significativas mudanças no projeto inicial. Porto Alegre, por sua vez, tem seu processo de transformação da orla portuária ainda em andamento, representando uma oportunidade para a discussão dos melhores caminhos para esta reformulação. A hipótese aqui discutida é de que a participação social nos processos de intervenção em áreas urbanas significativas, contribui para a construção de espaços que atendam e respeitem as necessidades locais, tornando-se espaços de forte urbanidade. Refletindo assim, em transformações urbanas sólidas a partir da valorização dos espaços patrimoniais e do diálogo participativo. [MAIN BODY OF PAPER IN PORTUGUESE - ENGLISH LANGUAGE ABSTRACT FOLLOWS] In recent decades contemporary cities have been marked by a profound transformation in their historical centers. Starting in the 80s, it became a worldwide constant discussion around policies aimed at the redevelopment of central waterfront areas that were going through a process of decay and abandonment. These areas represent the possibility of building spaces that allow not only the meeting and sociability in the public sphere, but also its recovery as cultural and environmental heritage, thus, restoring its benchmark role for the city. Seeking to discuss the importance of these spaces on the consultation and social construction of the contemporary city, and how the political actions can influence, positively or negatively, this process, the work here exposed tries to reflect on the different forms of approaches of urban redevelopment displayed by two contemporary waterfront design intervention: the Cais Mauá project, in Porto Alegre, and the Auckland CBD Waterfront project in Auckland. In Auckland although only part of the entire project has already been implemented, it is possible to notice that public spaces are the emphasis of the transformation. It's possible to observe an active participation of the citizens in this process, where their claims and demands, for more public spaces and parks, have resulted in significant changes to the initial project. Porto Alegre, in turn, has its process of transformation of its waterfront still as a work in progress, representing an opportunity to discuss the best ways for this redesign. The hypothesis here discussed is that social participation in intervention processes of a significant urban area, contributes to the construction of spaces that meet and satisfy local needs, becoming spaces of strong urbanity. Thus reflecting on solid urban transformations from the appreciation of heritage spaces and participatory dialogue.

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  • Field studies to investigate Impact of increasing R-value of building envelope on winter indoor relative humidity of Auckland houses

    Su, Bin (2017-05-10T05:38:23Z)

    Conference paper
    Unitec

    PURPOSE / CONTEXT The study investigates relationships of winter indoor relative humidity and R-value of building envelope of the Auckland houses. METHODOLOGY / APPROACH Field study of indoor micro climatic conditions. Air temperatures and relative humidity adjacent to floors and ceilings of different indoor spaces of the two houses with different R-value in their envelopes and shaded outdoor spaces were continuously measured and recorded at 15 minute intervals, 24 hours a day, by Lascar EL-USB-2 USB Humidity Data Logger during the winter months. RESULTS The study identifies the differences of winter indoor relative humidity of Auckland houses with different insulation and glazing in their envelopes and the major problems of building thermal design of local house with lightweight timber frame construction. KEY FINDINGS / IMPLICATIONS Increasing R-value in building envelope of Auckland houses in accordance with the requirements from NZS 4218:1996 to NZS 4218:2009 can significantly in- crease 19.6% of winter time when indoor relative humidity are 40% and 60%. Maintaining indoor relative humidity between 40% and 60% can minimize the indirect health effects. ORIGINALITY Quantitative relationships between R-value in building envelope and winter indoor relative humidity, and the identified thermal design problems of local houses with lightweight timber frame construction can be good references for improving indoor health conditions of the future Auckland housing development.

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  • 城市环境设计和绿色建筑的关系 = Urban environmental design and green building

    Su, B. (2017-05-10T05:38:24Z)

    Conference paper
    Unitec

    中国有一句古语,“不要丢了西瓜捡芝麻”。从我们学术一点的角度来讲,《建筑物理》上面就会 有一段描述,说如果在供热的情况下,把供热温度调低一度,我们差不多能节省 10% ~15% 的能源。 如果空调温度提高一度,我们大致可以节省 5% ~8% 的能源。 我们想象一下,如果我们能把一个城市或者一个建筑基地,通过我们的设计和规划,如果在冬季 基地温度能提高一度,或者在夏季基地温度能降低一度,可能我们人不一定能感觉到有多强烈的变化, 但是对这个基地和这个城市的建筑节能问题,就会带来一个巨大的变化。所以我今天讲的内容,是我 们怎么能抱得一个西瓜,然后再考虑捡芝麻的问题。我的重点不是集中在单体绿色建筑物的绿色设计、 节能设计,我是从整体出发,用城市规划、城市环境设计的一些原理、方法。它也可以用在我们基地 的规划设计上,然后再把每个建筑做好。这也是我们中国现在面临的一个问题。

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  • Is radical innovation a new value-adding paradigm for construction organisations or just a current fad? : a critique.

    Puolitaival, Taija; Kestle, Linda (2017-05-10T05:37:55Z)

    Conference paper
    Unitec

    The Construction Industry, globally, has long been accused of low levels of productivity and innovation and arguably cannot be as readily measured using mechanisms common to other industries. Innovation is described and defined differently according to the particular context of discourse. This research investigated a process known as ‘radical innovation’ from a published and funding perspective longitudinally over time in a range of industries, including how it may or could be interpreted, applied and add value in the construction context. A systematic and in-depth literature review was undertaken involving sources from longstanding and credible journal data bases. The findings were analysed using an interpretative methodology that incorporated a multi-dimensional measurement approach. The findings, and the subsequent critique, were broken into two components – ‘radical innovation’ persé, and ‘radical innovation’ in construction. The resultants established that ‘radical innovation’ has been explored by researchers from the 1930’s in the context of many industries, but not within the Construction Industry context – where only a handful of journal articles having been published. In addition, enablers and obstacles have been identified, with only minimal evidence of previously proven methods within the Construction Industry. A poor track record of investing in research and development, the nature of the industry being adversarial and fragmented, with many micro organisations, suggested that an action research project will be the next step to test and potentially embody ‘radical innovation’ and increase productivity.

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  • SHRM and capacity building and its impact on management employees in foreign companies in Laos

    Lockyer, Alan; Nel, Pieter; Vilayvong, Sonethavy (2017-05-10T05:38:00Z)

    Conference paper
    Unitec

    Strategic Human Resource Management (SHRM) in capacity building can enhance the capabilities of an organisations’ workforce, which is a key value in achieving high levels of productivity. In the Laos Peoples Democratic Republic (PDR), there are numerous foreign investments to assist the country in its economic development efforts. Investors, however, require a competent local workforce to operate their businesses, especially at the management level. The main aim of this research paper is to determine the problems associated with the implementation of SHRM in capacity building of local managerial employees working in foreign businesses in Laos and how to avoid it. Semi-structured interviews was the main data collecting technique involving eleven participants from seven foreign businesses operating in Laos PDR during 2015. The findings revealed that capacity building for local managerial employees was not executed effectively. Obstacles preventing the implementation and practice of SHRM in capacity building, include limited budgets, few roles created in HRM at a strategic level, insufficient qualifications of local managerial employees and unsuitable development programmes for capacity building. A model was developed which outlines suitable steps for capacity building of the local managerial employees working in foreign businesses in Laos, to improve their performance and productivity.

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  • From source coding to MIMO : a Multi-Level Unequal Error Protection

    Barmada, Bashar; Rehman, Saeed (2017-05-10T05:37:58Z)

    Conference paper
    Unitec

    In this paper, unequal error protection (UEP) on different levels of the transmission system is proposed. Starting from the source coding level, two priority layers are produced, high priority (HP) and low priority (LP). At channel coding, each priority layer is turbo encoded with a coding rate that reflects its importance. For modulation, a more immune modulation mode is used to modulate the HP bit stream. Finally at the transmission level, a 3 × 3 MIMO is used, where more transmit antennas and time slots are offered to HP data. This arrangement of inequality over several levels increases the flexibility of the UEP system and leads to a better performance. Results show that the proposed system outperforms other semi-unequal and equal error protection systems over a wide range of channel signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), especially at low SNR values.

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