1,415 results for Conference paper

  • Evaluation of IPv6 with IPSec in IEEE 802.11n Wireless LAN using Fedora 15 Operating System

    Kolahi, Samad; Cao, Yuqing (Rico); Chen, Hong (2013-07-07)

    Conference paper
    Unitec

    IPSec (IP Security) is a robust technique for securing communications over the Internet. Due to security algorithms used, transferring data using IPSec is known to be significantly slow. In this paper using a test bed environment for a site to site IPSec, we present new results on performance of IPSec for both IPv4 and IPv6 using Fedora 15 operating system and wireless network. Compared to open system, enabling IPSec results in approximately 50% and 40% less throughput for IPv4 and IPv6 networks respectively.

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  • The impact of wireless LAN security on performance for different windows operating systems

    Kolahi, Samad; Narayan, Shaneel; Nguyen, Du D.T.; Sunarto, Yonathan; Mani, Paul (2008-07-09)

    Conference paper
    Unitec

    This paper investigates the impact of various encryption techniques (WEP-64, WEP-128 and WPA) on performance of wireless LANs for Windows operating systems (Windows Server 2003, Windows XP and Windows Vista) and for both TCP and UDP protocols. The parameters considered are throughput and response time. The results indicate that security mechanism does influence the wireless performance and different operating systems provide various results.

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  • The tempered edge : waterfront development in an age of climate change.

    Bradbury, Matthew (2014-06)

    Conference paper
    Unitec

    Urban waterfront development has followed the Baltimore waterfront model since the 1970s. This model is characterised by the formation of a thin promenade of public space with carefully choreo- graphed event architecture, behind which lies retail, commercial and residential development. The sustainability of this model has recently been called into question by the consequence of climate change manifested in recent storm events such as Hurricane Sandy. This paper proposes an alternative waterfront design model, one that builds environmental resilience into the typical waterfront development while still generating the expected real estate returns. The author expounds a development methodology using hydrologically modelling tools to measure the production of urban stormwater within the larger urban catchment. Modelling different scenarios, especially the implications in the increase of pervious surfaces, suggests a way in which the contemporary waterfront can become more resilient to the consequences of climate change while at the same time retaining an expected commercial return. A test case site is used to model the proposed methodology. The results show that to accommodate the hydrological consequence of climate change a radically reconfigured master plan must be adopted.

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  • Wealth with green : lessons with exemplary green enterprise

    Mellalieu, Peter (2015-12)

    Conference paper
    Unitec

    The paper reports progress on the launch of a project to empower a multidisciplinary faculty of students and teachers to implement practical actions towards improving environmental sustainability in their multiple contexts. The project focusses on drawing lessons FOR and WITH SMEs who have the ambition to achieve a zero or positive environmental impact as a by-product (or product) of their operations. The rationale for the project is that many efforts to pursue environmental sustainability are insufficient to address the true environmental challenges that face societies. The paper concludes by challenging educators to adopt Education for Sustainability enabling every graduate to think and act as a sustainable practitioner in their employment, their household, their communities, and their professional discipline.

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  • Bring your own device classroom : issues of digital divides in teaching and learning contexts

    Adhikari, Janak; Mathrani, Anuradha; Parsons, David (2015-12)

    Conference paper
    Unitec

    Technology mediated learning provides potentially valuable resources for learners’ academic and social development. However, according to recent researches, as the adoption stages of ICTs advance there arises further levels of digital divides in terms of equity of information literacy and learning outcomes. For the last three years we have been working with one of the earliest secondary school in New Zealand to introduce a Bring Your Own Device (BYOD) policy. Our research has included a number of methods, including surveys, interviews and classroom observations. In this paper we present the findings from the investigation into BYOD project, which offers new insights into the digital divide issues in the context of technology mediated learning. Teaching and learning practices are evolving continually across formal and informal spaces, and this study informs us how the BYOD policy has influenced existing divides in the learning process.

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  • Are higher education institutions delivering customer satisfaction?

    de Jager, Johan W.; Jan, Muhammad Tahir; Hebblethwaite, Denisa (2015-12)

    Conference paper
    Unitec

    Higher education institutions are realising the importance of a customer centred approach to survival in the face of increased domestic competition and the globalisation of higher education. The objective of the study is to determine the impact of different variables on customer satisfaction in the higher education sector. More explicitly, this study aims to identify the effects of: support facilities and infrastructure; location and access; and image and marketing on customer satisfaction. A random sample of 390 students was chosen. A review of the structural model indicates that only the impact of ‘support facilities and infrastructure’ on customer satisfaction can be supported statistically.

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  • WPA2 security-bandwith trade-off in 802.11n peer-peer WLAN for IPv4 and IPv6 using Windows XP and Windows 7 operating systems

    Kolahi, Samad; Li, Peng; Safdari, Mustafa; Argawe, Mulugeta (2012-07-01)

    Conference paper
    Unitec

    In this paper, we present new results on the performance of IEEE 802.11n using open system (no security) and WPA2 security for Windows XP and Windows 7. Enabling WPA2 security results in approximately 4.4 Mbps less TCP throughput than open system for both IPv4 and IPv6 on Windows XP and up to 2.8 Mbps less TCP throughput for Windows 7. For both open system and WPA2 security, Windows 7 provides higher IPv4 and IPv6 bandwidth than Windows XP and IPv4 provides higher bandwidth than IPv6.

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  • Performance evaluation of virtual private network protocols in Windows 2003 environment

    Narayan, Shaneel; Kolahi, Samad; Brooking, Kris; de Vere, Simon (2008-12-20)

    Conference paper
    Unitec

    Virtual Private Network (VPN) is a technology that provides secure communication for data as it transits through insecure regions of information technology infrastructure. With prolific development of the Internet, businesses nowadays implement VPN tunnels using different protocols that guarantee data authenticity and security between multiple sites connected using public telecommunication infrastructure. VPN provides a low-cost alternative to leasing a line to establish communication between sites. In this research we empirically evaluate performance difference between three commonly used VPN protocols, namely Internet Protocol Security (IPSec), Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol (PPTP) and Secure Socket Layer (SSL). We compare performance differences in these protocols by implementing each using different algorithms in a Windows Server 2003 environment. Results obtained indicate that throughput in a VPN tunnel can range from approximately 40 to 90Mbps depending on the choice of protocol, algorithm and window size. These three attributes also govern CPU utilization of VPN servers.

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  • Peace without Perfection: The intersections of Realist and Pacifist thought

    Moses, J. (2015)

    Conference paper
    University of Canterbury Library

    It is generally assumed that realist political thought is the polar opposite of pacifism on questions of war and peace. In debates over the justifiability of violence in response to physical threats to ourselves or to others, pacifists will generally be confronted with ‘realistic’ analogies of personal self-defence against an assailant or to what are seen as the most obvious and compelling examples of ‘just wars’ from human history. Thus, as Duane Cady puts it, ‘[e]ntertaining pacifist thoughts means being prepared repeatedly to face questions about reacting to a mugger and confronting Hitler as well as being realistic, self-righteous, and self-sacrificial’ (Cady, 1989, p. 95). Thus, in constructing his ‘moral continuum’ from ‘warism to pacifism’, Cady himself places ‘war realism’, the view that ‘war itself is not an appropriate object of moral consideration’, at the ‘most extreme’ end of his spectrum. Realist views on war, therefore, are seen as being more distant from and irreconcilable with pacifist thinking than the via media of ‘just-warism’ (Cady, 1989, pp. 21-23). As a consequence of this kind of thinking, it is generally assumed that pacifists at the ‘pragmatic’ or ‘realistic’ end of the scale will normally allow for the possibility of fighting just wars in certain limited circumstances, as has been the case in just war theory from Augustine onwards. In contrast to this popular view, this paper will propose that the realist placing of war outside of questions of morality and justice actually has more in common with a pacifist position than is normally acknowledged and that this connection could be more fruitfully developed. Just war theory, from this point of view, represents a proliferation of malleable moral arguments for war that are not available from a realist perspective, which is deeply concerned with the limiting of moral arguments in favour of war for demonstrably ethical reasons. Yet this still leaves a number of important questions to consider. First and foremost, if we accept that the world is and always will be an imperfect place, as any realist thinker must, is there still any sense – or even any consistent possibility – in maintaining an opposition to all war? How does the realist reading of the imperfectability of man relate to problems of politics and war? And how might those theoretical claims connect to a politics of non-violence or pacifism?

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  • How do you like your BIM?

    McGarrigle, Malachy (2015-07)

    Conference paper
    Unitec

    This paper’s objective is to investigate what practitioners across various disciplines in NZ construction including academia expect to find in BIM models. What specific information do they actually want from models and can this be provided in reality? Traditionally building designers received and developed client briefs to help produce successful designs but it seems not enough time is spent presently at BIM briefing stages determining what information is explicitly required from digital models, producing frustrating results for end users expecting to find selective, productive information embedded therein. This situation arises in academia also where some BIM endeavours investigate its’ potential as an educational tool. However, if lecturing colleagues fail to adequately brief model authors on how the final model will be used pedagogically, it will inevitably fail to benefit teaching as envisaged. At the moment it appears not enough BIM briefing is actually taking place across the New Zealand construction industry nor sufficient use made of published guidance. Helping people better express their BIM requirements at briefing stage, exploring their feasibility for present and future work roles should result in more effective briefing of BIM authoring colleagues. Hopefully leading to more valuable, information rich models benefitting the entire construction sector.

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  • Biculturalism in New Zealand correctional facilities

    Laidlaw, Reagan; Schnoor, Christoph (2015-07)

    Conference paper
    Unitec

    In New Zealand architecture, notions of biculturalism have been addressed in a slowly increasing manner over the past 30 years. But has architecture in New Zealand taken these notions seriously in institutions, such as correctional facilities, as well? The introduction of the term biculturalism was first linked to New Zealand architecture during the 1970s. This was a period where the significance of Māori art and culture was becoming apparent in New Zealand. This was due largely in part to the migration of Māori from rural areas to the cities, prior to the 1980s, which also coincided with an overall increase in the Māori population. Some bicultural ideas have been incorporated into New Zealand architecture, and this can be seen through notable examples such as John Scott’s Futuna Chapel (1961) and the Māori Battalion Building (1964), however, biculturalism is only recently being seen in institutional architecture around New Zealand. Correctional facilities Ngawha (2005) and Spring Hill Corrections Facility (2007) by Stephenson & Turner have incorporated spatial and design qualities into their designs which are intended to rehabilitate inmates through directly relating to their cultures and beliefs to engage mental, physical and spiritual recovery. This paper suggests that the marae, the traditional Māori meeting house (as one of the few stable remnants of Māori culture over the centuries), has had an effect on the development of bicultural notions in New Zealand prisons. Building on an historical overview of bicultural aspects over the last 150 years, this paper focuses on the recent prison design of Ngawha in Northland in order to trace how notions of biculturalism have been addressed, taking into account the importance of the marae for Māori culture.

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  • Ernst Plischke and the Dixon Street Flats

    Schnoor, Christoph (2015-07)

    Conference paper
    Unitec

    Ernst Plischke’s life and work have been thoroughly researched and written about. However, one crucial moment still remains uncertain – and it seems that, for New Zealand Architectural History, much hinges on this one uncertain episode: the project in question is the first high-rise housing block in Wellington of 1942, the Dixon Street Flats. New Zealand-based architectural historians have spent much time and effort to establish the facts, asking: was the project mainly designed by Ernst Plischke, or by the Head of the Department of Housing Construction, Gordon Wilson? Linda Tyler did not question Plischke’s version of the events. Later, Robin Skinner has argued one way, Julia Gatley the other way. It is Plischke’s position within the Department of Housing Construction that is the cause for this uncertainty. As the department’s head, Gordon Wilson was responsible for the buildings designed in the department. And as such, he received a New Zealand Institute of Architects Gold Medal for the Dixon Street Flats in 1947. The bigger issue behind this one event is whether modernist architecture in New Zealand did develop from ‘within’ or whether it was mostly introduced via the input from European emigrants, specifically Ernst Plischke. Through the study of private archival material and through the revisiting of published and unpublished material, this paper extends the current knowledge on the circumstances of the designs of the Dixon Street Flats and other projects by the Department of Housing construction, thus adding to the larger lines of development of modern architecture in New Zealand, and to aspects of Ernst Plischke’s involvement with the project of state modernisation in New Zealand.

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  • Effect of WPA2 Security on IEEE 802.11n bandwidth and round trip time in peer-peer wireless local area networks

    Li, Peng; Kolahi, Samad; Safdari, Mustafa; Argawe, Mulugeta (2011-03-22)

    Conference paper
    Unitec

    In this paper 802.11 wireless peer-peer network is evaluated for both IPv4 and IPv6 in Windows 7 and Fedora 12 operating systems. IPv4 has higher throughput than IPv6 for all packet sizes for both Windows 7 and Fedora 12 operating systems. Results further indicate that implementing WPA2 wireless security reduces bandwidth and increase delay in wireless networks.

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  • Ensemble learning methods for decision making : status and future prospects

    Ali, Shahid; Tirumala, Sreenivas Sremath; Sarrafzadeh, Hossein (2015-07)

    Conference paper
    Unitec

    In real world situations every model has some weaknesses and will make errors on training data. Given the fact that each model has certain limitations, the aim of ensemble learning is to supervise their strengths and weaknesses, leading to best possible decision in general. Ensemble based machine learning is a solution of minimizing risk in decision making. Bagging, boosting, stacked generalization and mixture of expert methods are the most popular techniques to construct ensemble systems. For the purpose of combining outputs of class labels, weighted majority voting, behaviour knowledge space and border count methods are used to construct independent classifiers and to achieve diversity among the classifiers which is important in ensemble learning. It was found that an ideal ensemble method should work on the principle of achieving six paramount characteristics of ensemble learning; accuracy, scalability, computational cost, usability, compactness and speed of classification. In addition, the ideal ensemble method would be able to handle large huge image size and long term historical data particularly of spatial and temporal. In this paper we reveal that ensemble models have obtained high acceptability in terms of accuracy than single models. Further, we present an analogy of various ensemble techniques, their applicability, measuring the solution diversity, challenges and proposed methods to overcome these challenges without diverting from the original concepts.

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  • ETL tools for data warehousing : an empirical study of open source Talend Studio versus Microsoft SSIS

    Katragadda, Ranjith; Tirumala, Sreenivas Sremath; Nandigam, David (2015-01)

    Conference paper
    Unitec

    Relational databases are bound to follow various database integrity rules and constraints that makes the reporting a time consuming process. Data Warehousing has evolved out of the desperate need for easy access to structured storage of quality data that can be used for effective decision making. Data are turned into knowledge and knowledge into plans which are instrumental in profitable business decision making. To serve this purpose, data need to be extracted from various sources, transformed and loaded into the data warehouse which constitute the process of ETL (Extract, Transform and Load). ETL process can be accomplished using various tools both open source and proprietary. In this paper, we provide an empirical study of two ETL tools, an open source Talend Studio and Microsoft SSIS. In spite of the dominance among a vast majority of computer software solutions, open source technologies, as the comparative analysis that this study has undertaken, concludes that open sources tools are yet to evolve in order to be sustainable

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  • Teaching computer programming with a coaching mindset

    Rahman, Naseem; Nandigam, David; Tirumala, Sreenivas Sremath (2015-01)

    Conference paper
    Unitec

    Teaching computer programming with the coaching mindset assumes an inherent knowledge on part of the learner. Conversely learning is efficient when novices learn from people who already mastered the craft. In this paper we redefine computing teacher as a Coach, an extension to the cognitive teaching model based on a set of values and practices that emphasize a radical model of student-teacher relationship. The proposed model resulted in a significant improvement in the confidence and skill levels of beginner students which reflected in their pass rate as well as arrested dropout tendencies. Further, we describe the coaching paradigm in the context of cognitive teaching model proposed by Maslow as the most efficient method of teaching programming.

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  • The Garden City of the 21st century

    Bradbury, Matthew (2002-07)

    Conference paper
    Unitec

    In 2014 the prestigious Wolfson Economics Prize (2014) was awarded to David Rudlin of URBED, for answering the question “How would you deliver a new Garden City which is visionary, economically viable, and popular?” The British Chancellor of the Exchequer, George Osborne announced in 2014 that the first new garden city for 100 years will be constructed at Ebbbsfleet (2015) in Kent, UK, to provide 15,000 homes. These two projects strongly suggest the power that Ebenezer Howard’s (Howard, 1902) original concept of Garden City still has. Yet even a cursory inspection of the two projects and the current debate in the UK show little new, unlike the radical combination of working and living within a hybrid of garden and countryside that Howard originally advanced. This paper suggests a way in which landscape architects can frame the renewed interest in the Garden City by building on the tradition of Howard’s radical inquiry. Taking a combination of techniques from environmental planning and traditional garden making the author develops a planning methodology to demonstrate how a new new garden city might be built. The paper is illustrated by two case studies designed by the author; the design of a resort in Guangdong Province, PR China [Beixing Resort Development] and a subdivision in Auckland New Zealand. [Paramuka Valley Subdivision, West Auckland] GIS mapping is used as a planning tool to analyse the sites through the mapping of important environmental features such as remnant indigenous vegetation and overland flow paths. A complex dialogue between the remediation of a native ecology through the preservation and reinstatement of indigenous hydrology and the preservation and replanting of native eco tones is developed. At the same time garden making procedures are deployed, the introduction of exotic species and the deliberate and artificial manipulation of topography. An architectural programme is introduced into this complex landscape conversation, not as an assembly of building types, but rather as a collection of social desires, a gradient from private to public space mediated through the landscape. The result is a new kind of garden city that develops an innovative social realm for the citizens, one in which a connection and awareness of the sustainable environment is central to a new garden city.

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  • Perceptions of older international tertiary students towards the sustainable future environment in New Zealand

    Theron, Bernhardett; Du Plessis, Andries; Toh, William; Sabarwal, Anu (2015-12)

    Conference paper
    Unitec

    Sustainability refers to utilising the earth’s natural resources wisely to meet the necessities of lives but also to save the resources for future generations to survive. This research investigated perceptions of international students towards conservation and sustainable living at an international tertiary institution, UUNZ, in Auckland New Zealand. A quantitative method was applied; 92 questionnaires were distributed. The research aims to establish what international students’ attitudes and perception towards sustainability and the environment are; a correlation between age, nationality, religion and their perceptions towards sustainable living. The results revealed a negative correlation between students’ concern and perception towards sustainability and an increase in age (age 40 and older); a decrease in sustainable living. Recommendations form the last section.

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  • Swarm planning : development of generative spatial planning tool for resilient cities

    Roggema, Rob; Popov, Nikolay (2015-09)

    Conference paper
    Unitec

    In dealing with unexpected impacts of climate change current spatial planning tools are irresponsive and inflexible. The outcomes of applications of these tools are very limited in number, producing static plans that if implemented are very vulnerable to climate hazards. Therefore, an innovative generative tool has been developed to support spatial planning which results in designs that are responsive and adjustable to unexpected, simulated changes. The development of the generative tool is informed by swarm planning theory, and by contemporary generative approaches in urban design and planning. The generative tool is modeled as an Agent-Based System and utilizes versions of the canonical flocking algorithm. The agents are abstract cubical units of space that represent building envelopes. The agents exist and work within an environment that represents a site in terms of topography, land value, and available/buildable land. The agents receive information from the environment and act upon this information. The unexpected climate impact is a simulated flood, which affects both the environment and the agents. The outputs of the tool are generated 'bottom-up' in order to study emergent spatial configurations, as massings of building units.

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  • 'Same, same, but different' : a comparison of rationales between historic and contemporary school garden development

    Wake, Sue (2015-06)

    Conference paper
    Unitec

    School gardening projects are on the rise and as the current school garden movement reaches into its third decade, this is an opportune time to consider the involvement of Landscape Architects (LAs). As design specialists of outdoor spaces and environments they may be well positioned to consult and assist with designs that meet the educational, social and maintenance needs of schools. This is especially the case since school gardens have been proposed as a panacea for a number of concerns adults have towards modern-day children, including environmental education, healthy eating, spending time in nature and getting exercise outside. Yet, interrogation of the history of school gardens reveals a paucity of their involvement then, as now. The school garden movement of the early twentieth century boomed, then bust with amazing rapidity, leaving behind a legacy among pupils of memories that were often not fond. These gardens were utilitarian and focused on production – often having a militaristic edge, as exemplified by the US School Garden Army. While they met the need of the era, they also strongly represented the adult agendas that drove them. Equally, the current movement is also driven by agendas, some the same and some different. This paper uses the colloquial saying ‘same same, but different’ to reflect the similarity of the situation between the school garden movements of the 20th and 21st centuries – both in terms of the agendas behind them and the involvement of LAs. Its aim is to argue that greater involvement of LAs could optimise the learning potential of school gardens and therefore help to prevent repetition of the demise of school gardens, which are needed more than ever.

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