181 results for Conference poster, 2010

  • Effects of complex milk lipid components on neurodevelopment in vitro

    Lim, JH; Hodgkinson, S; Dragunow, M; Norris, C; Vickers, M (2010-11)

    Conference poster
    The University of Auckland Library

    View record details
  • Bronchoconstriction and the MBNW: Insights from anatomical lung modelling.

    Mitchell, Jennine; Tawahi MH (2010-11-30)

    Conference poster
    The University of Auckland Library

    Bronchoconstriction and the MBNW: Insights from anatomical lung modelling. Jennine Mitchell and Dr Merryn Tawhai Auckland Bioengineering institute The multiple breath nitrogen washout (MBNW) is a global test of lung function that produces two indices Sacin and Scond that are reflective of ventilation heterogeneity arising at the level of acinus and between more spatially disparate regions of the lung respectively. An important application of the MBNW is in the study of asthma. Ventilation defects have been noted to occur in imaging studies of asthma. These regional ventilation defects have not previously been considered in relation to the MBNW indices. Scond is purported to be related to the state of conducting airways however no modelling studies exist which directly link the airway state to Scond. In this work regional ventilation defects have been simulated in an anatomically based human lung model and theoretically linked to the MBNW indices Sacin and Scond. Ventilation is simualted to the level of the acinus in a model in which acinar ventilation is considered independent of ventialtion in other acini. As previously indicated in modelling studies a high degree of constriction is required to produce a ventilation defect. The relationship between the degree of constriction in airways leading to the defect and the Scond index is however highly non-linear and shows a sharp decrease at very high levels of constriction. Ventilation defects potentially cause non-communication of gas trapped in the ventilation defects with the mouth. This may alter the calculation of FRC if nitrogen dilution is used to calculate FRC. As the indices are dependent on the phase III slope for each breath being normalised by FRC this alters MBNW results. The index Scond is not be able to be explained simply in terms of increased time constants due to increased resistance in the main conducting airway tree. The model indicates that the Scond index is more complex than current MBNW theory indicates and cannot be simply explained in terms of a longer time constant due to constriction in the conducting airway tree resulting in increased late emptying of poorly ventilated regions.

    View record details
  • Diabetes Management by Primary Health Care Nurses in Auckland, New Zealand

    Daly, Barbara; Arroll, B; Sheridan, N; Kenealy, T; Scragg, R (2011-11-04)

    Conference poster
    The University of Auckland Library

    Methods PHC nurses in Auckland (a 26% random sample) were asked to complete postal and telephone questionnaires (86% response rate), on education, experience, knowledge and diabetes management practice, and to log their care given to diabetes patients on a randomly selected day (n=265). Results Responses were received from 287 PHC nurses (86% response rate) comprising 210 practice nurses (PN), 49 district nurses (DN) and 28 specialist nurses (SNs). Most nurses (96%) were able to identify excess body weight as a major risk factor for type 2 diabetes and elevated blood glucose levels (BGLs) or glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) (86%) for diabetes-related complications. In contrast, CV risk factors were less well identified, particularly smoking, although more by SNs (43%) than PNs (14%) and DNs (12%, p=0.0005). CV complications, especially stroke, were less well known than microvascular complications, and by significantly fewer PNs (13%) and DNs (8%) than SNs (36%, p=0.002). Stronger associations were found between nurse’s knowledge of elevated HbA1c as a risk factor for diabetes-related complications and management activities related to BGLs and medication, compared with knowledge of CV risk factors, which was not associated with assessment of blood pressure or knowledge of patient’s total cholesterol or smoking status. The median number of patients consulted on the randomly selected day was one by 38% of PNs, two by 47% of DNs and 4-5 by 57% of SNs. Overall, PNs consulted almost 60% of the patients sampled, while patients consulted by DNs were older and more likely to be European New Zealanders, tobacco uses and have diabetes-related complications and co-morbidities, while SNs consulted by Maori and Pacific patients. Conclusion: There is a need for PHC nurses to increase their knowledge of CV risk factors with more effective management required and particularly of smoking.

    View record details
  • Substrate capture mechanism provides a mode for inhibition

    Evans, Genevieve; Short, F; Castell, A; Cookson, T; Gamage, Swarnalatha; Denny, B; Baker, E; Lott, S (2011-05-11)

    Conference poster
    The University of Auckland Library

    Mycobacteria tuberculosis (Mtb), the causative agent of tuberculosis, is responsible for more death in the world today than any other bacteria. As part of the Tuberculosis Structural Genomics Consortium (TBSGC), our research group previously determined the structure of anthranilate phosphoribosyl transferase (AnPRT) from Mtb. AnPRT is the second enzyme in the tryptophan biosynthetic pathway and was identified as a potential drug target through gene knockout experiments, which resulted in a strain of Mtb that was essentially avirulent even in immunodeficient mice. AnPRT catalyses a reaction between anthranilate and phosphoribosylpyrophosphate (PRPP), and the crystal structure of Mtb-AnPRT was originally determined with and without PRPP (PDB ID: 1ZVW and 2BPQ, respectively). In silico docking was used to predict the binding motif of anthranilate, the second substrate, surprisingly predicted two sites despite a 1:1 reaction ratio with PRPP. Previously, 165 compounds were screened for inhibitory action against Mtb-AnPRT. The most potent of these compounds was co-crystallized with Mtb-AnPRT and PRPP. One compound had a bianthranilate character and the 2.0 Å resolution structure of this inhibitor bound to Mtb-AnPRT (PDB ID: 3QQS) was determined by molecular replacement using the Mtb-AnPRT structure without PRPP bound (PDB ID: 1ZVW) as a search model. Interestingly, the structure revealed multiple binding motifs for the inhibitor, two of which were consistent with the previously predicted binding motifs for anthranilate. Forty analogues of this potent Mtb-AnPRT inhibitor were subsequently assayed for activity against the enzyme, several of which showed were found to be more potent inhibitors. This new series of inhibitors were docked into the 3QQS structure, providing insights for the development of more potent inhibitors. Such techniques will continue to drive design of increasingly potent inhibitors against Mtb-AnPRT for future development of a new anti-tuberculosis agent.

    View record details
  • An investigation into the teaching of extemporaneous compounding skills to pharmacy students in schools of pharmacy in Australia, Canada, New Zealand, South Africa and the United Kingdom

    Aspden, Trudi; Rew, A; Anderson, C; Tan, J; Woodrow, R; Zheng, Y (2011)

    Conference poster
    The University of Auckland Library

    Background: Many countries require that registered pharmacists are competent to extemporaneously compound. In general, however, there is a lack of opportunity for interns and new pharmacists to practice extemporaneous compounding due to the reduction in demand for extemporaneously compounded products in community pharmacy. Thus it falls to schools of pharmacy to prepare future pharmacist for this role. Objectives: With respect to extemporaneous compounding to pharmacy undergraduates- to determine what is taught, how it is taught, how it is assessed and the time allocated to teaching in the different schools of pharmacy in the five countries. Methodology: Thirty eight course coordinators involved in the teaching of extemporaneous compounding from 32 schools of pharmacy in Australia, Canada, New Zealand, South Africa and the United Kingdom were invited to complete an online survey using Survey MonkeyTM. Results: Twenty four responses were obtained from participants in all five countries (response rate 63.2%). Extemporaneous compounding was a compulsory component of all the BPharm programmes. However, there was a wide inter and intra-country variation in the teaching of the subject including the number of hours dedicated to its teaching, the dosage forms included and the teaching methods used. Many schools used extemporaneous compounding teaching to introduce transferrable skills, such as the ability to accurately calculate. A strong desire to retain the teaching of extemporaneous compounding was expressed by the course coordinators. Discussion: Our results highlight differences in the extemporaneous compounding teaching of the BPharm programmes in the five countries surveyed, but also uncover its use in developing related skills.

    View record details
  • Wind power in New Zealand Renewable energy resource dynamics in a hydro-based power system

    Suomalainen, AK; Pritchard, G; Sharp, Basil; Yuan, Z; Zakeri, G (2013-12-02)

    Conference poster
    The University of Auckland Library

    View record details
  • Where's the Sablefish?: Exploring causes of variable sablefish (Anoplopoma fimbria) representation in Northwest Coast sites

    Nims, Reno; Butler, V (2015-03)

    Conference poster
    The University of Auckland Library

    View record details
  • Using stream biofilm microbial communities as indicators of freshwater ecosystem health

    Lewis, Gillian; Ancion, PY; Lear, G; Roberts, K; Washington, V (2010-08-23)

    Conference poster
    The University of Auckland Library

    Stream biofilms are a complex aggregation of microorganisms embedded in a polymer matrix and cover almost every surface in freshwater environments. Because of their sedentary way of life, microorganisms associated with biofilms are affected by past and present environmental conditions and therefore constitute a potential integrative indicator of stream health. A wide range of experiments was conducted in both flow chamber microcosms and natural stream environments to investigate the main drivers of microbial community structure and composition and evaluate the potential use of biofilms as a bio-indicator of freshwater ecosystem health. Using community fingerprinting techniques such as terminal-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism and Automated Ribosomal Intergenic Spacer Analysis as well as 16S rRNA gene clone libraries we investigated variations occurring in biofilm bacterial and ciliate protozoan communities. Initial experiments conducted in flow chamber microcosms showed that significant differences in microbial community structure could be detected within only a few days of exposure to common water contaminants and remained detectable weeks after transfer to uncontaminated water. Further research investigating biofilm of more than 60 stream sites variously impacted by urbanization revealed a strong separation between rural and urban streams and confirmed the potential use of stream biofilm as a bio-indicator of stream health. Environmental monitoring techniques developed in this project were then successfully tested to investigate the efficacy of an enclosed stormwater treatment system, where traditional biological indicators such as macro-benthic invertebrates were not available. We are now extending our research to 300 different streams in order to define a general Bacterial Community Index characterising stream ecosystem health based on the structure of biofilm bacterial communities.

    View record details
  • Impact of PCV7 on antibiotic susceptibiity of nasophayngeal Streptococcus pneumoniae in South Auckland children

    Sekikawa, E; Trenholme, A; Taylor, S; Lennon, Diana; McBride, C; Best, Emma (2011-03-17)

    Conference poster
    The University of Auckland Library

    View record details
  • Mid-term results after phaco-canaloplasty and canaloplasty

    Hurtikova, KH; Traine, PT; Loertscher, Martin; Mueller, MM (2015-06-06)

    Conference poster
    The University of Auckland Library

    View record details
  • Cardiac response to weak electrical shocks challenges the functional syncytium paradigm

    Caldwell, Bryan; Trew, Mark; Pertsov, AM (2015-04-11)

    Conference poster
    The University of Auckland Library

    View record details
  • Test- retest reliability of an instrumented elastometer for measuring passive stiffness of the levator ani muscle

    Kruger, Jennifer; Nielsen, Poul; Dietz, HP; Taberner, Andrew (2011-08-31)

    Conference poster
    The University of Auckland Library

    Hypothesis / aims of study Clinical evidence demonstrates strong associations between vaginal birth, the incidence of levator ani (LA) muscle injury, and a decrease in muscle function (1). Imaging modalities such as ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging have provided insight into the nature of LA injury, confirming that it is significantly implicated in the development of pelvic organ prolapse (2). Strain of the LA muscles during delivery of the fetal head is considerable, and childbirth related trauma to the muscle has been shown to occur in 10-30% of women delivering vaginally (1,2). Thus, developing measures to identify a-priori, those who are most likely to suffer from injury during vaginal birth should be a high research priority. The inherent elasticity of the muscle clearly plays a role in the ability of the muscle to accommodate the fetal head. However, measuring passive stiffness of the muscle in vivo remains challenging. The aim of this study was to further develop and test a novel elastometer (3), designed to estimate in vivo passive stiffness produced by the puborectalis component of the LA muscle, where it passes in close contact with the lateral walls of the vagina, from its origin on the pubic ramus. Study design, materials and methods The elastometer used in this study is a more sophisticated version of a previously developed first-generation device (3). The current version of this instrument (Figure 1) boasts enhanced aesthetics and patient friendliness compared to our previous device. Notably, our elastometer can now implement user-defined measurement protocols under automatic computer control in order to measure the force-displacement characteristics of the LA muscle. The device consists of a hand-piece comprising two aluminium arms, with detachable acetyl plastic speculum ends, actuated by a DC servo mechanism via a load cell. A load cell amplifier and displacement transducer are integrated into the hand-piece, providing force and speculum separation measurements. The hand-piece is connected to a control box that communicates with a laptop computer via a USB connection. The control box contains a data-acquisition device (USB-6009, National Instruments), motor drive circuit, and battery-based power supply. A custom MSWindows application implements a closed-loop motor control algorithm on the laptop, records measurements of speculum displacement and force, and provides feedback to the user. The laptop user-interface displays speculum separation and force on a strip chart, together with a force-displacement graph. The design of the speculum end of the elastometer is such that the tip is wider than the neck, (26mm compared to 18mm) to reduce the likelihood of perineal muscles confounding measurement of passive stiffness. Magnetic clips attach the speculum ends to the device which allows for easy cleaning, and provides the facility of attaching speculums of various sizes. Reliability and repeatability of the elastometer was assessed in 12 volunteers. None of the participants had had vaginal surgery, or any contraindications for vaginal examination. All participants were tested twice, 3 to 5 days apart using the same protocol. The speculum was inserted to the level of the puborectalis muscle (2-4 cm from the introitus) orientated in the coronal plane. After initial familiarisation with the device in situ, recording of the data commenced. All participants were encouraged to remain relaxed during the experiment. Data acquisition was automated with the device opening in 20 stepwise increments, to the desired separation, over 60 seconds. Data were collected at a frequency of 100 Hz. Averaged data over a three second period gave 21 data points per test. The procedure was repeated three times, with the initial run being considered as a preconditioning step and not used for data analysis. Statistical analysis was carried out using “R” version 2.12.2 (Copyright (C) 2011 The R Foundation for Statistical Computing). Results from Day 1 were compared with the re-test results using Bland/Altman repeated measures to determine any bias and limits of agreement and Intraclass correlation co-efficient (ICC) to determine reliability across tests and Days. Results The mean age of the 12 participants was 44.3 years (range 26 to 58 years), BMI 26 kg/m2 (range 20.4 to 33.7 kg/m2). Two of these were nulliparous, with the median number of vaginal delivery being 2. Data was visualised in graphic form for each subject across all tests for both days. A representative plot from one subject is shown in Figure 2. ICC’s for the second and third tests respectively were 0.92 (CI 0.89- 0.93), and 0.86 (CI 0.82-0.89). Limits of agreement (from repeated measures Bland Altman) were -2.79 N to +2.31 N, with a mean difference of -0.21 N. Interpretation of results Repeated Bland Altman demonstrates minimal bias with the mean difference close to zero at -0.12 N. The 95% limits of agreement range was slightly over 4 N, and likely to be due to biological variability. The high Intraclass correlation co-efficient for both tests between Days indicate minimal variability of the measurements. Concluding message This second generation elastometer has proved reliable and consistent in the measurement of passive stiffness of the puborectalis muscle in this group of volunteers. These results confirm satisfactory performance of the instrument in preparation for future studies validating this method in clinical and research settings. References 1. DeLancey JO. The hidden epidemic of pelvic floor dysfunction: achievable goals for improved prevention and treatment. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2005 May;192(5):1488-95. 2. Dietz HP, Simpson JM. Levator trauma is associated with pelvic organ prolapse. BJOG. 2008 Jul;115(8):979-84. 3. Kruger J, et al.. Pelvic floor muscle compliance in Elite nulliparous Athletes. 38th Annual meeting of the International Continence Society. Cario 2008

    View record details
  • Mechanisms Of Differences In Ventilation Distribution In The Upright, Supine, And Prone Postures

    Tawhai, Merryn; Hedges, Kerry (2011-05-13)

    Conference poster
    The University of Auckland Library

    Rationale: Measurements of ventilation distribution using various imaging modalities have suggested that the distribution of ventilation in the supine and prone postures is less evidently gravitational than when the lung is upright, and with some studies showing little difference between ventilation distributions in the prone and supine lung. This is despite the concurrent observations of a significant gradient in tissue density when supine, and a typically smaller - or absent - tissue density gradient prone. In this study we use a computational model of lung tissue elasticity coupled to air-flow to study the relationship between posture, density distribution, and ventilation. Methods: An imaging-based geometric model of the lung and airway tree that was developed in a separate study was used here. Flow in the airways was simulated using a one-dimensional fluid dynamics model that includes flow-dependent airway resistance and coupling to tissue elasticity at the airway walls and at the acini. A finite deformation elasticity model was used to predict the effect of gravity on tissue deformation, and the non-linear elasticity of each acinar tissue unit during simulated breathing. The upright lung volume was defined from pulmonary function testing; the supine and prone volumes were assumed to be the same, and equal to the supine air volume as calculated from the subject's computed tomography imaging acquired at FRC. Tissue density and ventilation at each of the ~32,000 distributed acini in the model were averaged within iso-gravitational slices of 10 mm thickness. Results: The gradient of tissue density predicted by the model was markedly larger in supine than in upright or prone. Ratios of the maximum to minimum slice density were 1.95, 1.51, and 1.39 for supine, prone, and upright, respectively. Ventilation in the upright model increased on average towards the dependent tissue, whereas ventilation in supine and prone was decreased in the most dependent and non-dependent regions. The ratios of maximum to minimum slice ventilation were 1.09, 1.03, and 1.31 for supine, prone, and upright, respectively. Conclusions: A lack of gravitational distribution of ventilation in the supine and prone postures compared with upright is predicted on the basis of the smaller size of the horizontal lung and a shift of the dependent tissue to a less-compliant region of the sigmoidal pressure-volume curve at its lower asymptote. This is the same mechanism that results in early filling of the non-dependent tissue when inhaling from residual volume.

    View record details
  • Delayed Cerebral Post-arteriole Dilation is Consistent with Observations at Multiple Spatial and Temporal Scales: Evidence from Mathematical Modelling

    Barrett, MJP; Tawhai, MH; Suresh, Vinod (2011-05-25)

    Conference poster
    The University of Auckland Library

    Background and aims: Observations from different neurovascular imaging modalities provide conflicting evidence about the presence and/or extent of volume changes in post-arteriole blood vessels. At the level of individual vessels, two-photon imaging during functional activation shows a rapid increase in arteriolar diameter, but little or no increase in capillaries or venules 1 . In contrast, 'bulk' measurements of flow-volume relationships show large increases in arterial volume 2 , and smaller - but still significant - increases in venous volume 3 . Here, we reconcile these competing observations using a dynamic, biophysically based mathematical model of the hemodynamic response. Methods: We use the widely known Windkessel model that represents blood flow as analogous to electrical current, and networks of blood vessels as analogous to electrical resistances and capacitances. The model also includes a novel description of vascular compliance, viscoelastic effects, and stimulus-driven vasodilation. Experimental observations at progressively more detailed scales are used to constrain and validate the model, following a 'top down' approach. In addition, we test the assumption that post-arteriole vessels do not dilate, and use the model to predict observations at progressively more aggregated scales, following a 'bottom up' approach. Results: Model predictions of the total, arterial, and venous steady state flow-volume relationships agree well with experimental observations, as do predictions of transient changes in flow and volume during functional activation. The model also predicts rapid arteriole dilation during activation. Interestingly, this is accompanied by slow increases in capillary and venule diameter that - for brief stimulation - are near indistinguishable from baseline noise. When assuming no dilation of capillaries or venules, there are only minor differences between the model predictions at the single vessel scale. However, predictions at more aggregated scales are qualitatively and quantitatively different from experimental observations. Conclusions: The model presented here is able to reproduce the main features of experimental observations over a range of spatial and temporal scales. These results suggest that arterial dilation represents the majority of regional cerebral blood volume increases during functional activation, especially during brief stimulation. However, passive dilation in capillaries and venules may be increasingly significant during extended stimulation. This is an important consideration when interpreting or comparing results from neurovascular imaging modalities, such as optical methods and magnetic resonance imaging.

    View record details
  • Doped Diamond-Like Carbon (DLC) coated surfaces to reduce fouling from milk

    Patel, Jaiminkumar; Bansal, B; Jones, MI; Hyland, M (2010-11-09)

    Conference poster
    The University of Auckland Library

    In the dairy industry, fouling of processing surfaces is a common and unresolved problem. Surface modification, for example through the application of a surface coating, can alter the surface properties of a material, and may be a potential way to reduce fouling. Typical dairy plant stainless steel surfaces were modified by the deposition of doped Diamond-Like Carbon (DLC) films with varying concentration of doped elements. These modified surfaces were studied for their fouling behavior with milk at both laboratory and pilot scale. None of the doped DLC modified surfaces investigated in the study presented benefits in fouling reduction as compared to unmodified surface.

    View record details
  • The development of online learning environments (OLEs) at The University of Auckland Library: collaboration, integration and usability testing

    Zdravkovic, Neda (2013-04-09)

    Conference poster
    The University of Auckland Library

    In order to meet the learning needs of a large number of in-house, flexible learning and distance-learning students from a variety of disciplines, The University of Auckland Library has enhanced the provision of information and academic literacy instruction through the design of online learning environments. Learning Services Librarians, learning designers and subject librarians from The University of Auckland Library have collaborated with faculty, Centre for Academic Development staff, graphic design professionals and web developers to design online courses and tutorials, such as: • Academic Integrity - stand-alone online academic integrity course, compulsory for all new students at the University of Auckland from Semester I 2013; • COMLAW 101: New Zealand’s Legal Framework - curriculum- integrated information literacy online tutorial designed for COMLAW 101: Law in a Business Environment academic course with 2000 students each year; • POPLHLTH 701: Research Methods in Health - curriculum- integrated online information literacy learning environment for postgraduate students completing the POPLHLTH 701: Research Methods in Health course and compulsory assessment activity bearing 15% course mark; • FTVMS 100: Assignment Research Path – curriculum-integrated information literacy online tutorial and compulsory assessment activity (10% course mark) designed for FTVMS 100: Media studies first year undergraduate course with 1000 students each year; • Understanding Your Reading List - generic information literacy online tutorial designed for all first year undergraduate students. The focus of the paper will be on the development framework of online courses, curriculum-integrated and generic tutorials and the analysis of different stages of each project, their collaborative nature and usability testing practices applied (user observation, focus group interviews, surveys) and outcomes. It will introduce CourseBuilder as a web-based tool for the design of online learning environments and activities, its features, functionalities and published outputs. CourseBuilder, developed by the University of Auckland’s Centre for Academic Development, is an authoring tool that provides customisable templates to develop online interactive activities (eg, case studies, reflections and quizzes), import text, insert media, monitor student responses and more. Finally the paper will describe issues and challenges during each development stage, as well as benefits and limitations of using an online learning environment development system.

    View record details
  • Talking Allowed!

    Davies, Maree; Sinclair, A (2011)

    Conference poster
    The University of Auckland Library

    Research on the Paideia Method (a method for discussing a topic) was conducted in 20 classrooms across five schools, of varying socioeconomic environments (ages 11-13) in Auckland, New Zealand, in 2010. The researchers sought to further examine the results from their pilot study of the Paideia Seminar, entitled 'Talking Allowed: I like it when the teacher lets us talk without telling us what to say', trialed in 2008 (Sinclair & Davies, 2011). In addition, in order to provide the optimum conditions to prepare the students for the face-to-face seminars, an online component (open source software) was added as an alternative medium to assist students in their preparation. The research questions were: What happens to the Nature of Interaction, and the Complexity of the Discussion when students participate in a Paideia Seminar, and an on-line discussion in preparation for the face-to-face seminar? What is the optimal role of the teacher when participating in a Paideia Seminar and an on-line discussion to increase complexity of discussion?

    View record details
  • Using network science to explore innovation

    O'Neale, DR; Hendy, SH (2013-06-06)

    Conference poster
    The University of Auckland Library

    We live in a world were scientific and technical advances require increasingly specialised knowledge while drawing expertise from ever more diverse technical areas. In an effort to better understand the relationships between different areas of innovation, and the role of specialisation, diversity and ubiquity in national and regional economies, we have mined several million patent records from the European Patent Office, along with their classification codes, and used them to construct a network of “patent-space”. Patents provide a rich data set when studying innovation. Networks of scientific publications, such as that in [1], formed from inter-journal citations, illustrate the links between different disciplines as new knowledge is created, while networks of countries and the goods they export, such as the “product-space” network in [2], give insight into the economic complexity (or otherwise) and the likely areas of growth for national economies. Using patents allows us to take an intermediate view and investigate the role of science and innovation in economic growth. We take an approach similar to [2], identifying when individual countries or geographic regions have a “revealed comparative advantage” with respect to particular technical areas. We have constructed a proximity network as a base-map for the space of patentable innovation. We find that patent-space is heterogeneous and highly structured, and that the structure depends on the size or “granularity” of the regions that data is aggregated into. By overlaying data for particular regions on the patent-space base map we are able to explore temporal and regional trends – in particular how the innovation systems of different countries has produced quite different areas of specialisation. Figure 1: Patent-space for New Zealand (left) and South Korea (right) - two countries with very different innovation systems. Nodes represent patent classification classes. Nodes are dark when the country has a comparative advantage in that area and faded out otherwise. Nodes are connected if a comparative advantage with respect to one classification tends to occur in conjunction with a connected classification. [1] L. Leydesdorff & I. Rafols, Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology (2008). [2] C. Hidalgo & R. Hausmann, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (2009).

    View record details
  • What influences the association between previous and future crashes among cyclists.

    Tin Tin, Sandar; Woodward, Alistair; Ameratunga, Shanthi (2014-10-09)

    Conference poster
    The University of Auckland Library

    View record details
  • Retrospective host specificity testing of Cotesia urabae to assess the risk posed to the New Zealand nolid moth Celama parvitis

    Avila Olesen, Gonzalo; Withers, TM; Holwell, GI (2014-08-11)

    Conference poster
    The University of Auckland Library

    Additional retrospective testing of the gum leaf skeletoniser (Uraba lugens) biological control agent Cotesia urabae was conducted against the endemic moth Celama parvitis. Although this native was included in host specificity testing before EPA approved the parasitoid's release, this work aimed to increase the sample size to better assess the potential risk posed. The effect that different periods of host deprivation and prior oviposition experience had on the parasitoid's readiness to attack, was examined in a sequence of no-choice tests. No parasitoids emerged from the 52% of larvae that survived to pupation, thus, confirming C. parvitis as a non-host. Dissections of larvae that died during laboratory rearing revealed that 63% had contained a parasitoid, but no C. urabae parasitoid larvae developed beyond the second instar. Significant differences were found in the attack times according to the parasitoid's deprivation levels (age), and it was also observed that the duration until first attack significantly decreased after each non-target presentation.

    View record details