25 results for Conference poster, 2010

  • Effects of complex milk lipid components on neurodevelopment in vitro

    Lim, JH; Hodgkinson, S; Dragunow, M; Norris, C; Vickers, M (2010-11)

    Conference poster
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Bronchoconstriction and the MBNW: Insights from anatomical lung modelling.

    Mitchell, Jennine; Tawahi MH (2010-11-30)

    Conference poster
    The University of Auckland Library

    Bronchoconstriction and the MBNW: Insights from anatomical lung modelling. Jennine Mitchell and Dr Merryn Tawhai Auckland Bioengineering institute The multiple breath nitrogen washout (MBNW) is a global test of lung function that produces two indices Sacin and Scond that are reflective of ventilation heterogeneity arising at the level of acinus and between more spatially disparate regions of the lung respectively. An important application of the MBNW is in the study of asthma. Ventilation defects have been noted to occur in imaging studies of asthma. These regional ventilation defects have not previously been considered in relation to the MBNW indices. Scond is purported to be related to the state of conducting airways however no modelling studies exist which directly link the airway state to Scond. In this work regional ventilation defects have been simulated in an anatomically based human lung model and theoretically linked to the MBNW indices Sacin and Scond. Ventilation is simualted to the level of the acinus in a model in which acinar ventilation is considered independent of ventialtion in other acini. As previously indicated in modelling studies a high degree of constriction is required to produce a ventilation defect. The relationship between the degree of constriction in airways leading to the defect and the Scond index is however highly non-linear and shows a sharp decrease at very high levels of constriction. Ventilation defects potentially cause non-communication of gas trapped in the ventilation defects with the mouth. This may alter the calculation of FRC if nitrogen dilution is used to calculate FRC. As the indices are dependent on the phase III slope for each breath being normalised by FRC this alters MBNW results. The index Scond is not be able to be explained simply in terms of increased time constants due to increased resistance in the main conducting airway tree. The model indicates that the Scond index is more complex than current MBNW theory indicates and cannot be simply explained in terms of a longer time constant due to constriction in the conducting airway tree resulting in increased late emptying of poorly ventilated regions.

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  • Using stream biofilm microbial communities as indicators of freshwater ecosystem health

    Lewis, Gillian; Ancion, PY; Lear, G; Roberts, K; Washington, V (2010-08-23)

    Conference poster
    The University of Auckland Library

    Stream biofilms are a complex aggregation of microorganisms embedded in a polymer matrix and cover almost every surface in freshwater environments. Because of their sedentary way of life, microorganisms associated with biofilms are affected by past and present environmental conditions and therefore constitute a potential integrative indicator of stream health. A wide range of experiments was conducted in both flow chamber microcosms and natural stream environments to investigate the main drivers of microbial community structure and composition and evaluate the potential use of biofilms as a bio-indicator of freshwater ecosystem health. Using community fingerprinting techniques such as terminal-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism and Automated Ribosomal Intergenic Spacer Analysis as well as 16S rRNA gene clone libraries we investigated variations occurring in biofilm bacterial and ciliate protozoan communities. Initial experiments conducted in flow chamber microcosms showed that significant differences in microbial community structure could be detected within only a few days of exposure to common water contaminants and remained detectable weeks after transfer to uncontaminated water. Further research investigating biofilm of more than 60 stream sites variously impacted by urbanization revealed a strong separation between rural and urban streams and confirmed the potential use of stream biofilm as a bio-indicator of stream health. Environmental monitoring techniques developed in this project were then successfully tested to investigate the efficacy of an enclosed stormwater treatment system, where traditional biological indicators such as macro-benthic invertebrates were not available. We are now extending our research to 300 different streams in order to define a general Bacterial Community Index characterising stream ecosystem health based on the structure of biofilm bacterial communities.

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  • Doped Diamond-Like Carbon (DLC) coated surfaces to reduce fouling from milk

    Patel, Jaiminkumar; Bansal, B; Jones, MI; Hyland, M (2010-11-09)

    Conference poster
    The University of Auckland Library

    In the dairy industry, fouling of processing surfaces is a common and unresolved problem. Surface modification, for example through the application of a surface coating, can alter the surface properties of a material, and may be a potential way to reduce fouling. Typical dairy plant stainless steel surfaces were modified by the deposition of doped Diamond-Like Carbon (DLC) films with varying concentration of doped elements. These modified surfaces were studied for their fouling behavior with milk at both laboratory and pilot scale. None of the doped DLC modified surfaces investigated in the study presented benefits in fouling reduction as compared to unmodified surface.

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  • Fostering the exchange of geoscience resources for knowledge exploration and discovery

    Whitehead, Brandon; Gahegan, Mark; Everett, M; Hills, S; Brodaric, B (2010-11-11)

    Conference poster
    The University of Auckland Library

    Geoscience data capture is expensive. In order to extract maximum value, the data need to be consistently described, easily found, and then shared among those who need it. There has been recent momentum in the geoscience community to develop a common descriptive framework which facilitates data sharing. While storage and transfer standards are vital, they lack a descriptive element which standarizes the meaning of their contents. Metadata capture is appropriate for data stores, but often the terminology carries different meanings as domains become more specialised. For example, the term “migration” to a petroleum geochemist refers to the movement of hydrocarbons in geologic time, yet to a seismologist describes an imaging process. Furthermore, concepts associated with a term may change through time or as contextual factors in a discussion are modified. How, therefore, can the concepts evoked from geoscience resource terminology be defined and aligned to represent this multi-scaled orthogonal variability? Here we show how a community knowledge acquisition exercise was orchestrated to discuss fundamental concepts and their meanings as interpreted by leaders in basin characterization. The result of this exercise is a formal description of many of the features and processes associated with sedimentary basins, i.e. a basin ontology. This ontology allows the use of semantic connections between concepts as a backbone for search and discovery of research artifacts in large data stores.

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  • At your service: An interactive, flexible web-service for translating classification systems and taxonomies

    Whitehead, Brandon; Banchuen, Tawan; Gahegan, Mark; Smart, William; Masoud-Ansari, S (2010-11-11)

    Conference poster
    The University of Auckland Library

    Geoscientists have developed and applied classification systems and taxonomies in an effort to enhance and share their understanding of complex geoscience information. However, the classification systems and taxonomies used throughout the geosciences for land cover and land use, soils, geology are neither static nor universal; the classes that we use to represent the Earth vary considerably with time and from place to place. As a general example, think of a geologic map. There are instances when mapped data contains desirable categories, but the granularity of those categories is not suitable. There are also instances where two or more maps (or data sets) lack the desired categories, or the categories across maps are semantically incompatible. This is to be expected, given that: (i) new science, social and economic agendas change what we may wish to differentiate when we look at a map and (ii) new technologies make differentiation of previously inseperable classes more reliable, thus viable. This paper describes ongoing work to create a web-based semantic translation service that allows users to: (i) experiment with mappings between classification systems and taxonomies; (ii) visualize translation maps using a given mapping; and (iii) persist their translation maps, and share them with others. Semantic equivalence and similarity are supported via underlying ontologies, which also facilitate the merging and re-grouping of classes.

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  • Synthesis and mechanistic studies of PLA₂ inihibition by the marine alkaloid hyrtiosulawesine

    Liew, Lydia; Bourguet-Kondracki, M-L; Copp, Brent (2010-10-17)

    Conference poster
    The University of Auckland Library

    The first isolation of hyrtiosulawesine (1) was from an Indonesian collection of the marine sponges Hyrtios erectus and H. reticulatus.1 The β-carboline alkaloid was subsequently re-isolated from a Red Sea collection of Hyrtios sp. and found to display anti-phospholipase A2 (PLA2) activity with an IC50 value of 14 μM. Phospholipase A2 catalyses the hydrolysis of membrane phospholipids at the sn-2 position to generate arachidonic acids (AA).3,4 AA are precursors to a large family of compounds known as the eicosanoids associated with inflammatory reactions.4 PLA2 inhibition by hyrtiosulawesine would lead to a decrease in AA and proinflammatory eicosanoids, with anti-inflammatory effect.4 In an effort to understand the structural attributes of the natural product (1) that cause PLA2 inhibition, hyrtiosulawesine and a series of related model compounds (2, 3) will be synthesised and evaluated for biological activity. Biomimetic nucleophiles will be used to probe hyrtiosulawesine and related compounds in order to determine their reactivity and possible site of reaction. Bioactive members of the library of compounds will subsequently be subjected to reaction with bee venom phospholipase A2 to identify the presence of any covalent adducts. Further studies may be directed to discovering the nature and location of the covalent linkage within the enzyme active site. The latest results will be presented. References 1. Salmoun, M.; Devijver, C.; Daloze, D.; Braekman, J.-C.; Van Soest, R. W. M. J. Nat. Prod. 2002, 65, 1173-1176. 2. Sauleau, P.; Martin, M.-T.; Dau, M.-E. T. H.; Youssef, D. T. A.; Bourguet-Kondracki, M.-L. J. Nat. Prod. 2006, 69, 1676-1679. 3. Balsinde, J.; Balboa, M. A.; Insel, P. A.; Dennis, E. A. Annu. Rev. Pharmacol. Toxicol. 1999, 39, 175-189. 4. Parente, L. J. Rheumatol. 2001, 28, 2375-2382.

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  • Body composition and Metabolic changes after Sequential VLED and Bariatric surgery in .

    McGill, Anne-Thea; Chan, YK; Plank, L; McLeod, B; Beban, G; Falk, S; Wiessing, K; Poppitt, SD; Cooper, GJS (2010-07-12)

    Conference poster
    The University of Auckland Library

    3. Anne-Thea McGill¹,Yih-Kai Chan, Lindsay Plank, Briar McLeod, Grant Beban, Sofie Falk, Katy Wiessing, Sally D Poppitt, Garth JS Cooper. Body composition and Metabolic changes after Sequential VLED and Bariatric surgery in women. T2:PO.33. Obesity Reviews, Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages iii-iv, 1-502, July 2010 Special Issue Abstracts of the 11th International Congress on Obesity, 11-15 July 2010, Stockholm, Sweden

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  • Mitochondrial Respiration in Skeletal Muscle of Obese Women Prior To Bariatric Surgery and Following Six Months of Weight Loss

    MacDonald, J; McGill, Anne-Thea; Hickey, A; Plank, L; McLeod, B; Falk, S; Wiessing, K; Beban, G; Chan, YK; Xin, Liping; Cooper, GJS; Poppitt, SD (2010-07-12)

    Conference poster
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Islet human amylin oligomer formation is differentially correlated with β-cell death and diabetes onset between homozygous and hemizygous human amylin transgenic mice

    Zhang, S; Liu, H; Li, XL; Au, M; Chuang, CL; Cooper, GJS (2010)

    Conference poster
    The University of Auckland Library

    One of the pathological features of type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is the presence of islet amyloid deposits comprising mainly human amylin (hA)/hIAPP. Recent studies suggested that soluble oligomers of human amylin may be the primary cause of β-cell damage and thus contribute to the onset/development of T2DM. However, the molecular basis of this process remains to be fully elucidated. We aimed to investigate the connection between soluble oligomers and hA cytotoxicity, and their correlation with diabetes development using a rodent model of diabetes.

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  • The influence of the regional distribution of reduced lung elastic recoil on FEV1

    Hedges, KL; Hoffman, EA; Tawhai, MH (2010)

    Conference poster
    The University of Auckland Library

    Rationale: A link has been observed in several studies between the regional distribution of emphysema and the resulting magnitude of reduction in FEV1. The aim of this study is to examine how the loss of elastic recoil associated with emphysema that develops in localized regions of the lung results in the observed trends in FEV1 reduction.

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  • "But what about the theory?" Designing a social work curriculum around practice learning and reflection

    Adamson, Carole; Bellinger, A (2010-06-10)

    Conference poster
    The University of Auckland Library

    Curriculum design in an academic context operates within a site of tension characterised by the need

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  • Blood flow redistribution following pulmonary micro-embolism

    Clark, Alys; Burrowes, KS; Tawhai, Merryn (2010)

    Conference poster
    The University of Auckland Library

    Occlusion of pulmonary arteries by autologous clot and bead emboli affect pulmonary function by elevating arterial pressures and reducing the number of functional gas exchange units in the lung. The occlusion of multiple arterioles at the acinar level can have a significant impact on pulmonary function. However, the contribution of acinar structure to perfusion distribution and the significance of arteriole occlusion is not well characterized.

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  • Factors Influencing the Aroma Stability of Sauvignon blanc Wines

    Herbst-Johnstone, Mandy; Nicolau, L; Kilmartin, Paul (2010-07)

    Conference poster
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • The student nurse integrated team model:barriers and benefits

    Aspinall, Cathleen; Baker, H; Vallant, S; Spence, D (2010-11-05)

    Conference poster
    The University of Auckland Library

    The student nurse integrated team model:barriers and benefits Intent. The purpose of this research was to evaluate a collaborative project to implement an integrated team model of learning in practice with the clinical placement provider for second year Bachelor of Nursing students from the University of Auckland and Auckland University of Technology. Description. Our clinical partner put forward a proposal to change the model of working with undergraduate student nurses in the clinical environment .The aim was to improve the student’s integration into nursing teams and also strengthen their model of team nursing. The World Health Organisation (WHO 2009) identified that the role individuals play within a team influences team effectiveness and therefore impacts on the quality of patient safety. From a University perspective this involved changing the role of the academic lecturer from working alongside the student to supporting the registered nurses. In their role as mentors, the nurses would assist with the integration of theory into practice and teach clinical skills at the bedside. A perceived benefit would be the emersion of second year student nurses into the ward team. The student nurse integrated team model was devised based on a mentorship concept and piloted in the medical and surgical areas of the public hospital. This study evaluated the model from both the University and the ADHB perspective using a mixed methodology.The University of Auckland surveyed students, university lecturers, charge nurses, staff nurse mentors and clinical nurse educators.The Auckland University of Technology held focus groups with the same participants. It was anticipated that this method would provide hard data for evaluation and qualitative information to explore the experience. The introduction of a new way of working in reality meant a change of role for university and clinical staff. Furthermore, the success of the project as with any change initiative, was dependent on a number of stakeholders. Evaluation Both qualitative and quantitative research methods were used in the evaluation of this new way of working, the process and results will be shared at the conference. Bibliography includes but not limited to the following: Flin, R. Winter, J. Sarac, and C. & Raduma, M. (2009) .Human factors in patient safety: Review of tools and topics. Geneva: World Health Organization.

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  • In vivo and in vitro assessment of the action of the antitumour benzonaphthyridine derivative SN 28049 on the murine Colon 38

    Chen, Ying; Finlay, GJ; Richardson, E; Baguley, BC (2010-05)

    Conference poster
    The University of Auckland Library

    SN 28049 a new DNA binding benzonaphthyridine derivative targeting the topoisomerase II enzyme is curative against the murine Co38 adenocarcinoma, whereas another agent targeting the same enzyme, etoposide, is relatively ineffective against this tumour.

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  • Inhibition of complement by Staphylococcal superantigen-like protein 7 in vitro and in vivo

    Lorenz, Natalie; Fraser, John; Radcliff, F (2010-12-07)

    Conference poster
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Energy and nutrient modelling of human evolution

    McGill, Anne-Thea; Wake, G; Beedle, Alan (2010-10)

    Conference poster
    The University of Auckland Library

    ENERGY AND NUTRIENT MODELLING OF HUMAN EVOLUTION Background. During evolution, human encephalisation resulted in high energy use by the large brain in proportion to the body. Adaptations to increase energy intake or reduce total body energy to redress this imbalance may have involved 1) highly developed neural appetite pathways including the dopaminergic mesocorticolimbic self -reward system to enhance energy dense food intake 2) an expensive tissue trade off including a short adaptable gut that relies on a higher energy omnivorous diet 3) slow growth and development and thus careful preservation of cellular integrity to reduce oxidative stress and allow longevity 4) inhibition/alteration of energy expensive vitamin and co-factor synthesis and a dependence on the wide variety of food micronutrients. It appears that many such food micronutrients are modulating cellular energy use, and that micronutrient quality must be built into energy requirements. Concurrently, humans were developing technologies such as tool use and fire to further expand food quality and quantity. However, the neural self reward aspect systems pushed technology to favour high and secure energy yields. Animal husbandry and plant crop farming lead to selective breeding for high fat, starch and sugar produce, at the expense of micronutrient variety and volume. Once technology progressed to factory farming, and mechanised and chemical food processing systems, proportions of food micronutrients/macronutrients were markedly altered. Humans are driven to consume addictive energy dense foodstuffs but (unconsciously) neglect to acquire adequate micronutrient volumes. They are forced to attempt to store the energy firstly safely in subcutaneous adipose, then centrally around viscera, and finally in non-adipose cells where glycolipotoxicity occurs. Aims: We plan to start developing new dynamic energy equations, with reference to Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) models for other biological systems. Ultimately, the ???ideal??? prehistoric fit and healthy, lean hunter-gatherer will be compared with the contemporary sedentary and (metabolically) degenerate, obese ???westernised-diet??? consuming human. Method: Principles of DEB and mathematical modelling of energy use will be reviewed with respect to human metabolism and different diets.

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  • Identification of a novel group of muscular dystrophies, the Anoctaminopathies, caused by recessive mutations in the putative calcium activated chloride channel, ANO5

    Marlow, Gareth; Bolduc, V; Boycott, KM; Saleki, K; Inoue, H; Kroon, J; Itakura, M; Robitaille, Y; Parent, L; Baas, F; Mizuta, K; Kamata, N; Richard, I; Linssen, W; Mahjneh, I; de Visser, M; Brais, B; Bashir, R (2010-03-01)

    Conference poster
    The University of Auckland Library

    The Anoctamin (ANO) family consists of 10 proteins several of which have been shown to correspond to the elusive calciumactivated chloride channels (CaCCs). CaCCs are gated by increases in intracellular calcium and they have been linked to several cellular functions including epithelial transport, cell volume regulation, olfactory and photoreceptor transduction, cardiac membrane excitability, and smooth muscle contraction. The only reported human mutations linked with the ANO family are dominant mutations in ANO5, which cause a rare bone fragility disorder gnathodiaphyseal dysplasia (GDD1). Recently we have identified recessive ANO5 mutations in patients with proximal limb girdle muscular dystrophy (LGMD2L) and a distal non-dysferlin Miyoshi myopathy (MMD3). The mutations identified consist of splice site, a single adenine duplication and missense. The duplicated adenine is present in LGMD2L and MMD3. The LGMD2L phenotype is characterized by proximal muscle weakness and prominent asymmetric quadriceps atrophy. The MMD3 phenotype is associated with distal weakness in particular of the calf muscles. The clinical heterogeneity associated with ANO5 mutations is reminiscent of that observed with dysferlin mutations which can cause both a LGMD and distal muscular dystrophy. ANO5 mutations are associated with loss of muscle membrane integrity and defective membrane repair. Our studies suggest that ANO5 is a putative calcium-activated chloride channel which may function with dysferlin in membrane repair. Our study has identified a novel group of muscular dystrophies ???the Anoctaminopathies???.

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  • Effects of a self-adjuvanting Synthetic Long Peptide targeting TLR2 on human immune cells

    Burkert, Kristina; Mansell, Claudia; McIntosh, Julie; Brooks, Anna; Angel, Catherine; Winkler, S; Harris, Paul; Williams, Geoffrey; Brimble, Margaret; Dunbar, Peter (2010-10-27)

    Conference poster
    The University of Auckland Library

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