32 results for Conference poster, 2011

  • Diabetes Management by Primary Health Care Nurses in Auckland, New Zealand

    Daly, Barbara; Arroll, B; Sheridan, N; Kenealy, T; Scragg, R (2011-11-04)

    Conference poster
    The University of Auckland Library

    Methods PHC nurses in Auckland (a 26% random sample) were asked to complete postal and telephone questionnaires (86% response rate), on education, experience, knowledge and diabetes management practice, and to log their care given to diabetes patients on a randomly selected day (n=265). Results Responses were received from 287 PHC nurses (86% response rate) comprising 210 practice nurses (PN), 49 district nurses (DN) and 28 specialist nurses (SNs). Most nurses (96%) were able to identify excess body weight as a major risk factor for type 2 diabetes and elevated blood glucose levels (BGLs) or glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) (86%) for diabetes-related complications. In contrast, CV risk factors were less well identified, particularly smoking, although more by SNs (43%) than PNs (14%) and DNs (12%, p=0.0005). CV complications, especially stroke, were less well known than microvascular complications, and by significantly fewer PNs (13%) and DNs (8%) than SNs (36%, p=0.002). Stronger associations were found between nurse’s knowledge of elevated HbA1c as a risk factor for diabetes-related complications and management activities related to BGLs and medication, compared with knowledge of CV risk factors, which was not associated with assessment of blood pressure or knowledge of patient’s total cholesterol or smoking status. The median number of patients consulted on the randomly selected day was one by 38% of PNs, two by 47% of DNs and 4-5 by 57% of SNs. Overall, PNs consulted almost 60% of the patients sampled, while patients consulted by DNs were older and more likely to be European New Zealanders, tobacco uses and have diabetes-related complications and co-morbidities, while SNs consulted by Maori and Pacific patients. Conclusion: There is a need for PHC nurses to increase their knowledge of CV risk factors with more effective management required and particularly of smoking.

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  • Substrate capture mechanism provides a mode for inhibition

    Evans, Genevieve; Short, F; Castell, A; Cookson, T; Gamage, Swarnalatha; Denny, B; Baker, E; Lott, S (2011-05-11)

    Conference poster
    The University of Auckland Library

    Mycobacteria tuberculosis (Mtb), the causative agent of tuberculosis, is responsible for more death in the world today than any other bacteria. As part of the Tuberculosis Structural Genomics Consortium (TBSGC), our research group previously determined the structure of anthranilate phosphoribosyl transferase (AnPRT) from Mtb. AnPRT is the second enzyme in the tryptophan biosynthetic pathway and was identified as a potential drug target through gene knockout experiments, which resulted in a strain of Mtb that was essentially avirulent even in immunodeficient mice. AnPRT catalyses a reaction between anthranilate and phosphoribosylpyrophosphate (PRPP), and the crystal structure of Mtb-AnPRT was originally determined with and without PRPP (PDB ID: 1ZVW and 2BPQ, respectively). In silico docking was used to predict the binding motif of anthranilate, the second substrate, surprisingly predicted two sites despite a 1:1 reaction ratio with PRPP. Previously, 165 compounds were screened for inhibitory action against Mtb-AnPRT. The most potent of these compounds was co-crystallized with Mtb-AnPRT and PRPP. One compound had a bianthranilate character and the 2.0 Å resolution structure of this inhibitor bound to Mtb-AnPRT (PDB ID: 3QQS) was determined by molecular replacement using the Mtb-AnPRT structure without PRPP bound (PDB ID: 1ZVW) as a search model. Interestingly, the structure revealed multiple binding motifs for the inhibitor, two of which were consistent with the previously predicted binding motifs for anthranilate. Forty analogues of this potent Mtb-AnPRT inhibitor were subsequently assayed for activity against the enzyme, several of which showed were found to be more potent inhibitors. This new series of inhibitors were docked into the 3QQS structure, providing insights for the development of more potent inhibitors. Such techniques will continue to drive design of increasingly potent inhibitors against Mtb-AnPRT for future development of a new anti-tuberculosis agent.

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  • An investigation into the teaching of extemporaneous compounding skills to pharmacy students in schools of pharmacy in Australia, Canada, New Zealand, South Africa and the United Kingdom

    Aspden, Trudi; Rew, A; Anderson, C; Tan, J; Woodrow, R; Zheng, Y (2011)

    Conference poster
    The University of Auckland Library

    Background: Many countries require that registered pharmacists are competent to extemporaneously compound. In general, however, there is a lack of opportunity for interns and new pharmacists to practice extemporaneous compounding due to the reduction in demand for extemporaneously compounded products in community pharmacy. Thus it falls to schools of pharmacy to prepare future pharmacist for this role. Objectives: With respect to extemporaneous compounding to pharmacy undergraduates- to determine what is taught, how it is taught, how it is assessed and the time allocated to teaching in the different schools of pharmacy in the five countries. Methodology: Thirty eight course coordinators involved in the teaching of extemporaneous compounding from 32 schools of pharmacy in Australia, Canada, New Zealand, South Africa and the United Kingdom were invited to complete an online survey using Survey MonkeyTM. Results: Twenty four responses were obtained from participants in all five countries (response rate 63.2%). Extemporaneous compounding was a compulsory component of all the BPharm programmes. However, there was a wide inter and intra-country variation in the teaching of the subject including the number of hours dedicated to its teaching, the dosage forms included and the teaching methods used. Many schools used extemporaneous compounding teaching to introduce transferrable skills, such as the ability to accurately calculate. A strong desire to retain the teaching of extemporaneous compounding was expressed by the course coordinators. Discussion: Our results highlight differences in the extemporaneous compounding teaching of the BPharm programmes in the five countries surveyed, but also uncover its use in developing related skills.

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  • Impact of PCV7 on antibiotic susceptibiity of nasophayngeal Streptococcus pneumoniae in South Auckland children

    Sekikawa, E; Trenholme, A; Taylor, S; Lennon, Diana; McBride, C; Best, Emma (2011-03-17)

    Conference poster
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Test- retest reliability of an instrumented elastometer for measuring passive stiffness of the levator ani muscle

    Kruger, Jennifer; Nielsen, Poul; Dietz, HP; Taberner, Andrew (2011-08-31)

    Conference poster
    The University of Auckland Library

    Hypothesis / aims of study Clinical evidence demonstrates strong associations between vaginal birth, the incidence of levator ani (LA) muscle injury, and a decrease in muscle function (1). Imaging modalities such as ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging have provided insight into the nature of LA injury, confirming that it is significantly implicated in the development of pelvic organ prolapse (2). Strain of the LA muscles during delivery of the fetal head is considerable, and childbirth related trauma to the muscle has been shown to occur in 10-30% of women delivering vaginally (1,2). Thus, developing measures to identify a-priori, those who are most likely to suffer from injury during vaginal birth should be a high research priority. The inherent elasticity of the muscle clearly plays a role in the ability of the muscle to accommodate the fetal head. However, measuring passive stiffness of the muscle in vivo remains challenging. The aim of this study was to further develop and test a novel elastometer (3), designed to estimate in vivo passive stiffness produced by the puborectalis component of the LA muscle, where it passes in close contact with the lateral walls of the vagina, from its origin on the pubic ramus. Study design, materials and methods The elastometer used in this study is a more sophisticated version of a previously developed first-generation device (3). The current version of this instrument (Figure 1) boasts enhanced aesthetics and patient friendliness compared to our previous device. Notably, our elastometer can now implement user-defined measurement protocols under automatic computer control in order to measure the force-displacement characteristics of the LA muscle. The device consists of a hand-piece comprising two aluminium arms, with detachable acetyl plastic speculum ends, actuated by a DC servo mechanism via a load cell. A load cell amplifier and displacement transducer are integrated into the hand-piece, providing force and speculum separation measurements. The hand-piece is connected to a control box that communicates with a laptop computer via a USB connection. The control box contains a data-acquisition device (USB-6009, National Instruments), motor drive circuit, and battery-based power supply. A custom MSWindows application implements a closed-loop motor control algorithm on the laptop, records measurements of speculum displacement and force, and provides feedback to the user. The laptop user-interface displays speculum separation and force on a strip chart, together with a force-displacement graph. The design of the speculum end of the elastometer is such that the tip is wider than the neck, (26mm compared to 18mm) to reduce the likelihood of perineal muscles confounding measurement of passive stiffness. Magnetic clips attach the speculum ends to the device which allows for easy cleaning, and provides the facility of attaching speculums of various sizes. Reliability and repeatability of the elastometer was assessed in 12 volunteers. None of the participants had had vaginal surgery, or any contraindications for vaginal examination. All participants were tested twice, 3 to 5 days apart using the same protocol. The speculum was inserted to the level of the puborectalis muscle (2-4 cm from the introitus) orientated in the coronal plane. After initial familiarisation with the device in situ, recording of the data commenced. All participants were encouraged to remain relaxed during the experiment. Data acquisition was automated with the device opening in 20 stepwise increments, to the desired separation, over 60 seconds. Data were collected at a frequency of 100 Hz. Averaged data over a three second period gave 21 data points per test. The procedure was repeated three times, with the initial run being considered as a preconditioning step and not used for data analysis. Statistical analysis was carried out using “R” version 2.12.2 (Copyright (C) 2011 The R Foundation for Statistical Computing). Results from Day 1 were compared with the re-test results using Bland/Altman repeated measures to determine any bias and limits of agreement and Intraclass correlation co-efficient (ICC) to determine reliability across tests and Days. Results The mean age of the 12 participants was 44.3 years (range 26 to 58 years), BMI 26 kg/m2 (range 20.4 to 33.7 kg/m2). Two of these were nulliparous, with the median number of vaginal delivery being 2. Data was visualised in graphic form for each subject across all tests for both days. A representative plot from one subject is shown in Figure 2. ICC’s for the second and third tests respectively were 0.92 (CI 0.89- 0.93), and 0.86 (CI 0.82-0.89). Limits of agreement (from repeated measures Bland Altman) were -2.79 N to +2.31 N, with a mean difference of -0.21 N. Interpretation of results Repeated Bland Altman demonstrates minimal bias with the mean difference close to zero at -0.12 N. The 95% limits of agreement range was slightly over 4 N, and likely to be due to biological variability. The high Intraclass correlation co-efficient for both tests between Days indicate minimal variability of the measurements. Concluding message This second generation elastometer has proved reliable and consistent in the measurement of passive stiffness of the puborectalis muscle in this group of volunteers. These results confirm satisfactory performance of the instrument in preparation for future studies validating this method in clinical and research settings. References 1. DeLancey JO. The hidden epidemic of pelvic floor dysfunction: achievable goals for improved prevention and treatment. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2005 May;192(5):1488-95. 2. Dietz HP, Simpson JM. Levator trauma is associated with pelvic organ prolapse. BJOG. 2008 Jul;115(8):979-84. 3. Kruger J, et al.. Pelvic floor muscle compliance in Elite nulliparous Athletes. 38th Annual meeting of the International Continence Society. Cario 2008

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  • Mechanisms Of Differences In Ventilation Distribution In The Upright, Supine, And Prone Postures

    Tawhai, Merryn; Hedges, Kerry (2011-05-13)

    Conference poster
    The University of Auckland Library

    Rationale: Measurements of ventilation distribution using various imaging modalities have suggested that the distribution of ventilation in the supine and prone postures is less evidently gravitational than when the lung is upright, and with some studies showing little difference between ventilation distributions in the prone and supine lung. This is despite the concurrent observations of a significant gradient in tissue density when supine, and a typically smaller - or absent - tissue density gradient prone. In this study we use a computational model of lung tissue elasticity coupled to air-flow to study the relationship between posture, density distribution, and ventilation. Methods: An imaging-based geometric model of the lung and airway tree that was developed in a separate study was used here. Flow in the airways was simulated using a one-dimensional fluid dynamics model that includes flow-dependent airway resistance and coupling to tissue elasticity at the airway walls and at the acini. A finite deformation elasticity model was used to predict the effect of gravity on tissue deformation, and the non-linear elasticity of each acinar tissue unit during simulated breathing. The upright lung volume was defined from pulmonary function testing; the supine and prone volumes were assumed to be the same, and equal to the supine air volume as calculated from the subject's computed tomography imaging acquired at FRC. Tissue density and ventilation at each of the ~32,000 distributed acini in the model were averaged within iso-gravitational slices of 10 mm thickness. Results: The gradient of tissue density predicted by the model was markedly larger in supine than in upright or prone. Ratios of the maximum to minimum slice density were 1.95, 1.51, and 1.39 for supine, prone, and upright, respectively. Ventilation in the upright model increased on average towards the dependent tissue, whereas ventilation in supine and prone was decreased in the most dependent and non-dependent regions. The ratios of maximum to minimum slice ventilation were 1.09, 1.03, and 1.31 for supine, prone, and upright, respectively. Conclusions: A lack of gravitational distribution of ventilation in the supine and prone postures compared with upright is predicted on the basis of the smaller size of the horizontal lung and a shift of the dependent tissue to a less-compliant region of the sigmoidal pressure-volume curve at its lower asymptote. This is the same mechanism that results in early filling of the non-dependent tissue when inhaling from residual volume.

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  • Delayed Cerebral Post-arteriole Dilation is Consistent with Observations at Multiple Spatial and Temporal Scales: Evidence from Mathematical Modelling

    Barrett, MJP; Tawhai, MH; Suresh, Vinod (2011-05-25)

    Conference poster
    The University of Auckland Library

    Background and aims: Observations from different neurovascular imaging modalities provide conflicting evidence about the presence and/or extent of volume changes in post-arteriole blood vessels. At the level of individual vessels, two-photon imaging during functional activation shows a rapid increase in arteriolar diameter, but little or no increase in capillaries or venules 1 . In contrast, 'bulk' measurements of flow-volume relationships show large increases in arterial volume 2 , and smaller - but still significant - increases in venous volume 3 . Here, we reconcile these competing observations using a dynamic, biophysically based mathematical model of the hemodynamic response. Methods: We use the widely known Windkessel model that represents blood flow as analogous to electrical current, and networks of blood vessels as analogous to electrical resistances and capacitances. The model also includes a novel description of vascular compliance, viscoelastic effects, and stimulus-driven vasodilation. Experimental observations at progressively more detailed scales are used to constrain and validate the model, following a 'top down' approach. In addition, we test the assumption that post-arteriole vessels do not dilate, and use the model to predict observations at progressively more aggregated scales, following a 'bottom up' approach. Results: Model predictions of the total, arterial, and venous steady state flow-volume relationships agree well with experimental observations, as do predictions of transient changes in flow and volume during functional activation. The model also predicts rapid arteriole dilation during activation. Interestingly, this is accompanied by slow increases in capillary and venule diameter that - for brief stimulation - are near indistinguishable from baseline noise. When assuming no dilation of capillaries or venules, there are only minor differences between the model predictions at the single vessel scale. However, predictions at more aggregated scales are qualitatively and quantitatively different from experimental observations. Conclusions: The model presented here is able to reproduce the main features of experimental observations over a range of spatial and temporal scales. These results suggest that arterial dilation represents the majority of regional cerebral blood volume increases during functional activation, especially during brief stimulation. However, passive dilation in capillaries and venules may be increasingly significant during extended stimulation. This is an important consideration when interpreting or comparing results from neurovascular imaging modalities, such as optical methods and magnetic resonance imaging.

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  • Talking Allowed!

    Davies, Maree; Sinclair, A (2011)

    Conference poster
    The University of Auckland Library

    Research on the Paideia Method (a method for discussing a topic) was conducted in 20 classrooms across five schools, of varying socioeconomic environments (ages 11-13) in Auckland, New Zealand, in 2010. The researchers sought to further examine the results from their pilot study of the Paideia Seminar, entitled 'Talking Allowed: I like it when the teacher lets us talk without telling us what to say', trialed in 2008 (Sinclair & Davies, 2011). In addition, in order to provide the optimum conditions to prepare the students for the face-to-face seminars, an online component (open source software) was added as an alternative medium to assist students in their preparation. The research questions were: What happens to the Nature of Interaction, and the Complexity of the Discussion when students participate in a Paideia Seminar, and an on-line discussion in preparation for the face-to-face seminar? What is the optimal role of the teacher when participating in a Paideia Seminar and an on-line discussion to increase complexity of discussion?

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  • The skeletal effects of the tyrosine kinase inhibitor nilotinib

    O'Sullivan, Susannah; Lin, Jian; Watson, M; Callon, K; Tong, PC; Naot, Dorit; Horne, Anne; Aati, O; Porteous, F; Gamble, G; Cornish, Jillian; Browett, Peter; Grey, Andrew (2011-09)

    Conference poster
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Orbscan And Pentacam Analysis Of The Cornea In Marfan And Suspected Marfan Syndrome.

    Vincent, Andrea; Ikink, W; Al-Taie, R (2011-05-02)

    Conference poster
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Identification of a lead hypoxia-activated irreversible pan-HER inhibitor SN32807 (PR509) by pharmacokinetic and anti-tumor efficacy screening in an erlotinib-resistant xenograft model

    Jaiswal, Jagdish; Lu, Guo-Liang; Jamieson, S; Lee, Ho; Abbattista, Maria; Anderson, BF; Ashoorzadeh, Amir; Denny, William; Doñate, F; Hsu, HL; Maroz, A; Pruijn, A; Puryer, M; Thompson, Aaron; Wilson, William; Smaill, Jeffrey; Patterson, Adam (2011-10-23)

    Conference poster
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • High Pressure and Thermal Processing of kiwifruit puree: the effect on antioxidants and vitamin C

    Soloman, N; Oliveira, Maria (2011-11-30)

    Conference poster
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • CUTE: CUTting Edge Diamond Optimization

    Downward, Anthony; Zakeri, G (2011)

    Conference poster
    The University of Auckland Library

    The Centenary Diamond, weighing 55g, was estimated to be worth $100 million when it was unveiled in 1991. This diamond was cut from a rough-stone weighing 120g; thus when cutting such a stone, it is imperative to orient the stone such that waste is minimized. Our interactive software allows a user to maximize the value of a diamond from a given rough-stone. As the user alters the orientation of the diamond, it solves optimization problems to scale and position the diamond within the rough-stone.

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  • Household Characteristics of Children Under Two Years Admitted with Lower Respiratory Infection in South Auckland

    Vogel, A; Trenholme, A; Lennon, Diana; McBride, C; Stewart, Joanna; Best, Emma; Mason, H; Siatu'u, Teuila (2011-04-02)

    Conference poster
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Postmortem violence? Identifying and interpreting postmortem disturbance in Mongolia

    Littleton, Judith; Frohlich, B (2011)

    Conference poster
    The University of Auckland Library

    Deliberate violence to remains can be inflicted post-mortem but archaeologically distinguishing the source of disturbance is hard enough while interpreting motive may be impossible. We present the results of excavation of 37 Bronze Age mounds, northernMongolia. Based on detailed analysis of burial structure, patterns of articulation, damage to elements and movement of bones within and outside the burial space, we argue there is evidence of human activity distinguishable from that of animals. Alternative hypotheses of disturbance incidental to robbery versus intentional post-mortem violence are evaluated in the context of the graves themselves, the archaeological context and ethnographic studies.

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  • Resources and strategies used in New Zealand community pharmacies to identify and assist patients with low literacy: An opportunity to improve health outcomes.

    Aspden, Trudi; Sheridan, JL; McKie, J (2011)

    Conference poster
    The University of Auckland Library

    Background: Patients with lower literacy generally have less knowledge of health services, poorer health outcomes[1] and are more likely to have difficulty understanding prescription medication warning labels[2]. Objectives: To determine how pharmacy staff identify patients with limited literacy skills, the strategies used for identification, the resources available to help patients with low literacy and opportunities for upskilling. Methodology: A questionnaire was adapted from one developed by Praska et al 2005 [3]. A random sample of 120 New Zealand pharmacies were sent information about the study. Those pharmacists willing to participate were interviewed by telephone. Results: The response rate was 64% (n=77). Almost 38% of respondents reported that they used measures to identify patients with low literacy, most often during patient counselling. The most common strategy used to optimise the health care of patients with low literacy was spending extra time explaining the information. Written information in the form of Self Care cards and information leaflets was the resource most commonly available. However, 4% of respondents had no resources available in their pharmacy.

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  • Nonlinear dynamics of an electronic model of one-way coupling in one and two dimensions

    Doud, AB; Breen, Barbara; Grimm, JR; Tanasse, AH; Tanasse, SJ; Lindner, JF; Maxted, K (2011-03-21)

    Conference poster
    The University of Auckland Library

    One-way or unidirectional coupling is a striking example of how topological considerations -- the parity of an array of multistable elements combined with periodic boundary conditions -- can qualitatively influence dynamics. Here we introduce a simple electronic model of one-way coupling in one and two dimensions and experimentally compare it to an improved mechanical model and an ideal mathematical model. In two dimensions, computation and experiment reveal richer one-way coupling phenomenology: in media where two-way coupling would dissipate all excitations, one-way coupling enables soliton-like waves to propagate in different directions with different speeds.

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  • Probing Student Approaches and Engagement in Learning Chemistry at University.

    Salter, David; Simpson, MC; Hamilton, R (2011-06)

    Conference poster
    The University of Auckland Library

    This project aims to identify students’ learning approaches, engagement, attitudes and success in chemistry classes that are service-taught as part of a specified health sciences programme and in chemistry classes that are taught as part of a chemistry major programme. It seeks to determine whether any differences exist in the learning approaches, motivational orientation and engagement, and compare the success of a cohort of students who are required to enrol in a compulsory chemistry course as part of a health sciences degree with that of a cohort of students who choose to enrol in a chemistry course with the possible intention of majoring in chemistry. It is intended that both cognitive and motivational individual difference variables are identified and relationships between students’ goal orientation and university academic success evaluated.

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  • Aged Residential Care Health Utilisation Study (ARCHUS). A randomised controlled trial to reduce acute hospitalisations from residential aged care.

    Broad, J.B; Foster, Susan; Boyd, M.; Kerse, N.; Lumley, T.; Connolly, M.J. (2011)

    Conference poster
    The University of Auckland Library

    Background and Aim Our aim is to reduce avoidable acute hospitalisations of residents of long-term care facilities. Such hospitalisations can cause distress, disruption, and complications for residents. Some conditions have been identified as better managed in the facility providing supports are in place. A randomised controlled trial is underway in Auckland, New Zealand of a targeted, multi-disciplinary team (MDT) to up-skill facility staff. We here outline the study design. Design Clustered randomised controlled trial (~1400 residents) of long-term care facilities, stratified by district health board (DHB). Randomisation and interventions commenced March 2011. Facilities certified for long-term care of older people in greater Auckland are eligible for selection if they have high levels of avoidable hospitalisation. Intervention MDTs supporting facility staff to provide evidence-based care. The supports and services provided comprise an initial stock-take assessment and development of facility plan, direct access to a geriatrician and gerontology nurse specialist (GNS), MDT meetings for individual cases, and provision of targeted education to facility nurses/caregivers, facilitated by a GNS. Education topics are based on modelling of risk factors for avoidable hospitalisation from long-term care in Auckland (2008-2010) and include recognition of illness, wound care, care planning, end-stage dementia care, nutrition/dehydration, family communication, specific clinical coaching with high-risk residents, role modelling of clinical reasoning processes, and provision of benchmarking systems. Control Usual care: the quality assurance, supports, and services routinely provided by the DHB Endpoints Primary endpoints include rate of hospitalisations in which the admission diagnosis code is one of a set pre-identified as being potentially avoidable (“Ambulatory Sensitive Hospitalisations”), emergency admission hospital bed days, and all-cause mortality. Secondary endpoints include number of emergency department presentations and number and type of medications prescribed. Residents’ outcomes will be tracked for 12 months from randomisation using their unique national health identifiers (NHIs).

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  • Resources and strategies used in New Zealand community pharmacies to identify and assist patients with low literacy: An opportunity to improve health outcomes

    Aspden, Trudi; Sheridan, Jane; McKie, J (2011)

    Conference poster
    The University of Auckland Library

    Patients with lower literacy generally have less knowledge of health services, poorer health outcomes' and are more likely to have difficulty understanding prescription medication warning labels. To determine how pharmacy staff identify patients with limited literacy skills, the strategies used for identification, the resources available to help patients with low literacy and opportunities for up skilling. A questionnaire was adapted from one developed by Praska et al 20053. A random sample of 120 New Zealand pharmacies were sent information about the study. Those pharmacists willing to participate were interviewed by telephone. ....

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