277 results for Conference poster

  • Elaborations on a theory of human problem solving

    Langley, Patrick; Trivedi, N (2013)

    Conference poster
    The University of Auckland Library

    In this paper, we present an extended account of human problem solving and describe its implementation within ICARUS, a theory of the cognitive architecture. We begin by reviewing the standard theory of problem solving, along with how previous versions of ICARUS have incorporated and expanded on it. Next we propose four additional elaborations that bring the framework into closer alignment with human problem-solving abilities. After this, we report results on a number of domains that demonstrate the benefits of these extensions. In closing, we discuss related work and note promising directions for additional research.

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  • An Architecture for Flexible Problem Solving

    Langley, Patrick; Emery, Miranda; Barley, Michael; Maclellan, C (2013)

    Conference poster
    The University of Auckland Library

    The literature on problem solving in both humans and machines has revealed a diverse set of strategies that operate in different manners. In this paper, we review this great variety of techniques and propose a five-stage framework for problem solving that accounts for this variation in terms of differences in strategic knowledge used at each stage. We describe the framework and its implementation in some detail, including its encoding of problems and their solutions, its representation of domain-level and strategy-level knowledge, and its overall operation. We present evidence of the framework???s generality and its ability to support many distinct problem-solving strategies, including one that is novel and interesting. We also report experiments that show the framework???s potential for empirical comparisons of different techniques. We conclude by reviewing other work on flexible approaches to problem solving and considering some directions for future research.

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  • The STn-SNc hyperdirect pathway modulates dopaminergic neuron activity by inhibiting GABAergic inputs from the SNr via endocannabinoids

    Freestone, Peter; Wu, XH; de Guzman, G; Lipski, Janusz (2014-07-05)

    Conference poster
    The University of Auckland Library

    The hyperdirect pathway of the basal ganglia circuitry terminates with a glutamatergic projection from the Subthalamic Nucleus (STN) to the Substantia Nigra pars compacta (SNc). We recently showed that glutamate released in the SNc drives endocannabinoid production in dopaminergic neurons, which in turn inhibits GABAergic transmission in that region. The present study investigated the potential role of STN glutamatergic projections of the hyperdirect pathway in this novel endocannabinoid modulatory mechanism. Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings were made from SNc dopaminergic neurons in horizontal brain slices (rat) containing STN, SNc and Substantia Nigra pars reticulata (SNr) regions. Either electrical (bi-polar electrode) or pharmacological (local carbachol application) stimulation of the STN was performed to evoke selective glutamate release from terminals in the SNc. GABAergic inputs to the SNc from the SNr were electrically stimulated to evoke inhibitory post-synaptic currents (eIPSCs). Single-pulse electrical stimulation of the STN caused transient (< 1 sec) attenuation of GABAergic eIPSCs amplitudes recorded from dopaminergic neurons (to 73% of control). The eIPSC attenuation was prevented by block of either cannabinoid CB1 receptors with rimonabant (3 ??M) or metabotropic glutamate mGluR1 receptors with CPCCOEt (100 ??M). Pharmacological activation of STN neurons by rapid local perfusion of muscarinic agonist carbachol (100 ??M, 10 s) caused a similar attenuation of eIPSC amplitude. These findings show that glutamate release from STN terminals in the SNc modulates GABAergic transmission through endocannabinoid signalling ??? a previously undescribed function of the hyperdirect pathway.

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  • Recent experiences in using TOUGH2 for geothermal modelling

    Clearwater, Emily; Yeh, Angus; O'Sullivan, John; Kaya, Eylem; Croucher, Adrian; Cui, T; OSullivan, Michael; Zarrouk, Sadiq; Austria, JJC; Ciriaco, Anthony; Archer, Rosalind; Dempsey, David (2012-04-17)

    Conference poster
    The University of Auckland Library

    The geothermal modelling group in Engineering Science (University of Auckland) is involved with several geothermal R&D projects. On the development side we are running models of Ohaaki, Wairakei, Ngawha, Reporoa, Wayang Windu and Lihir. Our experiences in these projects have led on to several parallel research projects. Our model of Wairakei-Tauhara is so large that it also contains the Rotokawa system and the edge of the Ngatamriki system. Trying to understand the large-scale convection process at Wairakei-Tauhara has led on to studies of more generic convection studies and studies of larger areas of the TVZ. It has also led on to deeper models which require equations of state that can handle high pressures and temperatures. We have developed one for pure water but now wish to extend it to include CO2 and NaCl. With larger and larger models the computational demand increases quickly and we are now routinely using TOUGH_MP, the parallel version of TOUGH2. Also with large complex models dealing with input and output is a major task and we have developed a suite of PYTHON scripts (called pyTOUGH) for carrying out several model management tasks. One of the biggest challenges in geothermal modelling is model calibration and we have carried out studies using inverse modelling with iTOUGH and PEST and also Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods (MCMC). We are also carrying out miscellaneous studies of resewrvoir physics several of which involve fluid/rock interaction, for example the effects of cold water injection on permeability and subsidence in geothermal fields.

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  • PUKUmahi!: Kia whai te huarahi tika. NETwork! Roadmap for safe travel: Ensuring health benefits flow on to M??ori

    Henare, Kimiora; Parker, Kate; Print, Cristin; Findlay, Michael; Lawrence, Benjamin (2015-11-02)

    Conference poster
    The University of Auckland Library

    Neuroendocrine tumours (NET) are complex and variable, making it very difficult for clinicians to determine the best course of treatment. The NETwork project seeks to better understand the epidemiological impact of NETs in New Zealand, and to better characterise the disease to help inform oncologists how to treat it. The estimated incidence rate of patients with NETs in New Zealand is approximately 200 patients per year, however the impact among M??ori is not yet known. M??ori are disproportionately burdened by cancers of the lungs, stomach, and pancreas, so it is tempting to speculate that NET incidence among M??ori could also be high. It is essential that M??ori are involved in the study in order to get an accurate indication of the impact of this cancer in New Zealand, what genes are driving the cancers, and how each can be treated. The multi-faceted NETwork project combines epidemiological analysis and deep genome sequencing of retrospective and prospective NET tissues. Under the guidelines set out in Te Ara Tika, the design of this research project is mainstream, but is likely to involve M??ori participants and have direct relevance to M??ori. Despite being neither M??ori-centred nor Kaupapa M??ori in our approach, the NETwork team are dedicated to honouring the Treaty of Waitangi principles of partnership, participation, and protection. Mindful of the past transgressions involving the use of tissues and genetic information obtained from indigenous populations here in New Zealand and overseas, the NETwork group are keen not to repeat these errors themselves, nor facilitate the opportunity for others to do so. Following ongoing consultation with Te Mata Ira, Maui Hudson, Dr Helen Wihongi, and Associate Professor Papaarangi Reid, we have established a ???roadmap for safe travel??? to guide all aspects of the multi-faceted project. The framework has three key principles (kawa) underpinning its Governance structure, and three core cultural protocols (tikanga) to be incorporated into the implementation strategies. Adhering to these kawa and tikanga should facilitate the establishment and maintenance of relationships with key stakeholders; a vital aspect to the project. The roadmap for safe travel is still in its early stages of development, and consultation is ongoing. Nevertheless, the NETwork team have a strong platform from which to further develop their project. Although the presented framework is specific to the NETwork project, it could easily be adjusted and utilised for other clinical and biomedical projects.

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  • Reducing the Risks of Long-Term Human Space Exploration by Simulating Missions in an Analog Environment on Mauna Loa

    Binsted, K; Hunter, JB; Caldwell, Bryan (2012-02)

    Conference poster
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Quality of Life in Fit Elderly Patients with Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL) Receiving Oral Fludarabine-Based Regimens As First Line Therapy: Australasian Leukaemia and Lymphoma Group (ALLG) CLL5 Trial

    Suneet, S; Gill, D; Turner, PD; Renwick, WEP; Latimer, M; Mackinlay, N; Berkahn, Leanne; Simpson, DR; Campbell, P; Forsyth, C; Cull, G; Harrup, R; Best, G; Bressel, M; Di Iulio, J; Kuss, BJ; Mulligan, S (2015-12-03)

    Conference poster
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Investigations At Hi-SEAS into Team Function and Performance on Long Duration Exploration Missions

    Binsted, KA; Basner, M; Bedwell, W; Caldwell, Bryan; Chang, D; Hunter, J; Kozlowski, S; Nasrini, J; Roma, P; Santoro, J; Seibert, M; Shiro, B; Wu, P (2016-02-09)

    Conference poster
    The University of Auckland Library

    HI-SEAS HI-SEAS (Hawaii Space Exploration Analog and Simulation, www.hi-seas.org) is a habitat on an isolated Mars-like site on the Mauna Loa side of the saddle area on the Big Island of Hawaii at approximately 8200 feet above sea level. HI-SEAS is unique, in addition to its setting in a distinctive analog environment, as: - we select the crew to meet our research needs (in contrast, at serendipitous analogs, such as Antarctic stations, crew selection criteria are not controlled by researchers); - the conditions (habitat, mission, communications, etc.) are explicitly designed to be similar to those of a planetary exploration mission; - the site is accessible year round, allowing longer-duration isolated and confined environment studies than at other locations; - the Mars-like environment offers the potential for analog tasks, such as geological field work by human explorers and/or robots. The ability to select crew members to meet research needs and isolate them in a managed simulation performing under specific mission profiles makes HI-SEAS ideal for detailed studies in space-flight crew dynamics, behaviors, roles and performance, especially for long-duration missions. MISSIONS TO DATE As of February 2016, there have been three missions completed at HI-SEAS, two of four months in length, and one of eight months. The fourth mission, which is twelve months long, is currently under way, and will end in August 2016. UPCOMING MISSIONS The next cycle of missions will see the research focus at HI-SEAS shift from crew cohesion and performance to crew composition. We expect the first of three eight-month missions to start in late 2016. CURRENT RESEARCH The current research projects being carried out at HI-SEAS focus on crew cohesion, function and performance. Preliminary results from each of these projects are being presented in detail by the co-authors separately at this meeting. This presentation will provide an overview of the research conducted to date, and the plans for the future. OPPORTUNISTIC RESEARCH In order to maximize research return, and to provide HI-SEAS crews with a realistic workload, we welcome proposals for opportunistic research to be carried out during HI-SEAS missions. Proposed projects must a) advance human space exploration by addressing NASA???s needs and requirements; b) require a long-duration analog for desired research outcomes; and c) not confound the primary research. If you are interested in submitting an opportunistic research proposal, please contact the first author.

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  • Are doctoral theses changing over time?

    Brailsford, Ian; Sowden, E; Orioli Figueira, Brigida (2016-04-22)

    Conference poster
    The University of Auckland Library

    This poster presents longitudinal data on the length and chapter composition of 800 doctoral theses deposited at the University of Auckland between 2008 and 2015. Over this period, the doctoral statute has been amended to allow for more flexibility in the format of a thesis submitted for examination, such as the inclusion of creative practice and peer-reviewed publications. In addition, the funding mechanisms for doctorates in New Zealand have put a premium on candidates completing in a timely fashion. Given these two contexts we speculated that the length of an average doctoral thesis would be declining over time. One hundred doctoral theses ??? overwhelmingly PhD theses with a smattering of name doctorates ???deposited in the University Library from each calendar year were randomly selected to assess: the number of pages; chapter composition; and inclusion of published papers within the thesis. These data were then correlated against academic faculty to tease out variations across the disciplines. Overall, our findings indicate that the doctoral thesis has remained relatively stable in length and chapter structure.

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  • Polyamine diamide orthidine F as a potent and selective antimalarial lead compound

    Liew, Lydia; Kaiser, M; Copp, B (2013)

    Conference poster
    The University of Auckland Library

    THE POLYAMINE DIAMIDE ORTHIDINE F AS A POTENT AND SELECTIVE ANTIMALARIAL LEAD COMPOUND Orthidine F (1) was isolated from an extract of the marine organism Aplidium orthium, found at Three Kings Islands, New Zealand.1 An initial screen of the natural product 1 against a panel of parasitic protozoa (Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense, Trypanosoma cruzi, Leishmania donovani and Plasmodium falciparum K1 dual drug-resistant strain) identified selective inhibitory activity for T. brucei rhodesiense (IC50 78 ??M) against T. cruzi, no detectable activity towards L. donovani and moderate activity against P. falciparum. Furthermore, the natural product was found to be non-toxic in the non-malignant L6 rat myoblast cell line, thus representing an attractive target as an antiparasitic drug. A preliminary structure-activity relationship (SAR) study identified analogues with a similar activity profile to the natural product. The analogues were found to exhibit moderate inhibitory activity against T. brucei rhodesiense (IC50 3.2???210 ??M), more potent inhibitory activity against P. falciparum (IC50 0.0086???0.61 ??M), and no significant activity against T. cruzi and L. donovani. The analogues also continued to display little or no cytotoxic effect in the L6 cell line, this combined with the potent IC50 values obtained for inhibition of P. falciparum afforded a series of analogues with impressive properties which warranted further studies. This led to a second series of analogues with the intention of improving its antimalarial activity. The analogues generated from this exercise exhibited potent in vitro activities (IC50 0.0086???0.61 ??M) while retaining selectivity against P. falciparum. Three analogues were selected based on the in vitro data obtained and evaluated for in vivo activity in the Plasmodium berghei mouse model of malaria; which in this instance did not yield significant activity.

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  • A synthetic study towards aryl 6,6-spiroacetal analogues of rubromycin

    Choi, Peter; Rathwell, DC; Brimble, Margaret (2008)

    Conference poster
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Wind power in New Zealand Renewable energy resource dynamics in a hydro-based power system

    Suomalainen, AK; Pritchard, G; Sharp, Basil; Yuan, Z; Zakeri, G (2013-12-02)

    Conference poster
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Cardiac response to weak electrical shocks challenges the functional syncytium paradigm

    Caldwell, Bryan; Trew, Mark; Pertsov, AM (2015-04-11)

    Conference poster
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Diagnostic Utility of a Next Generation Sequencing Retinal Panel in a M??ori and Polynesian population with Inherited Retinal Disease

    Vincent, Andrea; Coysh, A; van Bysterveldt, K; Oliver, Verity; Black, G (2016-05-03)

    Conference poster
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Pneumococcal Vaccine Decreases Hospitalised Community-Acquired Pneumonia in Children

    Trenholme, A; Lennon, Diana; Best, Emma; Stewart, Joanna; Mcbride, C; Byrnes, Catherine; Walker, W; Percival, T; Mason, H; Vogel, Alison (2011-11-16)

    Conference poster
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • The development of a whey-based kefir beverage: Physiocochemical, sensory and microbiological characteristics

    Chan, Cheuk; Quek, Siew-Young; Roberton, AM (2007-11-15)

    Conference poster
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Clinical ICT Tools: Are we able to measure their effectiveness? A Case Study

    Ewens, Andrew; Orr, M; Starr Jr, RG (2014-09-10)

    Conference poster
    The University of Auckland Library

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