280 results for Conference poster

  • Predicting soil physical properties from morphology

    Webb, Trevor H. (2004)

    Conference poster
    Landcare Research

    Morphological descriptors of ped size and tightness of in situ packing have been developed in New Zealand to predict hydraulic conductivity. These descriptors, together with clay content, were used to define five functional subsoil horizons for eight soil series on the Canterbury Plains and were found to be useful predictors of a number of soil physical properties. In this paper, the same functional horizons (based on two classes of clay content, two classes of ped size and six classes of in situ packing) are applied to a New Zealand-wide dataset encompassing a wide range of soil groups. Encouraging relationships were found between functional horizons and bulk density, macroporosity, readily available water, Ks and K-40, but not with total available water, field capacity or wilting point. Relationships between functional horizons and soil physical properties were weakened when standard soil consistence attributes were used in the place of in situ packing.

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  • Testing the representativeness of soil carbon data held in databases underpinning the New Zealand Soil Carbon Monitoring System

    Wilde, Hugh; Davis, Murray; Tate, Kevin; Giltrap, David J. (2004)

    Conference poster
    Landcare Research

    The New Zealand Soil Carbon Monitoring System involves stratification of the land area into cells based on climatic, soil and land-cover classes. Cell C values were obtained by averaging data contained in existing soil databases. Soil C data contained in these databases have come from carefully selected representative soils or from forest mensuration or trial plots, and were not randomly selected. There is thus a risk of bias in site selection, and a question about the representativeness of the underpinning data. This study tested the representativeness of underpinning databases by restricted random sampling of one cell (11 sites) using a grid-based system, and comparing results with the database values. The Temperate Volcanic Improved Pasture cell was selected for the test. This cell was already well sampled (29 points to 0.3 m depth) with a well-established mean and variance from the non-random sampling. Mean values for C mass derived from the two methods were similar, the randomly derived values being within 5.2%, 1.6%, and 1.4% of the database values for the 0–0.1 m, 0.1–0.3 m and 0–0.3 m layers respectively. With one exception, the randomly derived means for all three estimates were well within the 95% confidence limits of the database values. Database means for all attributes fell within the confidence limits derived from the random samples. These limits were wider than those of the database samples because we had fewer samples. We conclude that the original database soil C values, derived from non-random sampling, for this cell are representative.

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  • Biogeographical and biophysicochemical traits link N2O emissions and microbial communities across New Zealand pasture soils

    Morales, Sergio E.; Jha, Neha; Saggar, Surinder (2014)

    Conference poster
    Landcare Research

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  • Impact of urine and DCD application on microbial communities in dairy-grazed pasture soils

    Morales, Sergio E.; Jha, Neha; Saggar, Surinder (2014)

    Conference poster
    Landcare Research

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  • High riverine transport of particulate organic carbon in New Zealand: potential significance of soil erosion to carbon accounting

    Scott, Durelle T.; Baisden, W. T.; Preston, Nick J,; Trustrum, Noel A.; Davies-Colley, R.; Woods, Ross A.; Hicks, D. Murray; Gomez, Basil; Page, Michael J.; Tate, Kevin (2004)

    Conference poster
    Landcare Research

    Tectonically active small island nations contribute a disproportionate amount of sediment to the world’s oceans. For such nations, particulate organic carbon (POC) export associated with riverine sediment load can also be important compared with C fluxes reported under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and accounted for under the Kyoto Protocol. We quantified the total riverine export of particulate organic carbon (POC) from New Zealand’s landscape to the ocean. New Zealand comprises 0.1% of global land area, 0.2% of the world’s CO2 emissions, and 1% of global riverine sediment flux. POC export was estimated at 3±1 Mt C yr-1 (10±3 tC km-2 yr-1). The total riverine POC yield represents a movement of C equivalent to approximately one third of New Zealand’s total fossil fuel emissions. Since elevated rates of erosion are associated with non-forested landcover, reforestation may contribute to changes in riverine POC fluxes.

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  • Using paired plots to verify soil carbon change associated with land-use change as predicted from historical soil inventory

    Davis, Murray; Wilde, Hugh; Tate, Kevin (2004)

    Conference poster
    Landcare Research

    A system of paired plots is being established in New Zealand to determine the direction and magnitude of soil carbon change associated with major land-use changes that have occurred since 1990, i.e. afforestation of grassland, and reversion of grassland to shrubland. Some data exist for afforestation of grassland, but uncertainties are high and more data are needed, particularly for depths below 0.1 m. Limited data are available for the effects on soil C of pasture reversion to shrubland. This work aims to strengthen the current Carbon Accounting System (CAS) by providing the data needed to verify predictions based on the CAS and on process-based models being developed. Three sets of pasture-shrubland paired plots were established in 2003. They comprise pairs of 20 x 20 m plots in close proximity that have, as far as possible, identical soils, slope, aspect, elevation and land-use history until 1990, but differing land use since 1990. The shrubland consisted of the indigenous species manuka at two higher rainfall sites and the exotic leguminous species broom at the third site. The estimated time since the sites began to revert to shrubland was 9-12 years. Statistical analysis of data from the initial three sites showed there was no significant difference in soil C between pasture (112 Mg ha-1) and shrubland (120 Mg ha-1) to a depth of 0.3 m. Between-site variance was large, however, and additional sampling is required to accurately determine the magnitude and direction of change in soil C with land use change from grassland to shrubland.

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  • Using the 'NZ-DNDC' model to simulate the effects of changing land management on nitrous oxide and carbon dioxide emissions from New Zealand grazed pastures

    Giltrap, Donna L.; Saggar, Surinder; Tate, Kevin; Li, Changsheng (2004)

    Conference poster
    Landcare Research

    The process-based denitrification-decomposition (DNDC) model simultaneously models agricultural trace gas emissions, soil C sequestration, and crop yield, and is ideal for mitigation-offset analyses that examine both C sequestration and nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4) emissions in agro-ecosystems. We have modified DNDC for estimating N2O emissions from New Zealand's grazed pasture systems. Modifications include the addition of perennial pasture to the modelled crop list, pasture growth response to day length, and the use of a NZ-specific relationship between air and soil temperature. The soil-water balance submodel was also amended to allow the simulated soil water content to reach the same saturated conditions as were found in the field. In addition, the critical value of water-filled pore space (WFPS) for switching on denitrification was increased from 35% to field capacity (~ 60% WFPS). Excretal inputs from grazing animals were applied, based on actual grazing management. Our modified model (NZ-DNDC) simulated very well changes in WFPS for a well-drained fine sandy loam and a poorly drained silt loam soil. The modified model thus fairly reproduces the real variability in underlying processes that regulate N2O and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, suggesting it should simulate reasonably well these emissions from a range of New Zealand grazed pastures. Several simulations have been run to predict the likely results of land-use changes on soil CO2 and N2O emissions. These results suggest NZ-DNDC realistically simulates the effects of changes in fertiliser and grazing management on these emissions. However, further modifications may be required to more accurately simulate changes in soil C in these grazed pastures.

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  • Nitrous oxide emissions from farm effluents

    Bhandral, Rita; Saggar, Surinder; Bolan, Nanthi S.; Hedley, Mike (2004)

    Conference poster
    Landcare Research

    Effluent irrigation leads to increased emission of greenhouse gases, such as nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4). Massey University and Landcare Research have initiated a number of studies examining the effects of various factors, such as the nature of the effluent, hydraulic loading, time of application, soil type and compaction, on N2O emissions from effluent irrigation. Here we compare the emissions from treated and untreated dairy effluents, and piggery and meat effluents applied to 2 m x 1 m plots for two periods (1st irrigation: February-April, 2003; and 2nd irrigation: July-September, 2003). In addition we examined N2O emissions from the treated dairy effluent applied to a dairy farm during three periods (September 2003 and January and February 2004), and the residual effect of effluent irrigation and grazing on emissions in a field-scale trial. In the plot trial, the effluent irrigation resulted in higher emissions than the control and the highest N2O emissions were observed from piggery effluent (1.4% of the applied N) and meat effluent (0.67%) after the first and second irrigation, respectively. In the field-scale trial, N2O emissions increased immediately after the application of the dairy effluent and the total N2O emitted from effluent application in the first, second and third irrigations were 2.0%, 5.8% and 2.5%, respectively of the total N added in the effluent. No residual effect of effluent irrigation on N2O emissions was observed two months after the application.

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  • Managing inpatient hypoglycaemia: A clinical audit

    Coats, A; Marshall, Dianne (2010-09-10)

    Conference poster
    The University of Auckland Library

    Aim To examine nursing management of hypoglycaemic episodes in the hospitalised adult patient with Type 1 or Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in the general medical/surgical wards at a secondary level hospital. Objective To describe hypoglycaemia treatment patterns in the adult inpatient by examining nursing adherence to the Northland District Health Board hospital hypoglycaemia protocol. Method A retrospective audit of 32 sets of treatment and progress notes identified nurses??? adherence to the protocol for management of inpatient hypoglycaemia . Results Adherence to the individual steps of the protocol was low. Nurses administered the recommended initial treatment in 40.4% of cases. Within 30 minutes of detection, 36.7% episodes were corrected. Medical staff were informed of hypoglycaemia in 11.4% of cases. This step achieved the lowest adherence. Nurses documented 87.7% of episodes. There was a high degree of recurrent hypoglycaemia (71.9%). Discussion It is critical to patient outcomes that the steps of the protocol are undertaken correctly. Failure to provide the recommended treatment resulted in some patients experiencing prolonged episodes. Whilst frequency of nursing documentation of episodes was high, critical assessment of causes and or a management plan were not routinely documented. Nurses did not routinely advise medical staff of episodes, consequently medical review of causes of hypoglycaemia and the management plan occurred infrequently. Failure to review management contributed to the high number of recurrent episodes.

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  • Impact of PCV7 on antibiotic susceptibiity of nasophayngeal Streptococcus pneumoniae in South Auckland children

    Sekikawa, E; Trenholme, A; Taylor, S; Lennon, Diana; McBride, C; Best, Emma (2011-03-17)

    Conference poster
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Pneumococcal Vaccine Decreases Hospitalised Community-Acquired Pneumonia in Children

    Trenholme, A; Lennon, Diana; Best, Emma; Stewart, Joanna; Mcbride, C; Byrnes, Catherine; Walker, W; Percival, T; Mason, H; Vogel, Alison (2011-11-16)

    Conference poster
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Progress Testing: Two Countries Divided by a Common Language

    O'Connor, Barbara; Lillis, Steven; Weston, Kimberley; Freeman, A; Bagg, Warwick (2014)

    Conference poster
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • The role of conspicuity in bicycle crashes involving a motor vehicle

    Tin Tin, Sandar; Woodward, Alistair; Ameratunga, Shanthi (2014-10-30)

    Conference poster
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Clinical ICT Tools: Are we able to measure their effectiveness? A Case Study

    Ewens, Andrew; Orr, M; Starr Jr, RG (2014-09-10)

    Conference poster
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Impact of conjugate pneumococcal vaccine on nasopharyngeal S.pneumoniae serotypes and antibiotic susceptibility over 7 years

    Best, Emma; Taylor, S; Tse, F; McBride, C; Stewart, Joanna; Lennon, Diana; Trenholme, A (2015-03-19)

    Conference poster
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Stereo vision for ecohydraulic research: Seashell reconstruction

    Friedrich, Heide; Bertin, Stephane; Montgomery, John; Thrush, Simon; Delmas, Patrice (2016-12-16)

    Conference poster
    The University of Auckland Library

    3D information of underwater topographies can be obtained more easily nowadays. In general, those measurements do not provide the spatial nor temporal detail for more specific research of dynamic processes, such as sediment transport. More recently, we have seen the advance of true interdisciplinary ecohydraulics research initiatives. One important research avenue is the interaction of organisms with flow and sediment. We have used stereo vision substantially for fluvial morphology studies over the last years, and will present and discuss the use of stereo vision for ecohydraulic research. The work is undertaken in the laboratory, and we present a workflow of reconstructing seashells. We obtain shape and dimensional information, which are important to better understand the organism???s interaction in the natural water environment. Although we find that stereo vision is suitable to capture our studied organisms, the challenge of studying organisms in their natural environments persists. We discuss the limitations of our approach, and the need to fuse technical and behavioural knowledge to better manage our ecosystem.

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  • Household Characteristics of Children Under Two Years Admitted with Lower Respiratory Infection in South Auckland

    Vogel, Alison; Trenholme, A; Lennon, Diana; McBride, C; Stewart, Joanna; Best, Emma; Mason, H; Siatu'u, Teuila (2011-04-02)

    Conference poster
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • What influences the association between previous and future crashes among cyclists.

    Tin Tin, Sandar; Woodward, Alistair; Ameratunga, Shanthi (2014-10-09)

    Conference poster
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • PUKUmahi!: Kia whai te huarahi tika. NETwork! Roadmap for safe travel: Ensuring health benefits flow on to M??ori

    Henare, Kimiora; Parker, Kate; Print, Cristin; Findlay, Michael; Lawrence, Benjamin (2015-11-02)

    Conference poster
    The University of Auckland Library

    Neuroendocrine tumours (NET) are complex and variable, making it very difficult for clinicians to determine the best course of treatment. The NETwork project seeks to better understand the epidemiological impact of NETs in New Zealand, and to better characterise the disease to help inform oncologists how to treat it. The estimated incidence rate of patients with NETs in New Zealand is approximately 200 patients per year, however the impact among M??ori is not yet known. M??ori are disproportionately burdened by cancers of the lungs, stomach, and pancreas, so it is tempting to speculate that NET incidence among M??ori could also be high. It is essential that M??ori are involved in the study in order to get an accurate indication of the impact of this cancer in New Zealand, what genes are driving the cancers, and how each can be treated. The multi-faceted NETwork project combines epidemiological analysis and deep genome sequencing of retrospective and prospective NET tissues. Under the guidelines set out in Te Ara Tika, the design of this research project is mainstream, but is likely to involve M??ori participants and have direct relevance to M??ori. Despite being neither M??ori-centred nor Kaupapa M??ori in our approach, the NETwork team are dedicated to honouring the Treaty of Waitangi principles of partnership, participation, and protection. Mindful of the past transgressions involving the use of tissues and genetic information obtained from indigenous populations here in New Zealand and overseas, the NETwork group are keen not to repeat these errors themselves, nor facilitate the opportunity for others to do so. Following ongoing consultation with Te Mata Ira, Maui Hudson, Dr Helen Wihongi, and Associate Professor Papaarangi Reid, we have established a ???roadmap for safe travel??? to guide all aspects of the multi-faceted project. The framework has three key principles (kawa) underpinning its Governance structure, and three core cultural protocols (tikanga) to be incorporated into the implementation strategies. Adhering to these kawa and tikanga should facilitate the establishment and maintenance of relationships with key stakeholders; a vital aspect to the project. The roadmap for safe travel is still in its early stages of development, and consultation is ongoing. Nevertheless, the NETwork team have a strong platform from which to further develop their project. Although the presented framework is specific to the NETwork project, it could easily be adjusted and utilised for other clinical and biomedical projects.

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  • Data acquisition and integration protocol on the Ahuahu/Great Mercury Island Archaeological Project

    Pillay, P; Barrett, Matthew; Emmitt, Joshua; Mackrell, Timothy; Phillipps, Rebecca (2017-06-22)

    Conference poster
    The University of Auckland Library

    On the Ahuahu/Great Mercury Island Project a wide range of technology is used to record large quantities of data. Laser scanners for generating 3D models of the landscape, GPS for logging points during pedestrian survey, drones capture aerial photography, tablets are used for in-field artefact registry and analysis, and total stations for recording the location of artefacts, features, deposits, and points for Terrain Irregular Networks (TINs). The use of such technology in conjunction with excavation requires a rigid workflow to maximise use of time and maintain recording standards, while minimising data loss and disruption to excavation. This workflow includes the post-field processing of data which are ultimately appended to a master relational database. Following a workflow in this way allows the efficient integration, management, and comparison of data from multiple sites across multiple field seasons.

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