280 results for Conference poster

  • Molecular investigation of protozoan diversity in stream biofilms

    Dopheide, AJ; Lear, Gavin; Lewis, Gillian (2006-11-21)

    Conference poster
    The University of Auckland Library

    This research aims to test the following hypothesis: that molecular biological methods will allow description of protozoan diversity and ecology in streams.

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  • Mechanisms Of Differences In Ventilation Distribution In The Upright, Supine, And Prone Postures

    Tawhai, Merryn; Hedges, Kerry (2011-05-13)

    Conference poster
    The University of Auckland Library

    Rationale: Measurements of ventilation distribution using various imaging modalities have suggested that the distribution of ventilation in the supine and prone postures is less evidently gravitational than when the lung is upright, and with some studies showing little difference between ventilation distributions in the prone and supine lung. This is despite the concurrent observations of a significant gradient in tissue density when supine, and a typically smaller - or absent - tissue density gradient prone. In this study we use a computational model of lung tissue elasticity coupled to air-flow to study the relationship between posture, density distribution, and ventilation. Methods: An imaging-based geometric model of the lung and airway tree that was developed in a separate study was used here. Flow in the airways was simulated using a one-dimensional fluid dynamics model that includes flow-dependent airway resistance and coupling to tissue elasticity at the airway walls and at the acini. A finite deformation elasticity model was used to predict the effect of gravity on tissue deformation, and the non-linear elasticity of each acinar tissue unit during simulated breathing. The upright lung volume was defined from pulmonary function testing; the supine and prone volumes were assumed to be the same, and equal to the supine air volume as calculated from the subject's computed tomography imaging acquired at FRC. Tissue density and ventilation at each of the ~32,000 distributed acini in the model were averaged within iso-gravitational slices of 10 mm thickness. Results: The gradient of tissue density predicted by the model was markedly larger in supine than in upright or prone. Ratios of the maximum to minimum slice density were 1.95, 1.51, and 1.39 for supine, prone, and upright, respectively. Ventilation in the upright model increased on average towards the dependent tissue, whereas ventilation in supine and prone was decreased in the most dependent and non-dependent regions. The ratios of maximum to minimum slice ventilation were 1.09, 1.03, and 1.31 for supine, prone, and upright, respectively. Conclusions: A lack of gravitational distribution of ventilation in the supine and prone postures compared with upright is predicted on the basis of the smaller size of the horizontal lung and a shift of the dependent tissue to a less-compliant region of the sigmoidal pressure-volume curve at its lower asymptote. This is the same mechanism that results in early filling of the non-dependent tissue when inhaling from residual volume.

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  • Diabetes Management by Primary Health Care Nurses in Auckland, New Zealand

    Daly, Barbara; Arroll, B; Sheridan, N; Kenealy, T; Scragg, R (2011-11-04)

    Conference poster
    The University of Auckland Library

    Methods PHC nurses in Auckland (a 26% random sample) were asked to complete postal and telephone questionnaires (86% response rate), on education, experience, knowledge and diabetes management practice, and to log their care given to diabetes patients on a randomly selected day (n=265). Results Responses were received from 287 PHC nurses (86% response rate) comprising 210 practice nurses (PN), 49 district nurses (DN) and 28 specialist nurses (SNs). Most nurses (96%) were able to identify excess body weight as a major risk factor for type 2 diabetes and elevated blood glucose levels (BGLs) or glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) (86%) for diabetes-related complications. In contrast, CV risk factors were less well identified, particularly smoking, although more by SNs (43%) than PNs (14%) and DNs (12%, p=0.0005). CV complications, especially stroke, were less well known than microvascular complications, and by significantly fewer PNs (13%) and DNs (8%) than SNs (36%, p=0.002). Stronger associations were found between nurse???s knowledge of elevated HbA1c as a risk factor for diabetes-related complications and management activities related to BGLs and medication, compared with knowledge of CV risk factors, which was not associated with assessment of blood pressure or knowledge of patient???s total cholesterol or smoking status. The median number of patients consulted on the randomly selected day was one by 38% of PNs, two by 47% of DNs and 4-5 by 57% of SNs. Overall, PNs consulted almost 60% of the patients sampled, while patients consulted by DNs were older and more likely to be European New Zealanders, tobacco uses and have diabetes-related complications and co-morbidities, while SNs consulted by Maori and Pacific patients. Conclusion: There is a need for PHC nurses to increase their knowledge of CV risk factors with more effective management required and particularly of smoking.

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  • Substrate capture mechanism provides a mode for inhibition

    Evans, Genevieve; Short, F; Castell, A; Cookson, T; Gamage, Swarnalatha; Denny, B; Baker, E; Lott, S (2011-05-11)

    Conference poster
    The University of Auckland Library

    Mycobacteria tuberculosis (Mtb), the causative agent of tuberculosis, is responsible for more death in the world today than any other bacteria. As part of the Tuberculosis Structural Genomics Consortium (TBSGC), our research group previously determined the structure of anthranilate phosphoribosyl transferase (AnPRT) from Mtb. AnPRT is the second enzyme in the tryptophan biosynthetic pathway and was identified as a potential drug target through gene knockout experiments, which resulted in a strain of Mtb that was essentially avirulent even in immunodeficient mice. AnPRT catalyses a reaction between anthranilate and phosphoribosylpyrophosphate (PRPP), and the crystal structure of Mtb-AnPRT was originally determined with and without PRPP (PDB ID: 1ZVW and 2BPQ, respectively). In silico docking was used to predict the binding motif of anthranilate, the second substrate, surprisingly predicted two sites despite a 1:1 reaction ratio with PRPP. Previously, 165 compounds were screened for inhibitory action against Mtb-AnPRT. The most potent of these compounds was co-crystallized with Mtb-AnPRT and PRPP. One compound had a bianthranilate character and the 2.0 ?? resolution structure of this inhibitor bound to Mtb-AnPRT (PDB ID: 3QQS) was determined by molecular replacement using the Mtb-AnPRT structure without PRPP bound (PDB ID: 1ZVW) as a search model. Interestingly, the structure revealed multiple binding motifs for the inhibitor, two of which were consistent with the previously predicted binding motifs for anthranilate. Forty analogues of this potent Mtb-AnPRT inhibitor were subsequently assayed for activity against the enzyme, several of which showed were found to be more potent inhibitors. This new series of inhibitors were docked into the 3QQS structure, providing insights for the development of more potent inhibitors. Such techniques will continue to drive design of increasingly potent inhibitors against Mtb-AnPRT for future development of a new anti-tuberculosis agent.

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  • An investigation into the teaching of extemporaneous compounding skills to pharmacy students in schools of pharmacy in Australia, Canada, New Zealand, South Africa and the United Kingdom

    Aspden, Trudi; Rew, A; Anderson, C; Tan, J; Woodrow, R; Zheng, Y (2011)

    Conference poster
    The University of Auckland Library

    Background: Many countries require that registered pharmacists are competent to extemporaneously compound. In general, however, there is a lack of opportunity for interns and new pharmacists to practice extemporaneous compounding due to the reduction in demand for extemporaneously compounded products in community pharmacy. Thus it falls to schools of pharmacy to prepare future pharmacist for this role. Objectives: With respect to extemporaneous compounding to pharmacy undergraduates- to determine what is taught, how it is taught, how it is assessed and the time allocated to teaching in the different schools of pharmacy in the five countries. Methodology: Thirty eight course coordinators involved in the teaching of extemporaneous compounding from 32 schools of pharmacy in Australia, Canada, New Zealand, South Africa and the United Kingdom were invited to complete an online survey using Survey MonkeyTM. Results: Twenty four responses were obtained from participants in all five countries (response rate 63.2%). Extemporaneous compounding was a compulsory component of all the BPharm programmes. However, there was a wide inter and intra-country variation in the teaching of the subject including the number of hours dedicated to its teaching, the dosage forms included and the teaching methods used. Many schools used extemporaneous compounding teaching to introduce transferrable skills, such as the ability to accurately calculate. A strong desire to retain the teaching of extemporaneous compounding was expressed by the course coordinators. Discussion: Our results highlight differences in the extemporaneous compounding teaching of the BPharm programmes in the five countries surveyed, but also uncover its use in developing related skills.

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  • Blood flow redistribution following pulmonary micro-embolism

    Clark, Alys; Burrowes, KS; Tawhai, Merryn (2010)

    Conference poster
    The University of Auckland Library

    Occlusion of pulmonary arteries by autologous clot and bead emboli affect pulmonary function by elevating arterial pressures and reducing the number of functional gas exchange units in the lung. The occlusion of multiple arterioles at the acinar level can have a significant impact on pulmonary function. However, the contribution of acinar structure to perfusion distribution and the significance of arteriole occlusion is not well characterized.

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  • Pregnancy Associated Changes in Insulin Signalling in Daughters of Adolescent Ewes

    Oliver, Mark; Hancock, SN; Kenyon, PR; Blair, HT; Pain, S; Morris, S; Phua, Hui; Bloomfield, Francis (2011-09)

    Conference poster
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • A synthetic study towards aryl 6,6-spiroacetal analogues of rubromycin

    Choi, Peter; Rathwell, DC; Brimble, Margaret (2008)

    Conference poster
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Orbscan And Pentacam Analysis Of The Cornea In Marfan And Suspected Marfan Syndrome.

    Vincent, Andrea; Ikink, W; Al-Taie, R (2011-05-02)

    Conference poster
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Educating for disaster: Determining the core elements of a disaster curriculum for social work in New Zealand

    Adamson, Carole (2012)

    Conference poster
    The University of Auckland Library

    In 2010 and 2011, Aotearoa New Zealand was hit by a number of major disasters involving loss of human life and severe disruption to social, ecological and economic wellbeing. The Pike River mine explosions were closely followed by a sequence of major earthquakes in Christchurch, seismic events that have permanently altered the lives of thousands of people in our third largest city, the closure of the central business district and the effective abandonment of whole residential areas. In early October 2011, the ship, Rena, grounded on a reef off the port of Tauranga and threatened a major oil spill throughout the Bay of Plenty, where local communities with spiritual and cultural connections to the land depend on sea food as well as thrive on tourism. The Council for Social Work Education Aotearoa New Zealand (CSWEANZ), representing all the Schools of Social Work in New Zealand, held a ???Disaster Curriculum??? day in November 2011, at which social workers and Civil Defence leaders involved in the Christchurch earthquakes, the Rena Disaster, Fiji floods and the Boxing Day tsunami presented their narrative experience of disaster response and recovery. Workshops discussed and identified core elements that participants considered vital to a social work curriculum that would enable social work graduates in a range of community and cultural settings to respond in safe, creative and informed ways. We present our core ideas for a social work disaster curriculum and consider a wide range of educational content based on existing knowledge bases and new content within a disaster framework.

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  • "But what about the theory?" Designing a social work curriculum around practice learning and reflection

    Adamson, Carole; Bellinger, A (2010-06-10)

    Conference poster
    The University of Auckland Library

    Curriculum design in an academic context operates within a site of tension characterised by the need

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  • Resources and strategies used in New Zealand community pharmacies to identify and assist patients with low literacy: An opportunity to improve health outcomes.

    Aspden, Trudi; Sheridan, JL; McKie, J (2011)

    Conference poster
    The University of Auckland Library

    Background: Patients with lower literacy generally have less knowledge of health services, poorer health outcomes[1] and are more likely to have difficulty understanding prescription medication warning labels[2]. Objectives: To determine how pharmacy staff identify patients with limited literacy skills, the strategies used for identification, the resources available to help patients with low literacy and opportunities for upskilling. Methodology: A questionnaire was adapted from one developed by Praska et al 2005 [3]. A random sample of 120 New Zealand pharmacies were sent information about the study. Those pharmacists willing to participate were interviewed by telephone. Results: The response rate was 64% (n=77). Almost 38% of respondents reported that they used measures to identify patients with low literacy, most often during patient counselling. The most common strategy used to optimise the health care of patients with low literacy was spending extra time explaining the information. Written information in the form of Self Care cards and information leaflets was the resource most commonly available. However, 4% of respondents had no resources available in their pharmacy.

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  • The influence of the regional distribution of reduced lung elastic recoil on FEV1

    Hedges, KL; Hoffman, EA; Tawhai, MH (2010)

    Conference poster
    The University of Auckland Library

    Rationale: A link has been observed in several studies between the regional distribution of emphysema and the resulting magnitude of reduction in FEV1. The aim of this study is to examine how the loss of elastic recoil associated with emphysema that develops in localized regions of the lung results in the observed trends in FEV1 reduction.

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  • Preclinical characterization of PWT33597, a dual inhibitor of PI3-kinase alpha and mTOR.

    Matthews, DJ; O???Farrell, M; James, J; Giddens, Anna; Rewcastle, Gordon; Denny, William (2011-04-05)

    Conference poster
    The University of Auckland Library

    4485: Phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K) is an important mediator of tumor cell growth, survival and proliferation. In particular, PI3K alpha is important for signaling downstream of receptor tyrosine kinases and is also frequently amplified or mutationally activated in tumors, suggesting that selective inhibitors of this isoform may have therapeutic utility in the treatment of cancer. Downstream of PI3K, the mTOR kinase also plays a critical role in cellular growth and metabolism, and inhibitors of mTOR have demonstrated clinical benefit in several tumor types. We report here the discovery and characterization of PWT33597, a dual inhibitor of PI3K alpha and mTOR. PWT33597 inhibits PI3K alpha and mTOR in biochemical assays with IC50 values of 19 and 14 nM respectively, and is approximately 10-fold selective with respect to PI3K gamma and PI3K delta. Profiling of PWT33597 against 442 protein kinases (Ambit Kinomescan) revealed little or no cross-reactivity with either serine/threonine or tyrosine kinases, and there was little cross-reactivity with an additional panel of 64 pharmacologically relevant targets. In NCI-H460 and HCT116 tumor cells with mutationally activated PI3K alpha, PWT33597 inhibits phosphorylation of PI3K and mTOR pathway proteins with cellular IC50 values similar to its biochemical IC50 values. PWT33597 has good pharmacokinetic properties in multiple preclinical species, is not extensively metabolized in vivo and shows little potential for interaction with cytochrome P450 enzymes. Following a single oral dose in vivo, PWT33597 shows durable inhibition of PI3K and mTOR pathway signaling in xenograft tumors. High compound distribution into tumors and potent anti-tumor activity has been observed in multiple tumor xenograft models with activated PI3K/mTOR pathways. Also, administration of PWT33597 in mice is associated with transient increases in plasma insulin, consistent with an effect on PI3K/AKT signaling. A robust PK/PD relationship has been defined, which will guide interpretation of the planned phase I clinical study. IND-enabling studies with PWT33597 are currently in progress.

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  • Design of a water soluble amethyrin macrocycle

    Albrett, Amelia; Brothers, Penelope; Aguilar, A; Lee, JT; Sessler, JL (2006-07)

    Conference poster
    The University of Auckland Library

    This JPP issue contains all abstracts accepted for presentation at the Fourth International Conference of Porphyrins and Phthalocyanines (ICPP-4) which was held in Rome, Italy, July 2-7, 2006 and coorganized by Drs Roberto Paolesse and Pietro Tagliatesta from the University of Rome ???Tor Vergata???. The printed book of abstracts was given to all ICPP-4 attendees, being a necessary tool to follow the rich scientific program of the meeting, and should also prove useful to those readers of JPP who were not able to attend the biennial scientific meeting of the Society of Porphyrins and Phthalocyanines (SPP).

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  • Operational Decision Making for Aluminium Smelters

    Gao, Yashuang; Taylor, Mark; Chen, JJJ; Hautus, Michael (2008-11-26)

    Conference poster
    The University of Auckland Library

    Many computer systems incorporating artificial intelligence have been introduced for use in industry to assist in making decisions and controlling processes. However, decision making in a complex industrial plant, such as an aluminium smelter, involves psychologically related factors such as intuitive reasonings, operator response characteristics, perception of risk, and implication of rewards. While a significant body of work does exist on decision science, research concerning human interaction with process control systems is still at the development stage. The work reported here aims to meet the needs of the process industry by incorporating human factors and decision making strategies into computer programs such as a supervisory control system for aluminium smelters. A case study on the control of the level of the liquid electrolyte was carried out to firstly facilitate an understanding of the variables, including human factors, on process control. It was found that the availability of crushed solidified electrolyte material had a significant impact on the level of the liquid electrolyte, while the implementation of a supervisory control system had a certain impact, management and leadership styles also had a significant influence.

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  • Context and relationship: defining resilience in health social workers

    Adamson, Carole; Beddoe, Elizabeth; Huggard, Peter (2011-11-05)

    Conference poster
    The University of Auckland Library

    A qualitative study of social workers in physical and mental health asked experienced social workers who self-defined as resilient to define the concept and to explore the elements of resiliency within their practice. Initial definition of resilience as a personal characteristic was developed into a strongly contextual and relational construct, the binding feature of which was self-awareness and the capacity to reflect. A strong feature of the social workers??? understanding of resilience was their focus on relationship with colleagues and the quality of professional social work practice with service users. Further reflexive and structural elements in their professional lives were identified, highlighting that resilience within health social workers is in dynamic relationship with the organisational context. A resilience framework derived from current literature and from the research is presented.

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  • Unusual Bacterially mediated manganese-based structures within biofilms from urban streams.

    Smith, Joanna; Lewis, Gillian (2008-08-17)

    Conference poster
    The University of Auckland Library

    The objectives of this study were to describe the occurrence and nature of unusual brown ???doughnut???-shaped microbial structures present within the biofilms of several urban streams in Auckland, New Zealand, and the bacteria responsible for their formation. These structures, termed anelli, were observed with light and scanning electron microscopy to be shallow conical microcolonies consisting of a ring, enriched in manganese and iron, surrounding a central pore. Bacteria were observed to reside within the pores, although anelli seen within biofilms were frequently vacant structures. A manganese depositing, anellus-forming bacterium (JOSHI_001) was isolated on solid media, and analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed this bacterium to belong to the order Burkholderiales within the class ??-proteobacteria, closely related to the manganese-depositing genus Leptothrix. The presence of anelli within biofilms was found to require Mn(II), however, elevated levels of this element within stream water did not necessarily result in growth of anelli. Anelli were only dominant structures within biofilms from those stream sites subjected to a high level of anthropogenic impact, suggesting that Mn(II) may not be the only factor influencing competitive capability. Investigation of additional streams within the Auckland region, influenced by a range of different types of anthropogenic impact is ongoing. Molecular analysis indicated that although anelli were structurally dominant, the ??-proteobacteria comprised only a minor component of the bacterial community present within the biofilms. JOSHI_001 may have a significant impact on geochemical cycling and stream ecology within streams subjected to high levels of anthropogenic impact.

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  • An examination of the extent of adult neurogenesis in the carpet shark (Cephaloscyllium isabellum)

    Finger, JSH; Kubke, Maria; Wild, JM; Montgomery, JC (2008)

    Conference poster
    The University of Auckland Library

    Following Altman???s and Kirsche???s challenge to the dogma that no new neurons could be produced during adulthood in the 1960???s, adult neurogenesis was shown in most vertebrate lineages. From a phylogenetic point of view, adult neurogenesis is not an uncommon event, having been demonstrated in reptiles and birds, amphibians, bony fi shes and mammals. At present, however, adult neurogenesis has not been examined in cartilagineous fi shes, the stem line of vertebrates. Sharks are an ideal group in which to study the extent of adult neurogenesis for several reasons: (i) they exhibit continuous body growth throughout life; (ii) in the stingray the number of peripheral axons and neurons continues to increase into adult life; and (iii) in adult gray reef sharks the number of inner ear hair cells also continues to increase. We have begun to evaluate the extent of adult neurogenesis in the carpet shark (Cephaloscyllium isabellum). A specimen of C isabellum was injected i.p. with 230 mg/kg of BrdU, anaesthetised and perfused after 2 hrs. The brain was cryoprotected and cut at 40 ??m, and processed following standard immunocytochemical techniques. BrdU was found in a small number of nuclei in close proximity to the ventricular surface, in a similar position than occasional cells labelled with an antibody aginst ??-tubuline (III). Some BrdU labelled nuclei were also found throughout the brain that were not stained with our neuronal marker. These preliminary data suggest that adult neurogenesis occurs in sharks and that like in bony fi shes, but unlike birds and mammals, it may also occur in non-telencephalic areas. If widespread adult neurogenesis can be unequivocally demonstrated in sharks, it would indicate that it represents the primitive condition. This therefore raises the question of what modifi cations in brain evolution of modern vertebrate lineages led to the restriction of this ability to specifi c forebrain areas.

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  • A Multiscale, Spatially-Distributed Model of Airway Hyper-Responsiveness

    Donovan, Graham; Politi, Antonio; Sneyd, A; Tawhai, Merryn (2009-05)

    Conference poster
    The University of Auckland Library

    Rationale: Airway hyper???responsiveness (AHR), along with airway hyper???sensitivity, is a defining feature of asthma, and greater understanding of this emergent phenomenon may lead to better insight into and treatment of the condition. We seek a multiscale, spatially???distributed, mathematical model of the lung to help us understand the role of airway smooth muscle and parenchymal material in AHR. Methods: Our model couples together the organ scale with the tissue scale in the lung in a multiscale approach to the problem. At the organ level, parenchymal tissue is modeled as a compressible Blatz???Ko material in three dimensions, with expansion and recoil of lung tissue due to tidal breathing. The governing equations of finite elasticity deformation are solved using a finite element method. An airway tree is embedded in this tissue, with airway smooth muscle behavior described by a modified Hai???Murphy cross???bridge model (Wang et al., Biophys. J. 94:2008). Each airway segment is initially assumed to be radially symmetric and longitudinally stiff, and thus the embedded airway tree is essentially 1D. Results: Our spatially???distributed, multiscale model yields organ???level observations while incorporating tissue???level modeling detail. Preliminary results from the integrated model indicate potential use in the study of many phenomena associated with asthmatic AHR, including spatial distribution of ventilation defects, patchiness, and effects of deep inspirations.

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