266 results for Conference poster

  • Buried Faults in the Auckland Region

    Gasston, Caleb; Lindsay, Jan; Brook, MS (2016-12-09)

    Conference poster
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Quaternary geology of the Auckland urban region, New Zealand: geotechnical properties and engineering implications

    Brook, Martin; Roberts, R; France, S; Williams, AL; Prebble, W (2016-12-09)

    Conference poster
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • So what does linking computational models with clinical data mean and how to do it?

    Atalag, Koray; Kalbasi, R; Zivaljevic, Aleksandar; Nickerson, David; Warren, James; Cooling, M; Hunter, Peter (2017-02-23)

    Conference poster
    The University of Auckland Library

    Linking computational physiology models with clinical data has been proposed to help real-world model validation as well as enable personalised and predictive clinical decision support systems. Electronic health records (EHR) are sinks of biomedical knowledge and include manifestations of genomic and environmental aspects that impact on biological systems. We describe how to use openEHR to normalise, annotate and link clinical data with computational models.

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  • New antifungal and antibacterial compounds: 1,3-oxazoline- and 1,3-oxazolidine-2-thiones

    Oliveira, Maria; Justino, J; Silva, S; Tatibouet, A; Rollin, P; Rauter, AP (2009-01-20)

    Conference poster
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • CUTE: CUTting Edge Diamond Optimization

    Downward, Anthony; Zakeri, G (2011)

    Conference poster
    The University of Auckland Library

    The Centenary Diamond, weighing 55g, was estimated to be worth $100 million when it was unveiled in 1991. This diamond was cut from a rough-stone weighing 120g; thus when cutting such a stone, it is imperative to orient the stone such that waste is minimized. Our interactive software allows a user to maximize the value of a diamond from a given rough-stone. As the user alters the orientation of the diamond, it solves optimization problems to scale and position the diamond within the rough-stone.

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  • One size in no way fits all - quantifying hip variations by automatic morphometric measurements from CT

    Zhang, Ju; Hislop-Jambrich, J; Malcolm, D; Thomas, CDL; Nielsen, Poul (2013-12-04)

    Conference poster
    The University of Auckland Library

    The femur and hip joint in particular are complicated structures that have both clinical and anthropological significance. The variability of surface structures among individuals especially in terms of gender makes the extraction of consistently reproducible measurements non-trivial and time consuming. Automatic image segmentation and meshing methods allow precisely-defined measurements to be taken from CT-volumes as part of an automated pipeline. We present initial findings from such a pipeline for obtaining morphometric measurements of the hip. We believe that the importance of this work lies in the eventual creation of a comprehensive databank that will be of use in the development of prosthetic devices and the tracking of disease and evolutionary morphometry. A 16-row MDCT was used to acquire images on 55 human cadavers (24 male, 31 female). The outer femoral surface was automatically segmented and meshed with sub-voxel accuracy. Femoral head area, femoral axis length, neck angle, neck width, and subtrochanteric width were automatically measured on the mesh according to mathematical definitions based on mesh geometry. Errors with respect to manual measurements were between 2.4% and 7.6% on average. All automatic measurements except for neck angle showed significant differences between genders (p-value<0.001), which was reflected in the manual measurements. We present this initial evaluation of five measurements with a view toward the creation of a macro-structural atlas of bones in the hip. The automated system shows good promise in terms of accuracy and sensitivity compared to manual measurements. We describe the variability of these measurements in our homogenous population with specific reference to gender to provide an overview of what is possible using current technology. Automatic assessment of proximal femur morphometry has shown that variations are sufficient to warrant the creation of a bank of detailed morphometric assessments of the hip. We believe that detailed knowledge of this complicated structure may be used to support the development of prosthetic devices and assist in diagnosing complex hip-based disorders.

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  • Use of whole-community bacterial indicators to monitor ecological health, function and variability within freshwater stream biofilms.

    Lear, Gavin; Smith, Joanna; Roberts, Kelly; Boothroyd, Ian; Lewis, Gillian (2008-08-17)

    Conference poster
    The University of Auckland Library

    This study describes the extent of variability in biofilm bacterial community structure across a broad range of spatial and temporal scales and assesses whether this may be used as an indicator of stream ecological health and function. A community DNA fingerprinting technique (Automated Ribosomal Intergenic Spacer Analysis - ARISA) was used to examine the structure of bacterial communities within freshwater stream biofilms. When compared with macrobenthic invertebrate community assemblages using multi-dimensional scaling techniques, similar broad-scale trends in population structure were revealed between organisms at these different trophic levels. For both communities, spatial variability in community structure was greater between streams than within each site, or compared to temporal variability measured over 1 year. Distance-based redundancy analysis of both bacterial ARISA and macroinvertebrate data estimated that the largest cause of variation in community structure was due to differences in catchment land-use, rather than any single water quality parameter (e.g. ph or ammoniacal nitrogen). Multidimensional scaling of ARISA data also revealed significant differences in community structure between urban, and less impacted stream sites, providing evidence that whole-bacterial communities could be used as an indicator of freshwater ecological health, analogous to the way that macroinvertebrate communities have been used for many years. In conclusion, we propose the analysis of whole bacterial communities as a cost-effective, high throughput alternative indicator of freshwater ecological health.

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  • Unusual Bacterially mediated manganese-based structures within biofilms from urban streams.

    Smith, Joanna; Lewis, Gillian (2008-08-17)

    Conference poster
    The University of Auckland Library

    The objectives of this study were to describe the occurrence and nature of unusual brown “doughnut”-shaped microbial structures present within the biofilms of several urban streams in Auckland, New Zealand, and the bacteria responsible for their formation. These structures, termed anelli, were observed with light and scanning electron microscopy to be shallow conical microcolonies consisting of a ring, enriched in manganese and iron, surrounding a central pore. Bacteria were observed to reside within the pores, although anelli seen within biofilms were frequently vacant structures. A manganese depositing, anellus-forming bacterium (JOSHI_001) was isolated on solid media, and analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed this bacterium to belong to the order Burkholderiales within the class β-proteobacteria, closely related to the manganese-depositing genus Leptothrix. The presence of anelli within biofilms was found to require Mn(II), however, elevated levels of this element within stream water did not necessarily result in growth of anelli. Anelli were only dominant structures within biofilms from those stream sites subjected to a high level of anthropogenic impact, suggesting that Mn(II) may not be the only factor influencing competitive capability. Investigation of additional streams within the Auckland region, influenced by a range of different types of anthropogenic impact is ongoing. Molecular analysis indicated that although anelli were structurally dominant, the β-proteobacteria comprised only a minor component of the bacterial community present within the biofilms. JOSHI_001 may have a significant impact on geochemical cycling and stream ecology within streams subjected to high levels of anthropogenic impact.

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  • Elaborations on a theory of human problem solving

    Langley, Patrick; Trivedi, N (2013)

    Conference poster
    The University of Auckland Library

    In this paper, we present an extended account of human problem solving and describe its implementation within ICARUS, a theory of the cognitive architecture. We begin by reviewing the standard theory of problem solving, along with how previous versions of ICARUS have incorporated and expanded on it. Next we propose four additional elaborations that bring the framework into closer alignment with human problem-solving abilities. After this, we report results on a number of domains that demonstrate the benefits of these extensions. In closing, we discuss related work and note promising directions for additional research.

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  • An Architecture for Flexible Problem Solving

    Langley, Patrick; Emery, Miranda; Barley, Michael; Maclellan, C (2013)

    Conference poster
    The University of Auckland Library

    The literature on problem solving in both humans and machines has revealed a diverse set of strategies that operate in different manners. In this paper, we review this great variety of techniques and propose a five-stage framework for problem solving that accounts for this variation in terms of differences in strategic knowledge used at each stage. We describe the framework and its implementation in some detail, including its encoding of problems and their solutions, its representation of domain-level and strategy-level knowledge, and its overall operation. We present evidence of the framework’s generality and its ability to support many distinct problem-solving strategies, including one that is novel and interesting. We also report experiments that show the framework’s potential for empirical comparisons of different techniques. We conclude by reviewing other work on flexible approaches to problem solving and considering some directions for future research.

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  • Comparison and refinement of hip joint centre prediction methods on a large contemporary population

    Zhang, Ju; Hislop-Jambrich, J; Besier, T (2014)

    Conference poster
    The University of Auckland Library

    The location of the hip joint centre (HJC) is critical for accurate lower limb kinematics. A number of methods allow the HJC to be predicted from the locations of bony pelvic landmarks. However, widely used predictions methods are often developed on small populations, or have inappropriate parameters when considering different populations. We compare the accuracy of prediction methods by Tylkowski[1], Bell[2], and Seidel[3], and update their parameters using a large urban population. 3-D models of the pelvis were automatically segmented from 159 (86 male, 73 female) post-mortem CT scans collected at the Victorian Insitute of Forensic Medicine. The dataset reflects a contemporary western urban adult population from the state of Victoria, Australia. Bony landmarks (ASIS, PSIS, symphysis pubis) were defined on an atlas model and propagated to correspondent positions on each subject-specific model. The three published methods above were used to predict HJC locations first using their published parameters, then using parameters fitted to the current dataset. Ground truth HJC locations were calculated as the centre of a sphere fitted to the acetabular regions of each model. Using published parameters, mean errors in millimetres for the Tylkowski, Bell, and Seidel methods were, respectively, 23 (4.9), 26 (4.1), and 18 (3.9). After fitting parameters to the current dataset, corresponding mean errors were 13 (5.5), 7.3(4.0), and 5.7 (3.3). Published parameter errors were similar to published errors for the Tylkowski and Bell methods, and more than twice that published for the Seidel method. After fitting parameters, errors for all methods were significantly lower than those previously published. These results highlight the need to validate and recalibrate joint centre prediction methods on large and population-specific datasets.

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  • PUKUmahi!: Kia whai te huarahi tika. NETwork! Roadmap for safe travel: Ensuring health benefits flow on to Māori

    Henare, Kimiora; Parker, K; Print, Cristin; Findlay, Michael; Lawrence, Benjamin (2015-11-02)

    Conference poster
    The University of Auckland Library

    Neuroendocrine tumours (NET) are complex and variable, making it very difficult for clinicians to determine the best course of treatment. The NETwork project seeks to better understand the epidemiological impact of NETs in New Zealand, and to better characterise the disease to help inform oncologists how to treat it. The estimated incidence rate of patients with NETs in New Zealand is approximately 200 patients per year, however the impact among Māori is not yet known. Māori are disproportionately burdened by cancers of the lungs, stomach, and pancreas, so it is tempting to speculate that NET incidence among Māori could also be high. It is essential that Māori are involved in the study in order to get an accurate indication of the impact of this cancer in New Zealand, what genes are driving the cancers, and how each can be treated. The multi-faceted NETwork project combines epidemiological analysis and deep genome sequencing of retrospective and prospective NET tissues. Under the guidelines set out in Te Ara Tika, the design of this research project is mainstream, but is likely to involve Māori participants and have direct relevance to Māori. Despite being neither Māori-centred nor Kaupapa Māori in our approach, the NETwork team are dedicated to honouring the Treaty of Waitangi principles of partnership, participation, and protection. Mindful of the past transgressions involving the use of tissues and genetic information obtained from indigenous populations here in New Zealand and overseas, the NETwork group are keen not to repeat these errors themselves, nor facilitate the opportunity for others to do so. Following ongoing consultation with Te Mata Ira, Maui Hudson, Dr Helen Wihongi, and Associate Professor Papaarangi Reid, we have established a ‘roadmap for safe travel’ to guide all aspects of the multi-faceted project. The framework has three key principles (kawa) underpinning its Governance structure, and three core cultural protocols (tikanga) to be incorporated into the implementation strategies. Adhering to these kawa and tikanga should facilitate the establishment and maintenance of relationships with key stakeholders; a vital aspect to the project. The roadmap for safe travel is still in its early stages of development, and consultation is ongoing. Nevertheless, the NETwork team have a strong platform from which to further develop their project. Although the presented framework is specific to the NETwork project, it could easily be adjusted and utilised for other clinical and biomedical projects.

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  • Who are Today's Dads?

    Underwood, Lisa; Atatoa Carr, P; Berry, S; Grant, Cameron; Morton, Susan (2015-12-14)

    Conference poster
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Refractive errors in the Maldives: a pilot study

    Kandel, H; Kaphle, D; Gyawali, R; Khanal, Safal; Upadhyaya, S (2014-07)

    Conference poster
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Do you see what I see? - Surveillance and response

    Patel, Reena; Dixon, Robyn; Webster, Craig (2015-07-06)

    Conference poster
    The University of Auckland Library

    Introduction: Early warning scoring systems and rapid response teams are important strategies to improve the detection of patient deterioration in hospitals. Initiation of an appropriate response relies on nurses recognising changes in patient condition and alerting the required emergency assistance team. Study Objective: To determine the level of concordance between the nurse’s assessment and that of the emergency team, based on early warning scores (EWS). Methods: An audit of data collected between June 2011 and May 2013 was undertaken and 2780 instances were reviewed in order to determine the degree of concordance on EWS scores between nurses initiating calls and those assigned by the emergency response team. Results: 881 instances lack of concordance was identified. In the majority of instances, the nurse overestimated the severity of the patient’s condition when compared to the emergency response team’s score. Conclusion: Such lack of concordance is problematic given that failure to activate an emergency response when required has obvious implications for patient safety while inappropriate referral to emergency response teams can result in inefficient use of resources.

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  • Household Characteristics of Children Under Two Years Admitted with Lower Respiratory Infection in South Auckland

    Vogel, A; Trenholme, A; Lennon, Diana; McBride, C; Stewart, Joanna; Best, Emma; Mason, H; Siatu'u, Teuila (2011-04-02)

    Conference poster
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Pharmacy students: Personality Types, Professionalism and Decision Making

    Jensen, Maree; Ram, Sanyogita; Dhana, A; Ali, R; Goh, S; Sherif, B; Kwon, S; Elsedfy, Y; Russell, Bruce (2014-06-02)

    Conference poster
    The University of Auckland Library

    Facebook© use has become increasingly popular for pharmacy students. Recent debate about the ethical and professional principles pharmacy students possess when social networking online prompted this study. We aimed to identify links between personality types within the University of Auckland (UoA) pharmacy cohort, their activity on Facebook©, and their professional decision making skills.

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  • Palliative Care Experience, Education and Education Needs of Aged Residential Care Clinical Staff

    Frey, RA; Gott, M; Boyd, M; Robinson, J (2013)

    Conference poster
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • The STn-SNc hyperdirect pathway modulates dopaminergic neuron activity by inhibiting GABAergic inputs from the SNr via endocannabinoids

    Freestone, Peter; Wu, XH; de Guzman, G; Lipski, Janusz (2014-07-05)

    Conference poster
    The University of Auckland Library

    The hyperdirect pathway of the basal ganglia circuitry terminates with a glutamatergic projection from the Subthalamic Nucleus (STN) to the Substantia Nigra pars compacta (SNc). We recently showed that glutamate released in the SNc drives endocannabinoid production in dopaminergic neurons, which in turn inhibits GABAergic transmission in that region. The present study investigated the potential role of STN glutamatergic projections of the hyperdirect pathway in this novel endocannabinoid modulatory mechanism. Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings were made from SNc dopaminergic neurons in horizontal brain slices (rat) containing STN, SNc and Substantia Nigra pars reticulata (SNr) regions. Either electrical (bi-polar electrode) or pharmacological (local carbachol application) stimulation of the STN was performed to evoke selective glutamate release from terminals in the SNc. GABAergic inputs to the SNc from the SNr were electrically stimulated to evoke inhibitory post-synaptic currents (eIPSCs). Single-pulse electrical stimulation of the STN caused transient (< 1 sec) attenuation of GABAergic eIPSCs amplitudes recorded from dopaminergic neurons (to 73% of control). The eIPSC attenuation was prevented by block of either cannabinoid CB1 receptors with rimonabant (3 µM) or metabotropic glutamate mGluR1 receptors with CPCCOEt (100 µM). Pharmacological activation of STN neurons by rapid local perfusion of muscarinic agonist carbachol (100 µM, 10 s) caused a similar attenuation of eIPSC amplitude. These findings show that glutamate release from STN terminals in the SNc modulates GABAergic transmission through endocannabinoid signalling – a previously undescribed function of the hyperdirect pathway.

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  • Collaborative Problem Solving for Do-ers and Teachers of Mathematics

    Sheryn, Sarah; Frankcom, G; Ledger, G (2014-11-27)

    Conference poster
    The University of Auckland Library

    This study sought to explore and analyse the phenomenon of maths anxiety within a real-life context, and to identify if levels of maths anxiety can be reduced through participation in a reciprocal teaching process. This poster presents a small element of the larger study, which investigated how to reduce maths anxiety in teacher candidates. Maths anxiety is a well-researched phenomenon that is known to impede the successful mathematics teaching and learning experiences of some teacher candidates. The maths anxiety these students bring to their mathematics education courses results in poor quality mathematics teaching (Biddulph 1999; Frankcom 2006; Sloan 2010). Mathematics education lecturers have become increasingly aware of how some students become visibly anxious when they walk into the mathematics classroom, and/or are asked to collaborate to solve mathematical problems. These observations are supported by the level of maths anxiety reported by these students. The model developed for this study was informed by the work of Palinscar and Brown (1984) and complemented by problem-solving models from Mullis, et al. (2008), Reilly, Parsons and Bortolot (2009), and Polya (1945). The Revised Reciprocal Teaching Model (RRTM) was designed is to facilitate teacher candidates’ access to mathematical practices used in schools, and simultaneously develop their personal mathematical knowledge and understanding. Cognisant of the problem solving and peer mentoring literature, researchers provided opportunities for graduates to develop adaptive expertise. While peer mentoring is thoroughly established in literacy education it is under-researched within mathematics education. Reciprocal teaching falls within this area of research and provides a framework for individuals to mutually support each other while learning. The RRTM was developed to promote discourse within mathematical communities in an attempt to reduce maths anxiety. The implementation of the RRTM was through a two-phased structured framework, designed to take place over a university calendar year. The framework began with specific training of peer mentors who in turn worked with assigned mentees. The second phase promoted less reliance on the peer mentors and resulted in the students forming their own peer mentoring groups outside of class time. Results suggest that the model has a positive effect on students’ ability to confidently talk about and solve mathematical problems. This is evidenced by the decrease in maths anxiety levels self-reported by teacher candidates. This research indicates the RRTM has the potential to reduce maths anxiety levels of teacher candidates and produce confident do-ers and teachers of mathematics.

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