280 results for Conference poster

  • What is the host range of Phytophthora agathidicida in New Zealand

    Ryder, Jessica; Burns, Bruce (2016-08-08)

    Conference poster
    The University of Auckland Library

    hytophthora agathidicida is a virulent oomycete plant pathogen, which is currently known to only infect Agathis australis in New Zealand. Phytophthora species rarely have a single plant host, so other hosts for P. agathidicida are likely but unknown. Phytophthora species are also often cryptic and sometimes asymptomatic on their host plants, making it a challenge to identify their true host range. Once an exotic Phytophthora species is introduced to an area, it becomes virtually impossible to eliminate. A sound understanding of a Phytophthora???s epidemiology is needed to prevent its spread onto uninfected hosts. This study determined whether P. agathidicida has a wider host range than currently recognised. Plant community composition was compared between healthy and infected kauri forest to detect possible susceptible species, and detached leaf assays were utilised as a further screen of possible hosts. Results showed a significant difference in species abundances between sites infected with P. agathidicida and sites without P. agathidicida that was unrelated to other potential variables. Leaf assays also indicated several other native plant species other than A.australis as possible carriers or hosts, including Knightia excelsa and Leucopogon fasciculatus. Identifying the host range of P. agathidicida is important for optimising the design of future control strategies for this pathogen.

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  • Synthesis and mechanistic studies of PLA??? inihibition by the marine alkaloid hyrtiosulawesine

    Liew, Lydia; Bourguet-Kondracki, M-L; Copp, BR (2010-10-17)

    Conference poster
    The University of Auckland Library

    The first isolation of hyrtiosulawesine (1) was from an Indonesian collection of the marine sponges Hyrtios erectus and H. reticulatus.1 The ??-carboline alkaloid was subsequently re-isolated from a Red Sea collection of Hyrtios sp. and found to display anti-phospholipase A2 (PLA2) activity with an IC50 value of 14 ??M. Phospholipase A2 catalyses the hydrolysis of membrane phospholipids at the sn-2 position to generate arachidonic acids (AA).3,4 AA are precursors to a large family of compounds known as the eicosanoids associated with inflammatory reactions.4 PLA2 inhibition by hyrtiosulawesine would lead to a decrease in AA and proinflammatory eicosanoids, with anti-inflammatory effect.4 In an effort to understand the structural attributes of the natural product (1) that cause PLA2 inhibition, hyrtiosulawesine and a series of related model compounds (2, 3) will be synthesised and evaluated for biological activity. Biomimetic nucleophiles will be used to probe hyrtiosulawesine and related compounds in order to determine their reactivity and possible site of reaction. Bioactive members of the library of compounds will subsequently be subjected to reaction with bee venom phospholipase A2 to identify the presence of any covalent adducts. Further studies may be directed to discovering the nature and location of the covalent linkage within the enzyme active site. The latest results will be presented. References 1. Salmoun, M.; Devijver, C.; Daloze, D.; Braekman, J.-C.; Van Soest, R. W. M. J. Nat. Prod. 2002, 65, 1173-1176. 2. Sauleau, P.; Martin, M.-T.; Dau, M.-E. T. H.; Youssef, D. T. A.; Bourguet-Kondracki, M.-L. J. Nat. Prod. 2006, 69, 1676-1679. 3. Balsinde, J.; Balboa, M. A.; Insel, P. A.; Dennis, E. A. Annu. Rev. Pharmacol. Toxicol. 1999, 39, 175-189. 4. Parente, L. J. Rheumatol. 2001, 28, 2375-2382.

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  • Structure-based design of small molecule modulators of the adrenomedullin 1 receptor

    Liew, Lydia; Burns, Erica; Jamaluddin, Muhammad; Bonnet, Muriel; Flanagan, JU; Hay, Deborah; Hay, Michael (2015-09-21)

    Conference poster
    The University of Auckland Library

    Adrenomedullin (AM) is peptide hormone which is an avid promoter of angiogenesis in a variety of models and is upregulated by hypoxia through a HIF-1a response element on the AM gene. AM administration to adult mice increases the number of blood and lymphatic vessels at the site of an injury. AM can act upon endothelial cells derived from both blood and lymphatic vessels to promote neovascularisation, proliferation and migration. Consequently, there is considerable interest in modulating this important angiogenic pathway. Although a truncated peptide antagonist (AM22-52) is reported to reduce tumour growth and vascularization, currently, there are no small molecules known to interact with AM receptors. Antagonists of AM signalling would have potential as anti-angiogenesis agents for cancer therapy, while agonists would have applications in wound healing and lymphedema settings. Many effects of AM are mediated through the AM1 receptor, which consists of two subunits: the calcitonin receptor-like receptor (CLR) (a G protein-coupled receptor) and receptor activity-modifying protein (RAMP2). A closely related peptide, calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), has a similar receptor; the CGRP receptor, which is composed of CLR with RAMP1. Extensive drug discovery efforts have produced a family of CGRP receptor antagonists (e.g., telcagepant, olcegepant) with clinical activity against migraine. X-ray crystal structures of the RAMP1/CLR extra-cellular domain (ECD) complex showed that these antagonists occupy a binding site at the CLR and RAMP1 interface, and so block CGRP binding. A recent crystal structure of the AM1 receptor ECD complex with an AM peptide fragment bound revealed a distinct ligand binding groove that provides new insights for the discovery of AM1 receptor selective molecules. We have used these crystal structures to design small molecules that anchor to backbone residues in the CLR subunit (THR122) and extend into the binding groove of the AM1 receptor, mimicking the interactions of the antagonist telcagepant at the CGRP receptor. A benzimidazolone motif, known to bind THR122 of the CLR subunit, was linked to a variety of units in an effort to impart selectivity towards the AM1 receptor. Activity at the AM1 and CGRP receptors was evaluated using a combination of cAMP and ??-arrestin recruitment assays. All compounds were independently screened (at least n=2) in the absence and presence of AM or CGRP to check for modulator activity or peptide-independent activity. We have identified a series of AM1 receptor selective small molecules which appear to act as positive allosteric modulators of AM activity, rather than antagonists. We report our exploration of this class of AM1 modulators, which represent first-in-class molecules.

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  • The development of a whey-based kefir beverage: Physiocochemical, sensory and microbiological characteristics

    Chan, Cheuk; Quek, Siew-Young; Roberton, AM (2007-11-15)

    Conference poster
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Postmortem violence? Identifying and interpreting postmortem disturbance in Mongolia

    Littleton, Judith; Frohlich, B (2011)

    Conference poster
    The University of Auckland Library

    Deliberate violence to remains can be inflicted post-mortem but archaeologically distinguishing the source of disturbance is hard enough while interpreting motive may be impossible. We present the results of excavation of 37 Bronze Age mounds, northernMongolia. Based on detailed analysis of burial structure, patterns of articulation, damage to elements and movement of bones within and outside the burial space, we argue there is evidence of human activity distinguishable from that of animals. Alternative hypotheses of disturbance incidental to robbery versus intentional post-mortem violence are evaluated in the context of the graves themselves, the archaeological context and ethnographic studies.

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  • Critical transitions in the public space of contemporary Chinese cities: Evaluating the ???otherness??? of the malls of consumption and spectacle in Changsha

    Manfredini, Manfredo; Xin, T; Wei, C (2015)

    Conference poster
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Functional analysis of the novel melanoma master-regulators

    Wang, Li (2008)

    Conference poster
    The University of Auckland Library

    Melanoma is a devastating form of cancer that is especially common in New Zealand and that is incompletely understood. In this project, we are using clinical microarray information about the function of tens of thousands of genes in melanoma patients. We are combining this clinical microarray information with microarray analysis of melanoma cells in the laboratory. In this laboratory analysis we have knocked down the expression of 75 different genes using a method known as siRNA. This clinical and laboratory data is combined mathematically using a method known as gene network analysis. This allows us to identify novel "master-regulators" of melanoma, which are seen as ???hubs??? in melanoma gene networks. These hubs may drive the uncontrolled growth of melanoma cells, and are likely to be useful as prognostic markers or new drug targets. We have already identified several novel melanoma gene network hubs using this method. The sequences encoding these hubs are cloning into an expression vector, and the candidate hub genes are then screened through a functional screening platform. Since we are interested the clinically important genes, we screen to identify those genes that may play a role in proliferation, sensitivity to drug-induced apoptosis, and survival. We will transfect all the candidate genes (alongside a negative vector only control and a positive control of Bcl-2) into 293T cells (human embryonic kidney cells containing the SV40large T antigen to promote episomal replication of transfected plasmids), and A375 cells (melanoma). We will screen for expressed gene function using assays for viable cell number (MTT), assays for cell cycle progression (flow cytometry), and apoptosis assays. In particular we will use the anti-neoplastic drug etoposide (VP16) to induce apoptosis in cells that have been transfected by these genes and controls, to assess gene product function in modifying the apoptosis induced by VP16. For clinically relevant network hub genes that appear to play a role in controlling proliferation, apoptosis and survival, we will home in further on their mechanism of action (the methods used will depend upon our hypotheses about the gene product's function). We hope some of those hubs may lead to novel diagnostic/prognostic assays and novel drug targets.

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  • Paired catchment research reveals WSUD influences on stream ecosystem condition at average and low residential densities

    van Roon, Marjorie (2013-11-24)

    Conference poster
    The University of Auckland Library

    Water Sensitive Urban Design has much in common with the New Zealand (NZ) practice, Low Impact Urban Design and Development (LIUDD). In New Zealand, both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystem protection and re-creation are essential elements of greenfield developments that conform to LIUDD. This paper reports on comparative New Zealand catchment studies over 7 years for conventional and Water Sensitive Urban Design subdivision at low/countryside (2000 ??? 5000 m2 lots) and average/urban (400 - 500 m2 lots) residential densities. Subdivision, re-vegetation and house construction are now nearing completion. Catchment characteristics are related to the health of in-stream macro-invertebrate communities as indicators of stream and catchment condition. Results for in-stream indicators are compared to region-wide values and show the ecological superiority of WSUD/LIUDD catchments. Indicators of stream ecological health in treatment catchments have improved for two urban streams and up to three countryside residential streams during the subdivision and house construction period contrary to normal expectations for conventional urban development.

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  • Recent experiences in using TOUGH2 for geothermal modelling

    Clearwater, Emily; Yeh, Angus; O'Sullivan, John; Kaya, Eylem; Croucher, Adrian; Cui, T; OSullivan, Michael; Zarrouk, Sadiq; Austria, JJC; Ciriaco, Anthony; Archer, Rosalind; Dempsey, David (2012-04-17)

    Conference poster
    The University of Auckland Library

    The geothermal modelling group in Engineering Science (University of Auckland) is involved with several geothermal R&D projects. On the development side we are running models of Ohaaki, Wairakei, Ngawha, Reporoa, Wayang Windu and Lihir. Our experiences in these projects have led on to several parallel research projects. Our model of Wairakei-Tauhara is so large that it also contains the Rotokawa system and the edge of the Ngatamriki system. Trying to understand the large-scale convection process at Wairakei-Tauhara has led on to studies of more generic convection studies and studies of larger areas of the TVZ. It has also led on to deeper models which require equations of state that can handle high pressures and temperatures. We have developed one for pure water but now wish to extend it to include CO2 and NaCl. With larger and larger models the computational demand increases quickly and we are now routinely using TOUGH_MP, the parallel version of TOUGH2. Also with large complex models dealing with input and output is a major task and we have developed a suite of PYTHON scripts (called pyTOUGH) for carrying out several model management tasks. One of the biggest challenges in geothermal modelling is model calibration and we have carried out studies using inverse modelling with iTOUGH and PEST and also Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods (MCMC). We are also carrying out miscellaneous studies of resewrvoir physics several of which involve fluid/rock interaction, for example the effects of cold water injection on permeability and subsidence in geothermal fields.

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  • Refractive errors in the Maldives: a pilot study

    Kandel, H; Kaphle, D; Gyawali, R; Khanal, Safal; Upadhyaya, S (2014-07)

    Conference poster
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Test- retest reliability of an instrumented elastometer for measuring passive stiffness of the levator ani muscle

    Kruger, Jennifer; Nielsen, Poul; Dietz, HP; Taberner, Andrew (2011-08-31)

    Conference poster
    The University of Auckland Library

    Hypothesis / aims of study Clinical evidence demonstrates strong associations between vaginal birth, the incidence of levator ani (LA) muscle injury, and a decrease in muscle function (1). Imaging modalities such as ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging have provided insight into the nature of LA injury, confirming that it is significantly implicated in the development of pelvic organ prolapse (2). Strain of the LA muscles during delivery of the fetal head is considerable, and childbirth related trauma to the muscle has been shown to occur in 10-30% of women delivering vaginally (1,2). Thus, developing measures to identify a-priori, those who are most likely to suffer from injury during vaginal birth should be a high research priority. The inherent elasticity of the muscle clearly plays a role in the ability of the muscle to accommodate the fetal head. However, measuring passive stiffness of the muscle in vivo remains challenging. The aim of this study was to further develop and test a novel elastometer (3), designed to estimate in vivo passive stiffness produced by the puborectalis component of the LA muscle, where it passes in close contact with the lateral walls of the vagina, from its origin on the pubic ramus. Study design, materials and methods The elastometer used in this study is a more sophisticated version of a previously developed first-generation device (3). The current version of this instrument (Figure 1) boasts enhanced aesthetics and patient friendliness compared to our previous device. Notably, our elastometer can now implement user-defined measurement protocols under automatic computer control in order to measure the force-displacement characteristics of the LA muscle. The device consists of a hand-piece comprising two aluminium arms, with detachable acetyl plastic speculum ends, actuated by a DC servo mechanism via a load cell. A load cell amplifier and displacement transducer are integrated into the hand-piece, providing force and speculum separation measurements. The hand-piece is connected to a control box that communicates with a laptop computer via a USB connection. The control box contains a data-acquisition device (USB-6009, National Instruments), motor drive circuit, and battery-based power supply. A custom MSWindows application implements a closed-loop motor control algorithm on the laptop, records measurements of speculum displacement and force, and provides feedback to the user. The laptop user-interface displays speculum separation and force on a strip chart, together with a force-displacement graph. The design of the speculum end of the elastometer is such that the tip is wider than the neck, (26mm compared to 18mm) to reduce the likelihood of perineal muscles confounding measurement of passive stiffness. Magnetic clips attach the speculum ends to the device which allows for easy cleaning, and provides the facility of attaching speculums of various sizes. Reliability and repeatability of the elastometer was assessed in 12 volunteers. None of the participants had had vaginal surgery, or any contraindications for vaginal examination. All participants were tested twice, 3 to 5 days apart using the same protocol. The speculum was inserted to the level of the puborectalis muscle (2-4 cm from the introitus) orientated in the coronal plane. After initial familiarisation with the device in situ, recording of the data commenced. All participants were encouraged to remain relaxed during the experiment. Data acquisition was automated with the device opening in 20 stepwise increments, to the desired separation, over 60 seconds. Data were collected at a frequency of 100 Hz. Averaged data over a three second period gave 21 data points per test. The procedure was repeated three times, with the initial run being considered as a preconditioning step and not used for data analysis. Statistical analysis was carried out using ???R??? version 2.12.2 (Copyright (C) 2011 The R Foundation for Statistical Computing). Results from Day 1 were compared with the re-test results using Bland/Altman repeated measures to determine any bias and limits of agreement and Intraclass correlation co-efficient (ICC) to determine reliability across tests and Days. Results The mean age of the 12 participants was 44.3 years (range 26 to 58 years), BMI 26 kg/m2 (range 20.4 to 33.7 kg/m2). Two of these were nulliparous, with the median number of vaginal delivery being 2. Data was visualised in graphic form for each subject across all tests for both days. A representative plot from one subject is shown in Figure 2. ICC???s for the second and third tests respectively were 0.92 (CI 0.89- 0.93), and 0.86 (CI 0.82-0.89). Limits of agreement (from repeated measures Bland Altman) were -2.79 N to +2.31 N, with a mean difference of -0.21 N. Interpretation of results Repeated Bland Altman demonstrates minimal bias with the mean difference close to zero at -0.12 N. The 95% limits of agreement range was slightly over 4 N, and likely to be due to biological variability. The high Intraclass correlation co-efficient for both tests between Days indicate minimal variability of the measurements. Concluding message This second generation elastometer has proved reliable and consistent in the measurement of passive stiffness of the puborectalis muscle in this group of volunteers. These results confirm satisfactory performance of the instrument in preparation for future studies validating this method in clinical and research settings. References 1. DeLancey JO. The hidden epidemic of pelvic floor dysfunction: achievable goals for improved prevention and treatment. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2005 May;192(5):1488-95. 2. Dietz HP, Simpson JM. Levator trauma is associated with pelvic organ prolapse. BJOG. 2008 Jul;115(8):979-84. 3. Kruger J, et al.. Pelvic floor muscle compliance in Elite nulliparous Athletes. 38th Annual meeting of the International Continence Society. Cario 2008

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  • A Computational Model For Cerebral Circulation And Its Application For Haemodynamic Modelling In Vascular Surgeries

    Ho, Harvey; Mithraratne, K; Hunter, Peter (2009)

    Conference poster
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Effects of a self-adjuvanting Synthetic Long Peptide targeting TLR2 on human immune cells

    Burkert, Kristina; Mansell, Claudia; McIntosh, Julie; Brooks, Anna; Angel, Catherine; Winkler, S; Harris, Paul; Williams, Geoffrey; Brimble, Margaret; Dunbar, Peter (2010-10-27)

    Conference poster
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Identification of a lead hypoxia-activated irreversible pan-HER inhibitor SN32807 (PR509) by pharmacokinetic and anti-tumor efficacy screening in an erlotinib-resistant xenograft model

    Jaiswal, Jagdish; Lu, Guo-Liang; Jamieson, S; Lee, Ho; Abbattista, Maria; Anderson, BF; Ashoorzadeh, Amir; Denny, William; Do??ate, F; Hsu, HL; Maroz, A; Pruijn, A; Puryer, M; Thompson, Aaron; Wilson, William; Smaill, Jeffrey; Patterson, Adam (2011-10-23)

    Conference poster
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Three-Dimensional Structural Characterization of Tissue Engineered and Native Ovine Pulmonary Valves

    Eckert, Chad; Gerneke, Dane; Le Grice, Ian; Gottlieb, David; Mayer, JE; Sacks, MS (2009-04)

    Conference poster
    The University of Auckland Library

    OBJECTIVES: Efforts in tissue-engineered heart valves (TEHV) have shown increasingly equivalent mechanical/structural properties compared to native valves, though a literature gap exists regarding detailed structural information. This work was performed to provide such data of implanted TEHV, the native pulmonary valve (PV), and pre-implant scaffold to better understand developing TEHV. METHODS: Dynamically-cultured in vivo samples (???pre-implant???) and ovine TEHV PV in vitro samples (???explant???) were produced based on previous techniques; ovine PVs were excised. Samples were stained with picrosirius red and resinmounted. Using extended-volume scanning laser confocal microscopy (EV-SLCM), 1.5 x 1.5 x 0.4 mm full-thickness samples were imaged at 1 pixel/??m in 1 ??m Z-direction steps. Custom software was used to process and visualize samples. Collagen, cell nuclei, and scaffold volume fractions were quantified; scaffold fiber trajectory and length were tracked using custom software. RESULTS: In a scaffold representative volume (90 ??m thick), 104 fibers were tracked with a mean fiber length of 137.94 ??m 55.4 ??m (Fig.1). A comparison between pre-implant and explant samples showed collagen volume fraction increasing from 76.6% to 85.9%, with nuclei and scaffold decreasing from 2.8% to 0.5% and from 5.9% to 0.8%, respectively. With the native collagen volume fraction measured at 70%, pre-implant and explant samples showed an increase in collagen. CONCLUSIONS: This work captured important differences between in vivo/in vitro TEHV constituents; it is the first known work to utilize EV-SLCM on TEHV. A comparison to the native valve showed structural differences that could impact longterm functionality and improve design.

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  • Gelation of oxidised cereal beta-glucan extracts

    Mohan, Anand (2014-02-21)

    Conference poster
    The University of Auckland Library

    Cereal ??-glucan, which occurs in plant cell walls, is the major component of soluble dietary fiber in oat and barley. Soluble fibers with a high solution viscosity, which is positively correlated to molecular weight (MW), lower the serum glucose and cholesterol levels. The relevant health claims on ??-glucan as a functional food have been allowed by regulatory authorities, including the EFSA and the US FDA. In most processed-food systems, the native hydrolytic enzymes are inactivated, but oxidative degradation of this non-starch polysaccharide can, however, adversely affect the claimed health benefits. (Kivel?? 2011). Although the physiological benefits are positively correlated with the viscosity of ??-glucan, the relationship with its gelling capacity is not fully understood. The scope of the Master???s thesis included (1) the study of gelation characteristics of oxidised solutions of oat and barley ??-glucan, and (2) correlating the results obtained by dynamic light scattering (DLS) microrheology with conventional rheology.

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  • Forbidden crystals: Penrose tiling with molecules

    Nam, SJ; Waterhouse, GIN; Ware, David; Brothers, Penelope (2015-02-08)

    Conference poster
    The University of Auckland Library

    Since the first discovery of quasicrystals by mathematicians in the 1960s, quasicrystalline patterns which possess unusual symmetric orders have become an issue among mathematicians. Observation of 5-fold crystal symmetry in metal alloys in 1984 has attracted other scientists. Penrose tiling is the simplest quasicrystal comprised of only pentagon motifs. Although quasicrystals have been observed in alloys and soft matter states (polymers, colloids), no one has yet successfully generated full molecular quasicrystals. Only small pieces of molecular Penrose tiling have been reported. We are working on this challenge by using molecules with 5-fold symmetry as molecular ???tiles??? to create 2-dimensional molecular Penrose tilings. Alignment of the tiles is the key to creating the quasicrystalline pattern. Possible candidates as tiles which must be synthetically accessible are croconate and its derivatives, macrocycles such as campestarene and supramolecules such as cucurbituril. The techniques of coordination and supramolecular chemistry will direct the ordering of the tiles. After deposition of the synthesised tiles on substrates, surface imaging (STM and AFM) and analytical techniques (XPS, LEED, GI-SAXS) will be used to investigate the resulting films.

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  • Automated compliance audit of fire engineering design

    Dimyadi, Johannes; Amor, Robert; Clifton, George; Spearpoint, M (2014-02-10)

    Conference poster
    The University of Auckland Library

    Automating regulatory compliance audit in the Architecture, Engineering and Construction domain has been subject of considerable research, but has no viable solution. The main challenge is the continued practice of paper-based information exchange in the industry. The emergence of an ISO standard Building Information Model (BIM) to represent buildings as semantically rich objects has the potential to address part of the problem. However, it must be coupled with an efficient and practical computable representation of the regulatory knowledge, and an automated system to process them for compliance audit. Objectives 1. To develop a practical computerised representation of performance-based codes with an application to the fire safety design of buildings in New Zealand. 2. To implement an effective method of extracting information from ISO standard BIM-based models. 3. To develop a framework that could process the building model and the regulatory knowledge base to support automated performance-based audit of fire safety design.

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  • Molecular mechanisms of human T cell differentiation - a role for DNA methylation

    Sheppard, Hilary; Brooks, Anna; Dunbar, PR (2009-09-01)

    Conference poster
    The University of Auckland Library

    The differentiation state of CD8+ T cells is an important determinant of their ability to eradicate tumours and infection; progressive differentiation appears to lead to a decreased upregulated suggesting an indirect mechanism underlie T cell differentiation. Several key cell surface markers are down regulated as differentiation progresses see Fig. 1). We have found that promoter DNA methylation is one mechanism involved in the down regulation of these genes This suggests that manipulation of DNA methylation of key genes could be used to improve the survival and function of CD8+ T cells.

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  • Targeting synthetic glycopeptides to MGL on Dermal Dendritic cells

    McIntosh, Julie; Angel, CE; Chen, CJJ; Manning, K; Mansell, Claudia; Agrawai, S; Harris, Paul; Williams, Geoffrey; Squire, Christopher; Brimble, Margaret; Dunbar, Peter (2011-02-14)

    Conference poster
    The University of Auckland Library

    The ability of a peptide vaccine to stimulate T cells in vivo might be improved by specifically targeting the peptide to dendritic cells (DC). The C-type lectin Macrophage Galactose-type lectin, MGL (CD301), has been shown to bind to N-acetyl-galactosamine (GalNAc) and small peptides bearing O-linked GalNAc. Synthetic GalNAc can be produced using relatively simple organic chemistry when compared with the complicated branched sugars that are recognised by other C-type lectins. MGL therefore represents a promising target for the design of synthetic peptide vaccines. We have identified that antigen-presenting cells in human skin express MGL and have confirmed that CD14+ dermal DCs might be targeted via MGL. The intracellular fate of MGL following internalisation was tracked by confocal microscopy. MGL traffics through early endosomes to late endosomes/lysosomes, and colocalises with MHC class I and class II. Synthetic glycopeptides were produced incorporating either native O-linked GalNAc or GalNAc residues linked to the peptide chain via non-native ???Click??? chemistry. Biophysical analysis of the ability of both ???Click??? and native glycopeptides peptides with recombinant MGL confirmed the ability of both these peptides to bind MGL. Ongoing work aims to determine whether targeting to MGL using these synthetic peptides results in efficient presentation of antigen to T cells.

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