58 results for Journal article, 1960

  • Coverpage and Contents

    Waikato Geological Society (1968)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    Coverpage and Contents from Volume 2, Number 1, 1968 of Earth Science Journal.

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  • Chronology of fans and terraces in the Galatea Basin

    Pain, C.F.; Pullar, W.A. (1968)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    Air-borne volcanic ash beds are used to date fans and terraces in the Galatea Basin and to outline the depositional history of this part of the Rangitaiki Valley. The basin is interpreted as a fault-angle depression formed by a downwarped sheet of ignimbrite and an upthrusted block of greywacke which forms the Ikawhenua Range. It is from this range that much of the detritus has been derived to fill the basin, deposited mainly in the form of fans and terraces. The larger fans cover a wide area and their surfaces are older than the Rotoma eruption of c. 8000 years B.P. The widespread occurrence of these fans indicates a major erosion interval between c. 11,000 and c. 8,000 years ago. The younger fans are distributed in a particular order with fans of the Pre-Taupo surface north of the Horomanga Stream and those of the Pre- and Post-Kaharoa surfaces south of the same stream. This ordered distribution of the younger fans suggests a climatic control of fan building. Aggradation and degradation phases in the Rangitaiki and Whirinaki Rivers have formed a pronounced meander trough containing terraces of the Pre-Taupo, Pre-Kaharoa, and Post-Kaharoa surfaces. The terrace of the Pre-Kaharoa surface, largely of Taupo Pumice alluvium, is the most common. Degradation, however, is controlled by a local base level at the ignimbrite rapids on the Rangitaiki River just north of the Galatea Basin.

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  • Aspects of the geomorphology of the Greywacke Ranges bordering the Lower and Middle Waikato Basins

    Selby, Michael J. (1967)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    The fault-bounded blocks which make up the Greywacke Ranges bordering the Lower and Middle Waikato Basins have a deep red-weathered regolith and are covered by mantles of volcanic ash which can be used for dating ground surfaces. The drainage texture is exceedingly fine compared with that of Dartmoor (U.K.) and Unaka Mountains (U.S.A.) This is attributable to rainfall type, regolith, vegetation cover and soil physical properties. The major types of mass movement are deep fossil slumps on upper slopes where the regolith is deep; debris slides on mid- and lower slopes where the regolith is thin; and seepage heads controlled by ground water conditions. The valley floors show both stream incision, and aggradation resulting from infill with mass movement debris. Deforestation has increased the frequency of mass movement during high intensity rainstorms and the slopes are at present becoming adjusted to changed equilibrium conditions.

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  • Uses of volcanic ash beds in geomorphology

    Pullar, W.A. (1967)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    In geomorphology air-fall volcanic ashes possess high value as marker beds. These have proved particularly useful in studies associated with infilling of flood plains, fan building, terrace correlation and chronology, erosion, shoreline and sea level changes, recent tectonics, archaeology and ground surfaces. Ash beds and the community are also discussed.

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  • Editorial

    Waikato Geological Society (1967)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    The production of yet another new journal requires some explanation although there need be no apology. The Earth Science Journal is intended to answer the need, caused by increasing specialisation by other journals, for a place in which to publish articles and research reports which are of wide interest to earth scientists, and which cross the boundaries of the traditional disciplines. To this end contributions of reports on research, essays, notes and letters will be welcomed from geologists, geomorphologists, pedologists, climatologists, oceanographers, ecologists and physical geographers.

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  • Book notices and Book reviews

    Waikato Geological Society (1967)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    Book notices and Book reviews from Volume 1, Number 2, 1967 of Earth Science Journal.

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  • Aeolian activity in a Urewera catchment

    Cochrane, G. Ross (1967)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    Analyses of sedimentary deposits on the Otapora flat and adjacent flood plain areas of Whakatane River demonstrate that aeolian activity is important even in a humid (BB'r) forested Catchment. The importance of relief and wind conditions are shown. A tentative assessment of potential feral pest damage and increased sheetwash from a forested Urewera catchment is advanced.

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  • Coverpage and Contents

    Waikato Geological Society (1967)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    Coverpage and Contents of Volume 1, Number 1, 1967 Earth Science Journal.

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  • Note on the occurrence of Taupo pumice in the Hamilton basin

    Tonkin, Philip J. (1967)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    The presence of a thin layer of pumice lapilli and ash close to the surface of the Rukuhia and Moanatuatua peat bogs was recorded by Grange and Taylor (1939). Since this time a similar band of pumice has been noted in many of the other peat areas in the Hamilton basin. In the undeveloped fibrous peats of the Woodlands bog a layer of pumice lapilli 2 to 3 inches thick occurs at a depth of 18 to 20 inches from the surface. This is similar to the observations of Grange and Taylor. In the more loamy peats the pumice layer is predominantly fine ash and any lapilli present are extremely weathered and crush easily. In the fibrous peats it is thought that the fine ash that fell on the bog surface soon dispersed in the loose network of dead material, whereas the lapilli were of sufficient size to be trapped. In the loamy peats more active weathering took place in an acid environment as the organic matter was breaking down. This made the lapilli very fragile, so with drainage and compaction of the peat the lapilli were very soon crushed to fine ash size.

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  • The climate of the Waikato Basin

    de Lisle, J.F. (1967)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    The topography of the Waikato Valley and its position in relation to the large-scale weather system give it warm humid summers, mild winters and a moderate rainfall with a winter maximum. Some typical meteorological situations affecting the valley are described and the individual climatic elements are considered in detail.

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  • Volcanic ash beds in the Waikato district

    Pullar, W.A. (1967)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    This report lies somewhere between the "pathfinder" variety and the completed account for the reason that the results of detailed mapping and identification are still being prepared for publication. For the younger beds less than 36,000 years we now know both the source and the distribution, but for the older ashes commonly referred to as the Hamilton ash, sources are unknown and a knowledge of distribution restricted to the Waikato district. The principal source is the Okataina volcanic centre with Taupo as a subsidiary (Healy, 1964; Thompson, 1964 :44), and on this information, current mapping into the Waikato district proceeds from the east. Under the circumstances of partly completed work it seems prudent to discuss relevant ash beds already known (Vucetich and Pullar, 1963:65-6; 1964:45-6) to introduce briefly current work by the same authors and by W. T. Ward, and then to relate all of this to previous work portrayed in a soil-forming ash shower map by Taylor (1953).

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  • Annotated bibliography of central North Island volcanic ash stratigraphy

    Tonkin, Philip J.; Pullar, W.A. (1967)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    Prior to 1929 many observations had been published giving brief accounts of the volcanic ash deposits in various parts of the North Island but no detailed investigations were undertaken. With the incidence of Bush Sickness in the Central North Island mapping of the "ash soils" was undertaken as part of the investigations into the cause of this disease. The work done at this time was the beginning of our present understanding of ash stratigraphy. In this bibliography only papers relevant to the Central North Island ash-showers have been mentioned.

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  • The climatic character of the Auckland rural area

    Sparrow, Christopher J. (1968)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    The characteristics of the climate of the rural area surrounding the Auckland urban area are discussed. Data used, is predominantly from published reports of the New Zealand Meteorological Service giving annual summaries of observations made at the various climatological, synoptic and rainfall recording stations. The mean characteristics of the area's climatic elements are considered together with their extremes. It is concluded that warm temperatures throughout the year, high humidity, variations in amount and. intensity of rainfall, prevailing westerly and infrequent easterly winds and high sunshine hours characterise the climate of this part of northern New Zealand.

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  • Fifteenth century earth science

    Stokes, Evelyn (1967)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    The earth science content of two late medieval encyclopedias, the Mirrour of the World and Higden's Polychronicon, both printed by William Caxton in the 1480's, is examined in relation to fifteenth century ideas about the physical nature of the earth and the universe. Such topics as the four elements, the earth and the spheres, location of Hell and Paradise, the arrangement of , continents and oceans, the unity of waters, earthquakes and volcanoes, erosion, fossils and mountain building, climatic zones and weather phenomena are summarized and reference made to the Biblical and Classical Greek sources of these ideas.

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  • Recent aggradation within the Waikato River

    Schofield, J.C. (1967)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    Since approximately 130 A.D. the bed of the Waikato River, in its lower reaches, has been raised 20 to 30ft - most likely by an amount closer to the latter figure. This represents an average of about 1ft every 60 years. Of the causal factors discussed, it is concluded that man-caused erosion is the main contributory factor but, as sea level may have been 10ft lower during 130 A.D., a rise of this amount would no doubt be another major cause.

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  • A review of urban climatology

    McBoyle, G.R. (1968)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    The review attempts to elucidate the history of interest and the developing research work done in the field of urban climatology, with special emphasis on temperature. References are made to the works of certain researchers whose publications have not yet been translated into the English language. The reference list is by no means complete but contains most of the important works in this field.

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  • Coverpage and Contents

    Waikato Geological Society (1967)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    Coverpage and Contents from Volume 1, Number 2, 1967 of Earth Science Journal.

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  • Erosion by high intensity rainfalls in the lower Waikato

    Selby, Michael J. (1967)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    A high intensity rainstorm with rainfalls exceeding 10 inches in 24 hours on the Hunua Range is described, and some of its geomorphological and economic consequences discussed.

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  • A systems approach to the description and interpretation of the landsurface of the northern half of the North Island, New Zealand

    Conacher, A.J. (1967)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    The paper examines a framework of approach within which landsurface analysis may be undertaken in the humid-temperate northern half of the North Island, New Zealand; an area exhibiting a wide range of lithologies and surface cover, with evidence of recent and current tectonic and volcanic activity, and undergoing active geomorphic processes'. The largely theoretical formulations of W. M. Davis, W. Penck and L. C. King are considered briefly and are rejected on both theoretical and practical grounds. General systems theory encompasses certain concepts and systems properties which have been applied by a number of geomorphologists. The open system property of dynamic equilibrium is examined, and is found to be inapplicable to the total landsurface of this region. The concepts of environment and sub-system are introduced and their relevance to the region illustrated by a physical hillslope model. Dynamic equilibrium is considered to be a possible state of certain hillslope sub-systems. Construction of a mathematical model to describe the total landsurface or the entire hillslope system is not feasible until hillslope sub-systems have been analysed. The form of a linear regression model applicable to hillslope sub-systems is introduced, and it is suggested that the pattern of the residuals from regression may be used as a statistical technique to assist in identifying .significant system boundary conditions, and to provide a quantitative indication of the influence of historical factors.

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  • Book reviews and Book notices

    Waikato Geological Society (1968)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    Book reviews and Book notices from Volume 2, Number 1, 1968 of Earth Science Journal.

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