307 results for Journal article, Open Polytechnic Repository

  • The forms and functions of hybridity in Allan Sealy’s The Trotter-nama.

    Furness, J. (2012)

    Journal article
    Open Polytechnic

    The Trotter-nama by Allan Sealy is a novel written in magical realist style that covers the lives of seven generations of Trotters, an Anglo-Indian family whose lineage in India began with Justin Trottoire, a French mercenary, in the 1750’s. This research essay examines how the concept of hybridity in The Trotter-nama serves to break down the hierarchical binary logic of pure/impure, original/copy, authentic/inauthentic, whole/half, real/unreal, true/false notions within the context of the colonial encounter in British India. It examines the forms and functions of hybridity in the novel, interrogating its application within post-colonial theory and selecting textual enactments of racial and cultural hybridity that support the unravelling of such binary oppositions. Sealy’s purpose in destabilising the binary logic of colonialism that still pervades much of Western thought is to create a narrative and mythological space for the racially mixed Anglo-Indians who were written out of any official history of British India. Through the narrative mode of ‘magical realism’, Sealy situates Anglo-Indians at the centre of the colonial encounter, erasing determinate borders between the literal and metaphorical, thereby creating a new discourse that is as legitimate as any existing, authoritative ones. Sealy is not however, suggesting that this is the definitive account of the Anglo-Indian community in India, for there is no such true or original record. There are only multiple stories of multiple identities that shift and change over time.

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  • ‘Rather a lot of death’: Misreading Lauris Edmond’s Late Song as an intentional last collection.

    Lentle-Keenan, S. (2013)

    Journal article
    Open Polytechnic

    The article discusses the history of Lauris Edmond's posthumously published Late Song. It argues that editorial invention means that the work cannot be considered a final instalment of autobiography.

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  • You are not worth the risk: Lawful discrimination in hiring.

    Scholes, V. (2014)

    Journal article
    Open Polytechnic

    Increasing empirical research on productivity supports the use of statistical or ‘rational’ discrimination in hiring. The practice is legal for features of job applicants not covered by human rights discrimination laws, such as being a smoker, residing in a particular neighbourhood or being a particular height. The practice appears largely morally innocuous under existing philosophical accounts of wrongful discrimination. This paper argues that lawful statistical discrimination treats job applicants in a way that may be considered degrading, and is likely to constrain people’s freedoms in relation to employment, thus giving us reason for moral concern.

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  • Understanding positive subjectivities made possible online for disabled people.

    Bowker, N.; Tuffin, K. (2007)

    Journal article
    Open Polytechnic

    The ideology of individualism underlying identity and psychology's focus on a visual ontology may serve to inhibit the social value of people with disabilities. The online medium with its capacity for textual self presentation presents a potentially new environment to operate within. This study set out to explore the psychological meaning of what it meant to be online for people with disabilities. Following the tradition of discursive psychology, we focused especially on constructions of how online experience provided alternative frameworks for social positioning. Participants were recruited from various disability organisations in New Zealand and were invited to take part in an online interview. Three key linguistic resources were identified: uncontaminated judgement, exhibiting strengths, and operating independently. Embedded within these resources was the idea that the physical and attitudinal barriers, disrupting the ability of people with disabilities to display their capabilities independent of a disabled identity, are eliminated online. Consequently, being judged outside of the constraints of a disabled identity affords people with disabilities the opportunity to enjoy a more socially valued subjectivity and a more positive identity.

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  • Dicing with deception: People with disabilities' strategies for maintaining safety and identity online.

    Bowker, N.; Tuffin, K. (2003)

    Journal article
    Open Polytechnic

    The visual anonymity associated with online interaction offers people with disabilities the potential to participate in social interaction beyond the stigma of a disabled identity. In problematizing traditional notions of reality, however, the online medium also has the potential to become a deceptive social space where people with disabilities become victims of malevolent acts. Considering the dilemma surrounding the choice to participate, this study investigates how people with disabilities are managing issues of deception and harm in online contexts. A discursive psychology framework is utilized. The research was conducted in New Zealand where 21 participants with physical and sensory disabilities volunteered to participate in an online interview. Two different repertoires enabled people with disabilities to manage the dilemma of engaging in a medium where there is potential for benefit and harm. A keeping safe repertoire deployed three safety strategies to protect participants from deceptive acts. Data from several participants was also categorized under a qualified deception repertoire. This allowed participants to access new subjective experiences outside of a disabled identity and to extend their online engagement beyond keeping safe. Both repertoires maintained participants' integrity as online users.

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  • Disability discourses for online identities.

    Bowker, N.; Tuffin, K. (2002)

    Journal article
    Open Polytechnic

    Beneficial effects of the online medium have been reported for disabled people in terms of providing a 'levelling ground' where they can be treated on their merits as a person, rather than as a disabled person. If this occurs because impairment is invisible online, how then are disabled people managing disability disclosure within this social context? This paper addresses this issue discursively. Participants were recruited from various disability organisations in New Zealand and were invited to take part in an online interview. A 'choice to disclose' repertoire was identified and was organised around three key resources: relevance, anonymity and normality. Embedded within each resource is the idea that the presence or absence of impairment is constructed as a feature controlled by the individual. Positioning identity within a subjectivity removed from impairment was made possible through these resources and was valued by participants. Political implications associated with the absence of impairment are discussed.

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  • Are women occupying positions of power on-line?: Demographics of chat room operators.

    Bowker, N.; Liu, J. H. (2001)

    Journal article
    Open Polytechnic

    Internet statistics indicate a reduction in the gender discrepancy online. Yet, what is the situation within specific online communities like Internet Relay Chat (IRC)? Likewise, what is the gender status of those occupying positions of power online? An exploratory study of chat room operators (those who govern chat rooms) was conducted to investigate gender differences in operator's demographic characteristics and IRC experience. Whether those less satisfied with their real-life occupation were attracted to chat room operator positions was also investigated. A survey of 423 chat room operators was administered, comprising 25% women. Real-life occupations of chat room operators covered a broad spectrum, from professional and managerial to service, sales, and production workers, as well as those not employed. The most common occupational category cited was student, with very similar proportions of men and women occupying high-status positions. Of the occupations listed, 23% fell within the IT industry, with significantly more male than female operators working in this area. Majorities of both genders were satisfied with their real-life occupation. There was no relationship between job satisfaction and IRC experience or time spent as chat room operator. There were no gender differences for IRC experience. Majorities of both genders had been using IRC for 1 to 3 years or more, used IRC daily, and spent most or all of their time on IRC as operators. Ages ranged from 11 to 66 years, with the mean age 25 years. Women were significantly older than men. A significant proportion of men and women were from North America.

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  • Understanding online communities through multiple methodologies combined under a postmodern research endeavour.

    Bowker, N. (2001)

    Journal article
    Open Polytechnic

    Traditionally triangulation has been used for integrating multiple epistemologies. However such procedures have been criticised for failing to deal with the divergent realities encompassing alternative methodologies. An example of a postmodern methodological approach combining both positivist and interpretivist epistemologies is offered for studying online communities. Three diverse studies were employed to investigate the extent to which chatroom participants took advantage of the online medium to explore their identity. A quantitative survey of over 400 chatroom operators, a thematic analysis of in-depth interviews with five experienced chatroom users and an ethnography were employed. Survey results highlighted the importance of gender in determining the degree of identity exploration. However the remaining studies moved beyond the centrality of users' real life gender to demonstrate the significance of other factors. The ethnography highlighted the influence of both culturally stereotyped gender behaviour in constraining identity exploration, and possibilities for exploring identity through IRC's contextual features. In-depth interviews illustrated participants' conceptions of altering gender identity as a mechanism for protection or experimentation. Paradoxically constructions highlighted the importance of maintaining stability in one's online identity. Discussion focuses on the strengths of using multiple approaches which integrate the researcher's and the participants' own situated knowledge, rather than reducing understandings to single, monolithic frameworks.

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  • Transcending operating barriers online for disabled bodies.

    Bowker, N.; Tuffin, K. (2006)

    Journal article
    Open Polytechnic

    People with disabilities often face physical, social, and psychological barriers in daily life because of inaccessible structures and disability prejudice. The online medium's physically, nontaxing capacity for participation as well as a lack of visually mediated cues can potentially eliminate such barriers. This study discursively explored the psychological meaning of what it meant to be online for people with disabilities, focusing on possibilities for operating beyond their standard practices in daily life. Participants were recruited from various disability organisations in New Zealand and were invited to take part in an online interview. The notion of transcending barriers to participation formed a broad pattern in participants' data. This talk comprised 3 linguistic resources: life-altering, overcoming physical barriers, and disconnecting disability. Each resource offered participants a highly positive and significant transformation in subjectivity, enabling people with disabilities to be positioned as equal members of society.

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  • The role distance learning has to play in offender education.

    Seelig, C.; Rate, L. (2014)

    Journal article
    Open Polytechnic

    This article looks into the uses of digital and online tools in distance learning to improve literacy and numeracy of offenders in New Zealand prisons. Looking at the benefits and restrictions of digital education within the prison environment, this article discusses the solutions that Open Polytechnic, in partnership with the the New Zealand Government, has put in place to give prisoners further opportunity for rehabilitation, and ultimately prepare them for re-entry into society, the workforce or further study.

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  • The Enlightenment Scale: A Measure of Being at Peace and Open-Hearted.

    Boyd-Wilson, B. M.; Walkey, F. H. (2013)

    Journal article
    Open Polytechnic

    Enlightenment can be viewed as an ordinary way of being that once established means that an individual is authentic, compassionate, and at peace, has a sense of inner wholeness, and tends to live in the present. Long familiar in the East, the concept of enlightenment has become more familiar in westernized countries in the past century, particularly since the 1960s. Nevertheless, it is still often perceived as mysterious and unattainable. The aim of two studies was to produce and test a number of items intended to measure the simple experience of enlightenment (e.g., “In the ‘core’ of me I’m content no matter what”) in order to develop a robust scale containing a reduced number of items. First, participants responded to enlightenment items according to how much they considered that they usually experienced what each item represented. Analyses of responses from several data sets showed that the items fell into two 15-item groups, giving a two-factor Enlightenment Scale. The two factors were named At Peace and Open-Hearted. Validity analyses supported the two-factor scale. Next, possible limitations of the studies were discussed, ways in which the Enlightenment Scale could be used were outlined, and further research was suggested.

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  • ‘Pokie Machines Ruined My Brother': Gambling Associated Harm from a New Zealand Policy Perspective.

    Barrett, J.; Veal, J. (2013)

    Journal article
    Open Polytechnic

    This article analyses government policy on gambling-associated harm and gambling taxation. Because of the variety in forms of gambling, and the consequent implausibility of a single formulation for gambling taxation, focus is restricted to 'pokie' or electronic gaming machine ('EGM') policy and law. First, the potential harmfulness of EGMs for individuals, their families and communities is established. Second, an outline is provided of EGM taxation in New Zealand and relevant duties and levies are considered from different theoretical perspectives. Third, the role of government, in particular its taxation function, is considered in validating gambling and, conversely, in mitigating harm. Finally, conclusions are drawn and tentative policy recommendations made. While jurisdictionally specific to New Zealand, the article also refers to overseas research, law and policy.

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  • KIAORA - The emerging construction of a bicultural professional supervision model.

    King, L. (2014)

    Journal article
    Open Polytechnic

    The KIAORA model is the culmination of responding to the challenge of constructing a personal model of professional supervision within a bicultural worldview. Matauranga Maori and kaupapa Maori is the turangawaewae for construction of a personal model of professional supervision for a Tangata Whenua social work practitioner seeking to transform the Aotearoa New Zealand professional supervision space.

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  • Ōtautahi revisted: Urban regeneration and a sense of identity in the rebuilding of Christchurch.

    Strongman, L. (2014)

    Journal article
    Open Polytechnic

    This paper explores the concept of place and identity with regard to the rebuilding of Christchurch (Ōtautahi), New Zealand’s second largest city following the devastating earthquakes of September 2010 and February 2011. The process of rebuilding following a natural disaster is determined by the utility, character, ambiance, habitude, and experience of identity expressed in the process of reconstruction and the environment it supports. For Christchurch, the largest city in New Zealand’s South Island (Te Wai Pounamu) in which approximately half of the city centre was destroyed and must be re-built, rebuilding consists of reconstructing previous architecture, overlaid with a modern architecture. As Gauzin-Muller has stated, “[c]onsideration of environmental issues in construction projects has economic, ecological, and social implications” (2002, 9). While there is a huge physical, financial, and cultural problem to solve in clearing land, designing buildings for repopulated areas, and remediating land for rebuilding, there is also a tremendous opportunity in for engineers, architects, landscape architects, and planners to redesign and construct new sustainable buildings, precinct, and recreational areas for central Christchurch.

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  • Perezhivanie: What have we missed about infant care?

    Brennan, M. (2014)

    Journal article
    Open Polytechnic

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  • Te Ara Whakapikioranga.

    Te Moananui-Makirere, J.; King, L.; Eruera, M.; Tutukino, M.; Maoate-Davis, S. (2014)

    Journal article
    Open Polytechnic

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  • Postcolonialism and international development studies: A dialectical exchange?

    Strongman, L. (2014)

    Journal article
    Open Polytechnic

    ‘Postcolonial studies’ is the term given to the study of diaspora and the ideology of colonialism. Since the 1970s, when postcolonial studies was termed ‘Third World’ literature, and the 1980s, when it became ‘Commonwealth’ literature, the persistence of the framework of centre and margin, coloniser and colonised, has endured as a lens with which to view human identity and cultural expression. However, the relationship of postcolonial studies to international development is less well explored. Much of postcolonial studies is concerned with articulating patterns of gain, loss, inclusion, exclusion, identity formation and change, cultural evolution and human geographical dispersal in the wake of the after-effects of colonial rule. Postcolonial critics examine texts and images in order to make inferences about the significance of cultural identity and expression under these conditions. Often this is with a diachronic view of history. International development studies offers postcolonial critics a synchronic perspective on both the policy and materiality of political ideologies affecting cultural identity and expression. This paper looks at how the relationship between postcolonial and international development studies might be furthered in a dialectical exchange. Postcolonial critics such as Said and Pollard et al offer a critical understanding that informs policy making in international development contexts.

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  • Engaging learner support: An investigation of faculty–library collaboration to provide live course-specific learner support in the online classroom environment.

    Fields, A. J. (2014)

    Journal article
    Open Polytechnic

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  • Dialogue, non–dialogue and dissemination—Ancient questions, contemporary perspectives.

    Mersham, G. M. (2014)

    Journal article
    Open Polytechnic

    With the advent of the Internet, the promise of dialogue has become the holy grail of communication. The idea of communication without dialogue is not a popular one. Decades of critique of the unidirectional messages of the mass media, controlled by powerful institutional agents of power, has been damning. Those who aspire to dialogue often have a moral rejection of one-way forms of communication. A misunderstanding of one-way and persuasive communication has created a skewed view of the role and place of dialogue in public relations. This article explores the philosophical underpinnings and key features of dialogue and its antithesis, non-dialogue, or dissemination within the communication field. It revisits some of the propositions made by the ancient Greeks and modern theorists about communication and dialogue, and how multiple interpretations of what constitutes a dialogue have become blurred. It considers the idea that in recent times dialogue has been uncritically equated to ‘good’ communication and that one-way communication is ‘bad’ or, at least ‘less than best’. The article argues that both forms are equally important and have existed in the thoughts of theorists and philosophers throughout the ages. While the discussion focuses on this premise from a communication perspective, reference to public relations and marketing activities in the context of social media and the Internet are made. Dialogue requires a sense of exchange, interchange, mutuality, and some sense of reciprocity.

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  • Take AIM and keep your students engaged.

    Nash, C. (2014)

    Journal article
    Open Polytechnic

    This paper outlines the benefits to distance education teachers of formatting a weekly online newsletter in accordance with motivational learning theory. It reflects on the delivery of weekly AIM newsletters to undergraduate economics students at the Open Polytechnic of New Zealand via Moodle. The acronym, AIM, stands for Academic content, Information for the course and Motivation—three critical elements required to meet the challenges of effective course facilitation. The AIM newsletter integrates all three of these key components in one easy-to-use product. The object of AIM is to keep students engaged in economics and reduce the perceived distance from distance education. This article discusses the context, underpinning theory, practicalities, and the way forward for AIM.

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