1,667 results for Journal article, 2009

  • Intentionalism, Intentionality and Reporting Beliefs

    Mitrovic, Branko (2009)

    Journal article
    Unitec

    The dominant view of twentieth century analytic philosophy has been that all thinking is always in a language; that languages are vehicles of thought. In recent decades, however, the opposite view, that languages merely serve to express language-­‐independent thought-­‐contents or propositions, has been more widely accepted. The debate has a direct equivalent in the philosophy of history: when historians report the beliefs of historical figures, do they report the sentences or propositions that these historical figures believed to be true or false? In this paper I argue in favor of the latter, intentionalist, view. My arguments mostly center on the problems with translations that are likely to arise when a historian reports the beliefs of historical figures who expressed them in languages other than the one in which the historian is writing. In discussing these problems the paper presents an application of John Searle’s theory of intentionality on the philosophy of history. The debate between the view that all thinking is verbal and always in a language and the view that human beings think independently of any language (using their languages merely in order to express their thoughts) has had an extensive history in the philosophy of language for the past hundred years. It also has numerous implications for the philosophy of history, where the problem can be stated in general terms as the question of whether a historian, when reporting the beliefs of historical figures, reports the thought-­‐contents (conceived as independent of the language in which they were articulated) or the sentences that these people believed to be true or false. Among English-­‐speaking historians of philosophy, the latter view was promoted by Arthur Danto, the former by Quentin Skinner and Mark Bevir. Both positions are reflected in specific problems of history-­‐writing, such as, for instance, the question whether and how a historian can report the beliefs of historical figures who articulated them in languages different from the language in which the historian is writing. Both positions also fundamentally rely on the assumption that it is possible and legitimate to provide translations of sentences from one language to another when reporting the beliefs of historical figures; but, as we shall see, they are not on equal footing when it comes to explaining what counts as a legitimate translation. This paper explores the implications that these two views on the role of language in human thinking have for the philosophy of history. It will show that the view that all human thinking is verbal is not compatible with some fundamental and standard practices of history-­‐writing. Thus, the paper can be seen as a contribution to the debate about intentionalism in history-­‐writing. It argues in favor of the intentionalist approach by introducing new arguments derived from the philosophy of language, while at the same time proposing a formulation of the intentionalist position that relies on John Searle’s philosophical elaboration on the concept of intentionality.

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  • Sen's capability approach in designing and implementing poverty reduction programmes: promoting successful local application through focus groups

    Schischka, J. (2009)

    Journal article
    Christchurch Polytechnic Institute of Technology, Te Wānanga Ōtautahi

    At a theoretical level there has been wide acceptance of Amartya Sen’s Capability Approach (CA) in development. However, questions remain regarding operationalization of the approach within the constraints participants and practitioners and other stakeholders face in designing and implementing poverty reduction programmes.

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  • Living in stories: Creative nonfiction as an effective genre to write about death and bereavement

    Arnold, S. (2009)

    Journal article
    Christchurch Polytechnic Institute of Technology, Te Wānanga Ōtautahi

    Through the telling of stories and interaction with listener or audience, we give structure to our experience and create order and meaning. Written narrative is, therefore, a medium well suited to exploring the experience of death and bereavement. 'We live in stories, not statistics,' Gilbert says (2002: 223). Parents' stories of their children's deaths serve the same purpose as parents' stories of their living children's ongoing lives. Writing about the death of one's child is a way not only to continue bonds and help other bereaved parents, but also a way to allow the 'wounded storyteller' to give voice to the dead and facilitate catharsis in the teller. Utilising the techniques of creative nonfiction to write such a story, the writer can create a compelling narrative that allows writer and reader to enter 'the space of the story for the other' (Frank 1995: 18). This paper discusses the human affinity with story telling and the reasons the bereaved write their stories. It also defines the genre of creative nonfiction and outlines the history of its development. Finally it examines four creative nonfiction texts that have influenced my own writing on the topic of parental bereavement.

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  • Incorporation of the invasive mallow Lavatera arborea into the food web of an active seabird island

    Hawke, D.; Clark, J. (2009)

    Journal article
    Christchurch Polytechnic Institute of Technology, Te Wānanga Ōtautahi

    This study investigated the role of the invasive mallow Lavatera arborea in the terrestrial ecosystem of a flourishing seabird island in SE New Zealand using natural abundance stable isotope ratios (13C/12C; 15N/14N, reported as d13C and d15N). Foliage samples of L. arborea came from transects encompassing three distinct environments (plateau, slope, storm-washed flat) across the island. Samples of potential marine nutrient sources (beach-cast kelp; seabirds using the island) were also collected, to contextualise the L. arborea data. Samples of invertebrate taxa (exotic and indigenous) from multiple ecosystem guilds were hand-collected; a bee, a sapsucking Homoptera, a litter-feeding tenebrionid beetle, various carrion-feeding flies, a predatory carabid beetle, a salticid spider, and (from a seabird cadaver) Dermestes sp. exuviae. Discarded skins from the gecko Hoplodactylus maculatus were collected from moulting sites. Highly enriched d15N values showed that L. arborea from all three environments utilised seabird N, even though breeding seabirds were absent from the storm-washed flat. The isotopic signatures of the Homoptera, and the tenebrionid and carabid beetles could be accounted for entirely by food webs based on L. arborea. Bee and salticid spider isotopic signatures could be accounted for by varying contributions from L. arborea. The flies and Dermestes were (as expected) linked to carrion from either the island or the adjacent mainland. In contrast, gecko data indicated direct dependence on seabirds, although the exact relationship was unclear. Our study therefore showed that L. arborea is an integral part of the terrestrial ecosystem of the island across multiple trophic levels from pollinators to top-level predators.

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  • Generation Y: Why nursing must retain this workforce

    Jamieson, I. (2009)

    Journal article
    Christchurch Polytechnic Institute of Technology, Te Wānanga Ōtautahi

    This article was submitted for publication for two reasons. One, to highlight the emerging literature about the attributes of Generation Y workers and concerns about their retention in the nursing workforce, and two, to advertise my doctorial research that was about to start the data collection stage. This literature review added to the body of nursing knowledge by providing useful and up-to-date information about an important workforce issue for nursing, namely the tension occurring due to an ageing and retiring workforce, the ageing population who are placing increasing demands on health care services and the need to recruit and retain young nurses. The literature review will be of interest to nurse educators, nurse managers and nurse employers.

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  • Leaving from and returning to nursing practice: contributing factors

    Jamieson, I.; Taua, C. (2009)

    Journal article
    Christchurch Polytechnic Institute of Technology, Te Wānanga Ōtautahi

    Many nurses leave nursing and never return. Others return after a period of time. Given the global shortage of nurses a better understanding of these movements is needed. The present study focused on nurses who had been out of nursing for more than five years, and explored factors that influenced their leaving and return to practice. All the nurses who had undertaken a Competency Assessment Programme at a given New Zealand tertiary institution during 2005 were invited to participate. Of the 70 questionnaires mailed out 32 (44.5%) were completed and returned. Quantitative data were analysed using Microsoft Excel, and the qualitative data were coded and analysed by means of content analysis. For each, leaving and returning, three key issues emerged. Nurses left for personal reasons, to seek a career change, or because of poor working conditions. They returned when they had the personal freedom to do so, for fiscal reasons, or because they were motivated by some sense of unfinished business. These findings indicate that it is important for educators involved with Competency Assessment Programmes to collaborate with employers in ensuring that there are opportunities for re-entry to positive work environments, with a degree of flexibility that suits the demographic characteristics of those nurses returning to practice.

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  • Learner uptake and acquisition in three grammar-oriented production activities

    Reinders, Hayo (2009)

    Journal article
    Unitec

    This study investigates the effects of three types of production activities on uptake (operationalized as correct suppliance of the target structure during the treatment) and acquisition of negative adverbs in English. It also investigates the relationship between uptake and acquisition. The three production activities included a dictation, an individual reconstruction and a collaborative reconstruction activity. Each of these asked participants to produce the target structure but differed in (1) whether the activity was completed individually or collaboratively; (2) the amount of text participants had to produce; and (3) their degree of complexity and cognitive demand. It was found that all three activities resulted in uptake with the collaborative reconstruction, the dictation activities resulting in greater uptake than the individual reconstruction activity. There was also an effect for the activities on acquisition (of grammatical items only), but no differential effect for any of the three types of activities. It was concluded that a production activity can lead to increased uptake, but not to increased acquisition, and vice versa. The results may help language teachers look beyond immediate performance on an activity as a measure of success, and make better-informed decisions about when to use what type of activities.

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  • Teaching (with) technology : the scope and practice of teacher education for technology

    Reinders, Hayo (2009)

    Journal article
    Unitec

    This paper discusses the scope of language teacher education for technology and looks at different ways of providing professional development in this area. Technology education for teachers faces a number of challenges, both in selecting the right content for the right audience, as well as in its implementation. In this paper I look at some of the ways in which these challenges have been met in different contexts. The paper concludes with a simple model for the provision of technology education for teachers.

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  • Seriously engaging : using computer games to teach writing

    Reinders, Hayo (2009)

    Journal article
    Unitec

    This short article looks at ways of using computer games to teach different aspects of writing in the foreign language classroom. It offers a number of practical tips for use in the language classroom and beyond.

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  • Biodiversity Data Management Project: Extending the Boundaries of Information Management in Collaboration with Life Scientists at the University of Otago

    Elliot, Gillian (2009-04)

    Journal article
    University of Otago

    Original version of article with links updated.

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  • Breaking new ground in food regimes theory: Corporate environmentalism, ecological feedbacks, and the 'food from somewhere' regime

    Campbell, Hugh (2009)

    Journal article
    University of Otago

    Early food regimes literature tended to concentrate on the global scale analysis of implicitly negative trends in global food relations. In recent years, early food regimes authors like Harriet Friedmann and Philip McMichael have begun to consider the sites of resistance, difference and opportunity that have been emerging around, and into contestation with, new food regime relations. This paper examines the emerging global-scale governance mechanism of environmental food auditing—particularly those being promoted by supermarkets and other large food retailers—as an important new dynamic in our understanding of the politics and potentials of food regimes. Commencing with an examination of Friedmann’s corporate environmental food regime, two key dynamics are identified as being pivotal in the rise and decline of global-scale regimes: securing social legitimacy for food relations and the importance of ecological dynamics in global food relations. By extending McMichael’s notion of ‘Food from Nowhere’ versus ‘Food from Somewhere’, the paper interrogates the emergence of a cluster of relations that comprise ‘Food from Somewhere’ and examines whether this cluster of relations has the potential to change some of the constituent ecological dynamics of food regimes. These ecological dynamics have historically been problematic, amply demonstrating Marx’s metabolic rift as the early food regimes solidified relationships between ‘ecologies at a distance’. By using socio-ecological resilience theory, ‘Food from Somewhere’ is characterized as having denser ecological feedbacks and a more complex information flow in comparison to the invisibility and distanciation characterizing earlier regimes as well as contemporary ‘Food from Nowhere’. The conclusion of this article is that while ‘Food from Somewhere’ does provide one site of opportunity for changing some key food relations and ecologies, the social legitimacy of this new form of food relations does rely on the ongoing existence of the opposite, more regressive, pole of world food relations. The key question for resolving this tension appears to be whether new food relations can open up spaces for future, more ecologically connected, global-scale food relations.

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  • Are conventional farmers conventional? Analysis of the environmental orientations of conventional New Zealand farmers

    Campbell, Hugh; Hunt, Lesley; Rosin, Chris; Fairweather, John (2009)

    Journal article
    University of Otago

    Within the political economy of agriculture and agrofood literatures there are examples of approaches that reject simple dichotomies between alternatives and the mainstream. In line with such approaches, we challenge the assumption that alternative agriculture, and its attendant improved environmental practices, alternative management styles, less intensive approaches, and better approaches to animal and ecosystem welfare, is the only source of agricultural sustainability. This article uses national farm-survey results for New Zealand's sheep and beef, dairy, and horticulture sectors to examine conventional farmers, measure their assessments of farming practices, and assess their environmental orientation. Analysis identifies a proenvironmental cluster of farmers in each sector characterized by a higher environmental-orientation score and distinct ratings of other farm practices queried in the survey. We interpret the results in terms of the exposure of different agricultural sectors to the effects of market-based, audited, best-practice schemes. The presence of shades of “greenness” among conventional farmers has important implications for environmental management and for our understanding of the various and complex pathways toward the greening of agrofood systems.

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  • Public perceptions of wind energy developments: Case studies from New Zealand

    Stephenson, Janet; Graham, Jessica; Smith, Inga (2009)

    Journal article
    University of Otago

    Although the public generally hold positive attitudes towards wind energy, proposals for the construction of new wind farms are often met with strong resistance. In New Zealand, where the government has recently introduced ambitious policy targets for renewable energy generation, negative perceptions of wind farms are increasingly evident and have the potential to prevent the achievement of these targets. This research sets out to examine what influences social resistance to wind farms in New Zealand. Drawing from public submissions on three wind farm proposals, a framework developed by Devine-Wright [Devine-Wright, P., 2005a. Beyond NIMBYism: towards an integrated Framework for Understanding Public Perceptions of Wind Energy. Wind Energy 8, 125–139.] was used as the basis for identification of factors affecting public perceptions of wind farms. The research found firstly that there was no apparent relationship between the proximity of submitters to a proposed wind farm and their likelihood of having a negative perception of the proposal. A wide range of factors written in submissions appeared to have affected the submitter's decision to support or oppose the wind farm proposal. Some of these were consistent with Devine-Wright's findings, but ten further factors were added to the framework to adequately cover the aspects raised in submissions. The findings have implications for the achievement of New Zealand's energy policy aspirations.

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  • From Agricultural Science to "Biological Economies"?

    Campbell, Hugh; Burton, Rob; Cooper, Mark; Henry, Matthew; Le Heron, Erena; Le Heron, Richard; Lewis, Nick; Pawson, Eric; Perkins, Harvey; Roche, Michael; Rosin, Chris; White, Toni (2009)

    Journal article
    University of Otago

    The development of New Zealand as a people, a blend of cultures, a nation and an economy owes much to the unique constellation of land- and waterbased resources, social values and ecological change within production landscapes that we refer to as "biological economies". The exploitation of these biological economies has altered over the course of New Zealand's history, but, since the Second World War (WW2), the successful allegiance between scientific research and production-oriented farming practices has profoundly changed the productive capacity of New Zealand's agricultural landscapes. New Zealand's post-WW2 history benefited from a particular set of economic, trading, environmental and social conditions and priorities and, through their development, enabled the emergence of a modern, developed nation. The continuing importance of New Zealand's biological economies has been most recently articulated both by Federated Farmers in their 2008 General Election Manifesto and by the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry (MAF) in its briefing to its new minister. Both organisations recognise the tensions that are becoming apparent in New Zealand's rural economy, society and landscapes as new priorities emerge and challenge old verities. maF (2008), in quite unequivocal terms, argues that we are at the start of a transformation in the biological economies that will drive New Zealand's future well-being. The precise character of that transformation is unknowable, but it will, in the first instance, expose the production systems which have developed over the last century to more deeply and explicitly framed consumer priorities concerning issues such as environmental sustainability, increased public access to the countryside and the protection of rural resources upon which recreation depends. At stake here is New Zealand's continuing competitive advantage, because that advantage is no longer defined solely through low-cost production. However, our ability to rethink the future shape of New Zealand's biological economies is hampered by the artificial division of complex agricultural ecologies into separate analytical spheres. Other contributors to recent discussions in this Journal have identified the importance of integrating social and ecological dynamics and the necessity of transdisciplinarity (Rosin et al. 2008). We take this further by arguing that such insights about the future of agriculture (and related uses of rural and coastal land and water) must be informed by a full recognition of a wider set of explanatory contexts.

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  • Cross‐cultural environmental research and management: Challenges and progress

    Moller, Henrik; Stephenson, Janet (2009)

    Journal article
    University of Otago

    The Royal Society of New Zealand encouraged this Forum on cross-cultural environmental research and management following the publication of a special issue of the New Zealand Journal of Zoology in September 2009 called "Mātauranga Māori, science and seabirds" (Moller 2009). Mātauranga Māori (Māori knowledge) is concerned with all aspects of Te Ao Māori (the Māori world view), including their version of what overseas scholars have variously termed Traditional Ecological Knowledge (TEK), Traditional Knowledge, Local Knowledge, Ethnoscience or Ethnobiology. The most widely used definition of TEK is "a cumulative body of knowledge, practice, and belief, evolving by adaptive processes and handed down through generations by cultural transmission, about the relationship of living beings (including humans) with one another and the environment" (Berkes 2008: 7). Mātauranga Māori, and especially its interface with science, is a particularly important issue for New Zealand because of its colonial history, the partnership principles derived from the Treaty of Waitangi, and the government's Vision Mātauranga to 'unlock the innovation potential of Māori Knowledge, Resources and People' (MoRST 2005). The Mātauranga Māori, science and seabirds special issue of New Zealand Journal of Zoology featured 10 papers from the Kia Mau Te Tītī Mo Ake Tonu Atu ("Keep the Tītī Forever") research project. Tītī is the Māori term for 'muttonbirds', the chicks of sooty shearwater (Puffinus griseus). The 'tītī project' was a 14-year collaboration of Rakiura Māori kaitiaki (environmental guardians) and their mātauranga with University of Otago ecologists and mathematicians (Moller et al. 2009c). Its main aim was to assess the sustainability of the current harvest of tītī and identify ways that the tītī can remain plentiful enough for the Rakiura mokopuna (grandchildren) to be able to continue their cultural heritage of muttonbirding. However, another aim of the project was compare science and mātauranga (or TEK in its international context) as ways of knowing and guiding ecological management. As the tītī project is a long-running and detailed example of a cross-cultural science-mātauranga partnership, the Royal Society of New Zealand enabled us to invite a range of researchers to comment on the lessons from the tītī project, and more generally to explore challenges and enablers of partnerships between knowledge systems of different cultures.

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  • Changes in sooty shearwater (Puffinus griseus) abundance and harvesting on the Rakiura Titi Islands

    Moller, Henrik; Fletcher, David; Johnson, P; Bell, Brian; Flack, D; Bragg, Corey; Scott, Darren; Newman, Jamie; McKechnie, Sam; Lyver, Philip (2009)

    Journal article
    University of Otago

    We estimated the change in abundance of sooty shearwater (titi, Puffinus griseus) at six Rakiura Titi Islands, New Zealand, by comparing historical and recent surveys of the density of entrances to breeding burrows. We found evidence that entrance density between 1994 and 2006 was lower than it was between 1961 and 1976. Our overall estimate of the annual rate of change in burrow entrance density is ‐1.0% (95% CI ‐2.3 to ‐ 0.1%). Declines have been slower on four islands where Rakiura Maori maintain a traditional harvest of sooty shearwater chicks ("muttonbirding") compared with three unharvested islands. Density‐dependent population processes may explain this difference: rates of decline have been faster in areas of relatively high initial entrance density, and historically the harvested islands have had lower initial density. There was a strong, apparently linear, relationship between entrance density and chick density on breeding colonies, so changes in entrance density probably do indicate a real population decline. The western side of Taukihepa, the largestof the Titi Islands, first became accessible for muttonbirding with the advent of helicopters in the 1970s, but it is unknown whether this has caused an increase in the number of sooty shearwaters harvested by Rakiura Maori.

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  • Spatial variation in burrow entrance density of the sooty shearwater (Puffinus griseus)

    Charleton, Kristin; Bragg, Corey; Knight, Ben; Fletcher, David; Moller, Henrik; Newman, Jamie; Scott, Darren (2009)

    Journal article
    University of Otago

    The effects of a range of habitat variables on spatial variation of breeding burrow density of sooty shearwaters, Puffinus griseus, were measured on 5 islands near Rakiura (Stewart Is) and 1 island in The Snares Is group, during the 2000-01 breeding season. Density estimates for 4 islands where Rakiura Maori harvest chicks ranged from 0.30 to 0.47 burrows per m2. Density on 2 non-harvested islands occurred at opposite ends of the burrow density spectrum (Whenua Hou, 0.09 entrances per m2; The Snares, 0.90 per m2). Burrow density was consistently lower in areas with shallow soil, in inland areas, and where there was more plant debris on the forest floor. The latter may reflect cause or effect because the birds drag woody and leafy debris into their burrows to form nests and to block the burrow entrance. Large amounts of variation in burrow density were not explained by habitat predictors. Detection of harvest impacts on sooty shearwater density on harvested and non-harvested islands will be more powerful if models account for soil depth and island edge-effects, but disregard vegetation variation.

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  • Variation in abundance and harvest of sooty shearwaters (Puffinus griseus) by Rakiura Maori on Putauhinu Island, New Zealand

    Bragg, Corey; McKechnie, Sam; Newman, Jamie; Fletcher, David; Moller, Henrik; Scott, Darren (2009)

    Journal article
    University of Otago

    Sooty shearwater (Puffinus griesus, titi) abundance, harvest levels and chick mass were monitored repeatedly on Putauhinu Island, south‐west of Rakiura (Stewart Island) between 1997 and 2005. Putauhinu is the second largest of the Titi Islands and has a relatively high density of chicks distributed over most of the island, so it supports what is likely the second‐largest population of sooty shearwaters in the Rakiura region (after Taukihepa, Big South Cape Island). Rakiura Maori harvested chicks from five “manu” (family birding areas) that covered 56% of the 128.4 ha of breeding colony of the island. Chick density was lower on the unharvested area in the interior of the island than on harvested areas. Burrow entrance density was higher where there was more ground cover (mainly fern) vegetation, but these areas had lower burrow occupancy, so overall chick density was similar at different levels of ground cover. Twenty‐six harvesters present on Putauhinu in 2005 took 31 280 chicks in total, equivalent to 8.4% (95% CI = 6.6–12%) of the available chicks on the entire island. Seasonal variation in total chicks harvested (CV 15–22%) was not related to chick abundance or mass. Refuges, including impenetrable patches of vegetated ground within manu, the unharvested centre of the island, and even nearby unharvested islands, will ameliorate localised impacts of harvest if density‐dependent immigration is operating.

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  • Effects of geolocation archival tags on reproduction and adult body-mass of Sooty Shearwaters (Puffinus griseus)

    Adams, Josh; Scott, Darren; McKechnie, Sam; Blackwell, Grant; Shaffer, Scott; Moller, Henrik (2009)

    Journal article
    University of Otago

    We attached 11 g (1.4% body‐mass equivalent) global location sensing (GLS) archival tag packages to tarsi of 25 breeding sooty shearwaters (Puffinus griseus, titi) on Whenua Hou (Codfish Island), New Zealand during the chick‐rearing period in 2005. Compared with chicks reared by non‐handled adults that did not carry tags, deployment of tags on one or both adult parents ultimately resulted in 35% reduction in chick body mass and significantly reduced chick skeletal size preceding fledging (19 April). However, body mass between chick groups was not significantly different after controlling for skeletal size. Effects on chicks were more pronounced in six pairs where both parents carried tags. Chick mass was negatively related to the duration that adults carried tags. In this study, none of the chicks reared by pairs where both parents were tagged, 54% of chicks reared by pairs where one parent was tagged, and 83% of chicks reared by non‐handled and non‐tagged parents achieved a previously determined pre‐fiedging mass threshold (564 g; Sagar & Horning 1998). Body mass of adults carrying tags and returning from trans‐equatorial migration the following year were 4% lighter on average than non‐tagged birds, but this difference was not statistically significant. Reduced mass among chicks reared by adults carrying tags during the chick‐provisioning period indicated that adults altered “normal” provisioning behaviours to maintain their own body condition at the expense of their chicks. Population‐level information derived from telemetry studies can reveal important habitat‐linked behaviours, unique aspects of sea‐bird foraging behaviours, and migration ecology. Information for some species (e.g., overlap with fisheries) can aid conservation and marine ecosystem management. We advise caution, however, when interpreting certain data related to adult provisioning behaviours (e.g., time spent foraging, provisioning rates, etc.). If effects on individuals are of concern, we suggest shorter‐term deployments, smaller and lighter tags, and alternative attachment techniques, especially when investigating threatened or endangered species.

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  • Guidelines for cross‐cultural Participatory Action Research partnerships: A case study of a customary seabird harvest in New Zealand

    Moller, Henrik; Lyver, Philip O'B; Bragg, Corey; Newman, Jamie; Clucas, Rosmary; Fletcher, David; Kitson, Jane; McKechnie, Sam; Scott, Darren (2009)

    Journal article
    University of Otago

    Adaptive co‐management and Participatory Action Research (PAR) promotes social ecological resilience by simultaneously protecting wildlife and its habitat and promoting capacity and motivation for sustainable harvest management by communities. We report here on a case study of learning through a partnership (1994–2009) between science and Traditional Ecological Knowledge (TEK) to determine the sustainability of titi (sooty shearwater, Puffinus griseus) harvests by Rakiura Maori in southern New Zealand. Testimony of Maori elders and titi harvesters (birders), members of the Rakiura Titi Islands Administering Body, researchers and participants in workshops and meetings were recorded throughout the 14‐year research project to identify critical determinants of success of the partnership. A large majority of participants supported the research, mainly because it expanded their knowledge by investigating the reasons for declining bird numbers and the means of ensuring the continuation of their muttonbirding heritage. Initial concerns about the research included fear that prohibition or quota would be imposed through political pressure from external groups; the intrusion of strangers on the islands; the misconception that the research was being promulgated by government regulatory agencies; and scepticism about research findings. Research also precipitated conflict and division within the Rakiura community, and some birders feared that science might displace matauranga Maori (TEK) of the Rakiura people for guiding harvest management. Core conditions for community engagement included trust between parties, effective communication of the science, equitable decision‐making responsibility, and building scientific capability and monetary support to enable meaningful participation. The most fundamental requirement is mutual respect for each party's knowledge. Attention to this inclusive, equitable, slow and prolonged process makes it more likely that the community will uptake results to improve sustainability of harvesting. The research has heightened awareness within the harvesting community of conservation issues facing the titi and of potential options to mitigate them. Eradication or control of weka (Gallirallus australis), and reducing titi harvest levels from around a quarter of the manu (family birding territories), are the main practical ways of increasing sustainability, but the magnitude and direction of climate change impacts on the shearwater population remains uncertain.

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