1,667 results for Journal article, 2009

  • Intentionalism, Intentionality and Reporting Beliefs

    Mitrovic, Branko (2009)

    Journal article
    Unitec

    The dominant view of twentieth century analytic philosophy has been that all thinking is always in a language; that languages are vehicles of thought. In recent decades, however, the opposite view, that languages merely serve to express language-­‐independent thought-­‐contents or propositions, has been more widely accepted. The debate has a direct equivalent in the philosophy of history: when historians report the beliefs of historical figures, do they report the sentences or propositions that these historical figures believed to be true or false? In this paper I argue in favor of the latter, intentionalist, view. My arguments mostly center on the problems with translations that are likely to arise when a historian reports the beliefs of historical figures who expressed them in languages other than the one in which the historian is writing. In discussing these problems the paper presents an application of John Searle’s theory of intentionality on the philosophy of history. The debate between the view that all thinking is verbal and always in a language and the view that human beings think independently of any language (using their languages merely in order to express their thoughts) has had an extensive history in the philosophy of language for the past hundred years. It also has numerous implications for the philosophy of history, where the problem can be stated in general terms as the question of whether a historian, when reporting the beliefs of historical figures, reports the thought-­‐contents (conceived as independent of the language in which they were articulated) or the sentences that these people believed to be true or false. Among English-­‐speaking historians of philosophy, the latter view was promoted by Arthur Danto, the former by Quentin Skinner and Mark Bevir. Both positions are reflected in specific problems of history-­‐writing, such as, for instance, the question whether and how a historian can report the beliefs of historical figures who articulated them in languages different from the language in which the historian is writing. Both positions also fundamentally rely on the assumption that it is possible and legitimate to provide translations of sentences from one language to another when reporting the beliefs of historical figures; but, as we shall see, they are not on equal footing when it comes to explaining what counts as a legitimate translation. This paper explores the implications that these two views on the role of language in human thinking have for the philosophy of history. It will show that the view that all human thinking is verbal is not compatible with some fundamental and standard practices of history-­‐writing. Thus, the paper can be seen as a contribution to the debate about intentionalism in history-­‐writing. It argues in favor of the intentionalist approach by introducing new arguments derived from the philosophy of language, while at the same time proposing a formulation of the intentionalist position that relies on John Searle’s philosophical elaboration on the concept of intentionality.

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  • Sen's capability approach in designing and implementing poverty reduction programmes: promoting successful local application through focus groups

    Schischka, J. (2009)

    Journal article
    Christchurch Polytechnic Institute of Technology, Te Wānanga Ōtautahi

    At a theoretical level there has been wide acceptance of Amartya Sen’s Capability Approach (CA) in development. However, questions remain regarding operationalization of the approach within the constraints participants and practitioners and other stakeholders face in designing and implementing poverty reduction programmes.

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  • Living in stories: Creative nonfiction as an effective genre to write about death and bereavement

    Arnold, S. (2009)

    Journal article
    Christchurch Polytechnic Institute of Technology, Te Wānanga Ōtautahi

    Through the telling of stories and interaction with listener or audience, we give structure to our experience and create order and meaning. Written narrative is, therefore, a medium well suited to exploring the experience of death and bereavement. 'We live in stories, not statistics,' Gilbert says (2002: 223). Parents' stories of their children's deaths serve the same purpose as parents' stories of their living children's ongoing lives. Writing about the death of one's child is a way not only to continue bonds and help other bereaved parents, but also a way to allow the 'wounded storyteller' to give voice to the dead and facilitate catharsis in the teller. Utilising the techniques of creative nonfiction to write such a story, the writer can create a compelling narrative that allows writer and reader to enter 'the space of the story for the other' (Frank 1995: 18). This paper discusses the human affinity with story telling and the reasons the bereaved write their stories. It also defines the genre of creative nonfiction and outlines the history of its development. Finally it examines four creative nonfiction texts that have influenced my own writing on the topic of parental bereavement.

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  • Incorporation of the invasive mallow Lavatera arborea into the food web of an active seabird island

    Hawke, D.; Clark, J. (2009)

    Journal article
    Christchurch Polytechnic Institute of Technology, Te Wānanga Ōtautahi

    This study investigated the role of the invasive mallow Lavatera arborea in the terrestrial ecosystem of a flourishing seabird island in SE New Zealand using natural abundance stable isotope ratios (13C/12C; 15N/14N, reported as d13C and d15N). Foliage samples of L. arborea came from transects encompassing three distinct environments (plateau, slope, storm-washed flat) across the island. Samples of potential marine nutrient sources (beach-cast kelp; seabirds using the island) were also collected, to contextualise the L. arborea data. Samples of invertebrate taxa (exotic and indigenous) from multiple ecosystem guilds were hand-collected; a bee, a sapsucking Homoptera, a litter-feeding tenebrionid beetle, various carrion-feeding flies, a predatory carabid beetle, a salticid spider, and (from a seabird cadaver) Dermestes sp. exuviae. Discarded skins from the gecko Hoplodactylus maculatus were collected from moulting sites. Highly enriched d15N values showed that L. arborea from all three environments utilised seabird N, even though breeding seabirds were absent from the storm-washed flat. The isotopic signatures of the Homoptera, and the tenebrionid and carabid beetles could be accounted for entirely by food webs based on L. arborea. Bee and salticid spider isotopic signatures could be accounted for by varying contributions from L. arborea. The flies and Dermestes were (as expected) linked to carrion from either the island or the adjacent mainland. In contrast, gecko data indicated direct dependence on seabirds, although the exact relationship was unclear. Our study therefore showed that L. arborea is an integral part of the terrestrial ecosystem of the island across multiple trophic levels from pollinators to top-level predators.

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  • Generation Y: Why nursing must retain this workforce

    Jamieson, I. (2009)

    Journal article
    Christchurch Polytechnic Institute of Technology, Te Wānanga Ōtautahi

    This article was submitted for publication for two reasons. One, to highlight the emerging literature about the attributes of Generation Y workers and concerns about their retention in the nursing workforce, and two, to advertise my doctorial research that was about to start the data collection stage. This literature review added to the body of nursing knowledge by providing useful and up-to-date information about an important workforce issue for nursing, namely the tension occurring due to an ageing and retiring workforce, the ageing population who are placing increasing demands on health care services and the need to recruit and retain young nurses. The literature review will be of interest to nurse educators, nurse managers and nurse employers.

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  • Leaving from and returning to nursing practice: contributing factors

    Jamieson, I.; Taua, C. (2009)

    Journal article
    Christchurch Polytechnic Institute of Technology, Te Wānanga Ōtautahi

    Many nurses leave nursing and never return. Others return after a period of time. Given the global shortage of nurses a better understanding of these movements is needed. The present study focused on nurses who had been out of nursing for more than five years, and explored factors that influenced their leaving and return to practice. All the nurses who had undertaken a Competency Assessment Programme at a given New Zealand tertiary institution during 2005 were invited to participate. Of the 70 questionnaires mailed out 32 (44.5%) were completed and returned. Quantitative data were analysed using Microsoft Excel, and the qualitative data were coded and analysed by means of content analysis. For each, leaving and returning, three key issues emerged. Nurses left for personal reasons, to seek a career change, or because of poor working conditions. They returned when they had the personal freedom to do so, for fiscal reasons, or because they were motivated by some sense of unfinished business. These findings indicate that it is important for educators involved with Competency Assessment Programmes to collaborate with employers in ensuring that there are opportunities for re-entry to positive work environments, with a degree of flexibility that suits the demographic characteristics of those nurses returning to practice.

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  • Learner uptake and acquisition in three grammar-oriented production activities

    Reinders, Hayo (2009)

    Journal article
    Unitec

    This study investigates the effects of three types of production activities on uptake (operationalized as correct suppliance of the target structure during the treatment) and acquisition of negative adverbs in English. It also investigates the relationship between uptake and acquisition. The three production activities included a dictation, an individual reconstruction and a collaborative reconstruction activity. Each of these asked participants to produce the target structure but differed in (1) whether the activity was completed individually or collaboratively; (2) the amount of text participants had to produce; and (3) their degree of complexity and cognitive demand. It was found that all three activities resulted in uptake with the collaborative reconstruction, the dictation activities resulting in greater uptake than the individual reconstruction activity. There was also an effect for the activities on acquisition (of grammatical items only), but no differential effect for any of the three types of activities. It was concluded that a production activity can lead to increased uptake, but not to increased acquisition, and vice versa. The results may help language teachers look beyond immediate performance on an activity as a measure of success, and make better-informed decisions about when to use what type of activities.

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  • Teaching (with) technology : the scope and practice of teacher education for technology

    Reinders, Hayo (2009)

    Journal article
    Unitec

    This paper discusses the scope of language teacher education for technology and looks at different ways of providing professional development in this area. Technology education for teachers faces a number of challenges, both in selecting the right content for the right audience, as well as in its implementation. In this paper I look at some of the ways in which these challenges have been met in different contexts. The paper concludes with a simple model for the provision of technology education for teachers.

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  • Seriously engaging : using computer games to teach writing

    Reinders, Hayo (2009)

    Journal article
    Unitec

    This short article looks at ways of using computer games to teach different aspects of writing in the foreign language classroom. It offers a number of practical tips for use in the language classroom and beyond.

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  • Evaluation of a special education professional development program: part 2: Success case studies

    Piggot-Irvine, Eileen (2009)

    Journal article
    Unitec

    An earlier article in EJA (Piggot-Irvine 2008) reported on the background, methodology and overall results for an evaluation study of a special education teacher professional development project that involved action research (AR) or action learning (AL). The ‘Success Case study’ component that constituted the third phase of the evaluation is reported here. The Success Case studies confirmed the most significant outcome of the previous survey (Phase 1) and focus group (Phase 2), that is, an overwhelming willingness of staff and supporters to see students with special education needs excel. Additional distinctive elements emerged that were common to all Success Case schools and the most significant included that: projects were at a small-scale, manageable, level; the classic stages of AR and AL were followed, even though schools may not have been aware of these stages; data/evidence was used to examine both the current situation and outcomes; and ‘best practice’ and/or a relevant literature underpinned this examination.

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  • Mā wai ngā hua? 'Participation' in early childhood in Aotearoa/New Zealand

    Ritchie, Jenny; Rau, Cheryl (2009-01-01)

    Journal article
    Unitec

    No abstract

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  • Induction of newly qualified teachers in New Zealand

    Piggot-Irvine, Eileen; Aitken, Helen; Ritchie, Jenny; McGrath, Fiona; Bruce Ferguson, Pip (2009-01-01)

    Journal article
    Unitec

    In this research, commissioned by the New Zealand Teachers Council, the quality of induction of provisionally registered teachers (PRT) (newly qualified) was examined utilising qualitative ‘success case studies’ within early childhood, primary, secondary, and indigenous Māori medium settings. The establishment of criteria for effective induction (from the literature and previous research) guided the identification of 20 ‘success’ sites across the sectors. In-depth data collection of each case was conducted via focus groups, one-to-one interviews and documentary analysis. The findings of the research highlighted exemplary induction practices across the sectors, with the most important associated with PRTs having access to a community, or ‘family’, of support during their induction. An interesting finding, which contrasted with previous research, was that PRTs in the secondary sector had levels of satisfaction with their role that were as high as those in other sectors. The key limitation to effectiveness was linked to lack of time for discussions and observations of the PRT’s practice.

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  • Investigation of the internal functioning of the radial basis function neural network river flow forecasting models

    Fernando, Achela; Shamseldin, Asaad (2009-03)

    Journal article
    Unitec

    This paper deals with the challenging problem of hydrological interpretation of the internal functioning of ANNs by extracting knowledge from their solutions. The neural network used in this study is based on the structure of the Radial Basis Function Neural Network (RBFNN) which is considered as an alternative to the Multi Layer Perceptron (MLPNN) for solving complex modelling problems. This network consists of an input, hidden and an output layer. The network is trained using the daily data of two catchments having different characteristics and from two different regions in the world. The present day and antecedent observed discharges are used as inputs to the network to forecast the flow one day ahead. A range of quantitative and qualitative techniques are used for hydrological interpretation of the internal functioning by examining the responses of the hidden layer neurons. The results of the study show that a single hidden layered RBFNN is an effective tool to forecast the daily flows and that the activation of the hidden layer nodes are far from arbitrary but appear to represent flow components of the predicted hydrograph. The results of the study confirm that the three neurons in the hidden layer of this model effectively divide the input data space in such a way that the contribution from each neurone dominates in one of the flow domains – low, medium or high – and form, in a crude manner, the base flow, interflow and surface runoff components of the hydrograph.

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  • An exploration of the pedagogies employed to integrate knowledge in work-integrated learning in New Zealand higher education institutions

    Ram, Shiu; Coll, Richard K; Eames, Chris; Paku, Levinia; Lay, Mark; Ayling, Diana; Hodges, Dave; Bhat, Ravi; Fleming, Jenny; Ferkins, Dr Lesley; Wiersma, Cindy; Martin, Andrew (2009)

    Journal article
    Unitec

    Work-integrated learning or cooperative education is an educational strategy in which students undergo conventional academic learning at a higher educational institution and combine this learning with some time spent in a workplace relevant to their program of study and career aims (Groenewald, 2004). A key aspect of work-integrated learning is the notion that it entails the integration of knowledge and skills gained in the higher education institution and in the workplace. This has two features - the student takes what he or she has learned on-campus into the workplace when going on a work placement, and likewise what they learn in the workplace becomes related to, or incorporated into, the next phase of academic learning when the student returns to study after completing a work-placement.

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  • 'I caught your eye, I catched your teeth' : distributed playfulness connecting children.

    Alcock, Sophie (2009)

    Journal article
    Unitec

    This paper explores how playful activity mediates and connects children as “mind” becomes distributed across individuals (Rogoff, 1998; Salomon, 1993; Tomasello et al. 2005). “Mind” includes consciousness, cognition, emotion and imagination. Children’s playful communication is mediated and distributed via words, sounds, gestures, gaze, posture, rhythm, and movement using a variety of strategies including imitation and repetition. Socio-cultural historical activity theory informs both the methodological paradigm of the research and the framework for data analysis (Chaiklin, 2001; Cole, 1996; Engeström, 1999; Vygotsky, 1986, 1978; Wertsch, 1998). Findings suggest that understanding children’s mediated and distributed relationships with others is central to understanding children in early childhood settings. Distributed understandings of mind have pedagogical implications for how teachers view children in early childhood centre communities, and for curriculum and assessment practices.

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  • Dressing up play: Rethinking play and playfulness from socio-cultural perspectives

    Alcock, Sophie (2009)

    Journal article
    Unitec

    Play is complex, contradictory, and sometimes chaotic. It has been described in such contrary ways as: both work and fun, pleasurable, purposeful and also without purpose, intrinsically motivated, yet socially and biologically driven and without predetermined outcomes (Lemke, 1995). Children playing together are engaging their emotional, cognitive, physical, social, spiritual selves in ways which transcend boundaries between these traditional psychological domains. Feelings, thoughts, and bodies are connected, and may be perceived and represented aesthetically in children’s play where “aesthetic experience encourages consciousness to engage in a form of reflection that does not restrict it in any way. This highly unusual experience opens up for consciousness new and previously unrealized possibilities” (Bubner, 1997, p. 169).

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  • Critical multiculturalism: The challenge of multiculturalism within a New Zealand bicultural context - A Chinese perspective

    Chan, Angel (2009)

    Journal article
    Unitec

    For decades, notions of multiculturalism have been embraced by many countries in order to acknowledge and include diverse cultures and ethnicities. It has been assumed that the learning needs and rights of ethnic minority children will be catered for by implementing multicultural education. This article argues that multiculturalism cannot address the complexities of ethnicity,culture and identity,instead it perpetuates stereoptypical views of ethnic groups and fails to bring about social equity. New Zealand’s social and political landscape, its national early childhood curriculum and strategic plans, have further contributed to the difficulty of implementing succesful multiculturaism within New Zealand and its early childhood education provision. Being the cultural ‘other’, Chinese traditional and conventional macro beliefs can be applied to counter dominant discourses and practices within New Zealand early childhood settings. This article argues for critical multiculturalism to address the inequity between ethnicities that multiculturalism perpetuates.

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  • Styloid crystals in the genus Libertia (Iridaceae)

    Blanchon, Dan; Braggins, J.E (2009)

    Journal article
    Unitec

    Styloid crystals are reported in the leaves of the New Zealand species Libertia cranwelliae, L. edgariae, L. grandiflora, L. ixioides, L. micrantha, L. mooreae, L. peregrinans, the Australian species L. paniculata and L. pulchella, and the South American species L. chilensis and L. sessiliflora. Styloid crystals appear to be absent from rhizomes examined in this study, except those of L. micrantha. The presence of styloids in L. micrantha and L. pulchella supports the retention of these species in Libertia rather than Sisyrinchium.

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  • Libertia flaccidifolia (lridaceae), a new species from Mt Tamahunga

    Blanchon, Dan; Weaver, J. S. (2009)

    Journal article
    Unitec

    A new species of Libertia, L. flaccidifolia, is described from Mt Tamahunga, Northland, New Zealand. Libertia flaccidifolia is similar to L. grandiflora but differs from that species in that it possesses broad, flaccid leaves, with strongly scabrid margins, fully dehiscing capsules, yellow-orange seeds, and a dodecaploid chromosome number. Libertia flaccidifolia is an extremely uncommon species that has declined in abundance following human-induced disturbance. Using the New Zealand Threat Classification System, we recommend a conservation status of Threatened/Nationally Critical qualified OL (One Location), RR (Range Restricted), RF (Recruitment Failure). A revised key to species found in New Zealand is included.

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  • Hand and Face Tracking for Gesture Recognition

    Dadgostar, F; Sarrafzadeh, Hossein (2009)

    Journal article
    Unitec

    "This paper presents research leading to the development of a vision-based gesture recognition system. The system comprises of three abstracts layers each with their own specific type and requirements of data ..."

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