2,682 results for Journal article, 2011

  • Impact of increasing capacity for generating and using research on maternal and perinatal health practices in South East Asia (SEA-ORCHID Project)

    The SEA-ORCHID Study Group; Martis, R. (2011)

    Journal article
    Christchurch Polytechnic Institute of Technology, Te Wānanga Ōtautahi

    Background: Maternal and neonatal mortality and morbidity remain unacceptably high in many low and middle income countries. SEA-ORCHID was a five year international collaborative project in South East Asia which aimed to determine whether health care and health outcomes for mothers and babies could be improved by developing capacity for research generation, synthesis and use. Methods: Nine hospitals in Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines and Thailand participated in SEA-ORCHID. These hospitals were supported by researchers from three Australian centres. Health care practices and outcomes were assessed for 1000 women at each hospital both before and after the intervention. The capacity development intervention was tailored to the needs and context of each hospital and delivered over an 18 month period. Main outcomes included adherence to forms of care likely to be beneficial and avoidance of forms of care likely to be ineffective or harmful. Results: We observed substantial variation in clinical practice change between sites. The capacity development intervention had a positive impact on some care practices across all countries, including increased family support during labour and decreased perineal shaving before birth, but in some areas there was no significant change in practice and a few beneficial practices were followed less often. Conclusion: The results of SEA-ORCHID demonstrate that investing in developing capacity for research use, synthesis and generation can lead to improvements in maternal and neonatal health practice and highlight the difficulty of implementing evidence-based practice change.

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  • Crafting communities: Promoting inclusion, empowerment and learning between older women

    Maidment, J.; Macfarlane, S. (2011)

    Journal article
    Christchurch Polytechnic Institute of Technology, Te Wānanga Ōtautahi

    While social policy and planning documents are replete with ominous warnings about the cost of an ageing population, this article tells a different story about the productive and self-sustaining networks that exist among older women in the community who do craftwork. From our research conducted in Victoria, Australia during 20072008 we discovered a resilient and committed group of older women quietly and steadily contributing to community fundraising, building social networks, and providing learning opportunities to each other in diverse ways. Through our conversations with nine craftswomen we have been able to articulate clear links between the theory and models commonly espoused in the community development literature and the life-enriching practices used in organising informal community craft group activities. From our interviews with the older women we provide evidence of sustained participation, the generation of social capital, and the fostering of life-long learning. While none of the women we spoke to were trained in community development and did not use language commonly associated with feminist ideology, the relationship between the informal group work with principles of empowerment and self-efficacy were unmistakeable. We conclude with a discussion of the implications of our findings for critical social work practice.

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  • Neurovascular assessment in the critically ill patient

    Johnston-Walker, E.; Hardcastle, J. (2011)

    Journal article
    Christchurch Polytechnic Institute of Technology, Te Wānanga Ōtautahi

    Aim: To outline the pathophysiological processes involved in neurovascular impairment and compartment syndrome and examine common contributory factors within the development and clinical presentation of neurovascular impairment in critical care patients with musculoskeletal trauma. Background: Thorough and systematic assessment of neurovascular status in critically ill patients with musculoskeletal trauma is crucial to detect secondary ischaemic injury and implement appropriate and timely treatment of any neurovascular deficits. Method: Current literature relating to neurovascular assessment and associated patient care was reviewed and utilised to outline distinct assessment components, indicators of neurovascular impairment and highlight the important issues for critical care nursing practice. Results: Diminished limb perfusion secondary to vascular impairment and compartment syndrome are well documented. Complications associated with musculoskeletal trauma and surgical intervention can have wide-ranging effects on the patient's functional ability and overall outcome. It is crucial that appropriate neurovascular assessment is undertaken for patients admitted to the critical care unit following musculoskeletal trauma, crush injury, orthopaedic surgery (involving internal or external fixation of fractures) and those who may have experienced prolonged external pressure from casts or tight-fitting bandages. Several elements of neurovascular assessment are, however, more complex to undertake in the context of the unconscious or sedated critically ill patient. Conclusions: Effective practice requires that the critical care nurse has a comprehensive understanding of the aetiology, pathophysiology, physiological responses and clinical presentation associated with neurovascular impairment, secondary ischaemia and compartment syndrome. Relevance to clinical practice: Undertaking an effective neurovascular assessment for patients at risk of neurovascular impairment or acute compartment syndrome (ACS) in the critical care setting can be problematic when patients are unable to communicate with the nurse. The risk of long-term functional impairment or limb loss can be significant in this group of patients, particularly following musculoskeletal trauma. This article reviews the aetiology and pathophysiology of neurovascular impairment in the critical care context and provides guidance for nurses undertaking this important element of nursing assessment with non-verbal, critically unwell patients. Informed practice in neurovascular assessment has the potential to enable early detection and timely management for these patients, which is crucial to optimise patient outcomes.

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  • Behind the news headlines of the Christchurch earthquakes: how communities have been coping

    Gawith, L.; Atkinson, M. (2011)

    Journal article
    Christchurch Polytechnic Institute of Technology, Te Wānanga Ōtautahi

    Natural disasters such as the earthquakes in Christchurch have a profound impact, as people “struggle to take in what has happened and deal with their own feelings of distress and powerlessness” (NZ Psychological Society, 2011, para 2). Everyone’s story of the first 7.1 magnitude earthquake in Christchurch on Saturday Sept 4, 2010 is similar. Most people were asleep. Everyone, however, has a story of the 6.3 earthquake on February 22, 2011 meaning that there are over 440,000 stories of people struggling to process the event and their responses. This brief article includes observations of communities coping after the February 22, 2011 earthquake from two community psychologists living in Christchurch.

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  • The development of technology enhanced learning: findings from a 2008 survey of UK higher education institutions

    Jenkins, M.; Browne, T.; Hewitt, R. (2011)

    Journal article
    Christchurch Polytechnic Institute of Technology, Te Wānanga Ōtautahi

    This article summarises the key findings from a UK survey of higher education institutions, focusing on the development of technology enhanced learning (TEL). TEL is defined as any online facility or system that directly supports learning and teaching. The 2008 survey builds upon previous UCISA surveys conducted in 2001, 2003 and 2005 and for which at each stage after 2001, a longitudinal analysis was undertaken [see Browne, T., Jenkins, M., & Walker, R. (2006). A longitudinal perspective regarding the use of VLEs by higher education institutions in the United Kingdom. Interactive Learning Environments, 14(2), 177–192]. The findings, confirmed by other studies published since 2005, reveal that ensuring the quality of learning and teaching activities is consolidated as the primary driver for using TEL with a committed local champion representing the highest ranked factor in supporting TEL development within an institution. External strategies have been influential, contributing to the rise to prominence of institutional e-learning strategies. The delivery of course content continues to be the most common way in which TEL is used to support teaching and learning. The tools that have increased in prominence are those for podcasting, eportfolios, e-assessment, blogs and wikis. Regarding new activities, streaming media, mobile computing, podcasting and Web 2.0 are discernibly the greatest. Upgrading staff skills were overwhelmingly noted as the greatest challenge that these new activities would create, with staff development and supportive strategies being seen as the primary remedies. However, the perception of lack of time was identified as the main barrier that needed to be surmounted. Though much of the data remain subtle, clear identifiable differences continue to be discernible between Pre-92 and Post-92 universities.

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  • "Making democracy a living, breathing thing: YouTube videos and democratic practice in the 2008 ONE News YouTube election debate

    Beatty, B. E. (2011)

    Journal article
    Christchurch Polytechnic Institute of Technology, Te Wānanga Ōtautahi

    The 2008 ONE News YouTube Election Debate in New Zealand was promoted by TVNZ and YouTube executives as innovative public service broadcasting that enabled unprecedented access to the country’s two leading politicians. But according to TVNZ’s Digital Media division the primary purpose of the broadcaster’s partnership with the popular social media company for the debate was to extend its brand and reach. This article examines the live televised debate, arguing that the commercial imperatives were of more interest to TVNZ as it seeks to reorient itself as a digital media company alongside its public service broadcasting mandate.

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  • Strength and conditioning practices in rowing

    Gee, T.; Olsen, P.; Berger, N.; Golby, J.; Thompson, K.G. (2011)

    Journal article
    Christchurch Polytechnic Institute of Technology, Te Wānanga Ōtautahi

    There is limited published research on the practices of strength and conditioning (S &C) coaches in Great Britain. Information about training program design would be useful in developing models of good practice and ecologically valid intervention studies. The aim of this research was to quantify the training practices of coaches responsible for the S&C of rowing athletes. A questionnaire was developed that consisted of 6 sections: (a) personal details, (b) physical testing, (c) strength and power development, (d) flexibility development, (e) unique aspects of the program, and (f) any further relevant comments regarding the athletes prescribed training program. Twenty-two rowing and 10 S&C coaches with an average of 10.5 ± 7.2 years' experience agreed to complete the questionnaire. Approximately, 34% coached rowers of Olympic standard, 34% coached national standard, 3% coached regional standard, 19% coached club standard, and 10% coached university standard rowers. All coaches agreed that strength training enhanced rowing performance and the majority (74%) indicated that athletes' strength trained 2-3 times a week. Almost all coaches (94%) reported their rowers performed strength training, with 81% using Olympic lifting, and 91% employing a periodized training model. The clean (63%) and squat (27%) were rated the most important prescribed exercises. Approximately 50% of coaches used plyometrics such as depth jumps, box drills, and standing jumps. Ninety-four percent indicated they conducted physical testing on their rowers, typically assessing cardiovascular endurance (80%), muscular power (70%), muscular strength (70%), and anaerobic capacity (57%). This research represents the only published survey to date on the S&C practices in rowing within Great Britain.

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  • Identification of an optimal sampling position for stable isotopic analysis of bone collagen of extinct moa (Aves: Emeidae)

    Holdaway, R.; Hawke, D.J.; Bunce, M.; Allentoft, M. E. (2011)

    Journal article
    Christchurch Polytechnic Institute of Technology, Te Wānanga Ōtautahi

    Stable isotopic (δ13C; δ15N) analysis of bone collagen and other refractory biological materials is a mainstay of palaeoecological research, but comparability between individuals depends on homogeneity within the sample specimens. Long bones of extinct New Zealand moa display lines of arrested growth that reflect prolonged development over several years, leading to potential systematic inhomogeneity in stable isotopic enrichment within the bone. We tested whether the isotopic content within a Euryapteryx curtus tibiotarsus is homogeneous by measuring δ15N and δ13C values in 6 adjacent 1cm-diameter cortical bone cores arranged along the bone axis from each of the proximal and distal ends. We then measured isotopic ratios in 5 radial slices of a core from the mid-shaft of a Pachyornis elephantopus tibiotarsus to see if there was any depth (ontogenetic) effect at a single sampling point. The δ13C value increased with distance from the proximal bone end, but neither δ13C nor δ15N values in samples from the distal end of the bone were correlated with position. Within mid-shaft cortical bone, the δ13C value decreased with depth but δ15N values were constant. Sampling the entire depth of cortical bone from the caudal surface at the distal end of the tibiotarsus, if feasible, therefore provides a spatially homogenous material, free of maturation effects on stable isotopic composition. If for any reason that position cannot be sampled, the outer (radial) layer at the mid-shaft can be substituted.

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  • Reporting climbing grades and grouping categories for rock climbing

    Draper, N.; Canalejo, J.; Shearman, J. (2011)

    Journal article
    Christchurch Polytechnic Institute of Technology, Te Wānanga Ōtautahi

    Rock climbing is an increasingly popular adventure sport with a growing research base. To date the growth of research and reporting styles has been somewhat haphazard and as a consequence comparison between studies can be problematic. The aim of this paper was to make suggestions about a number of changes that could be made to improve the consistency in reporting between studies. Included with this paper are two new tables, one each for male and female climbers. These provide comparative grading scales for use in reporting for future studies. These tables also provide a suggested framework for grouping climbers according to their ability. Using the tables researchers could group the climbers in their study by a category name (lower grade, intermediate, advanced, elite or higher elite climber) or by a number (level 1–5). In addition, the authors make recommendations about climber characteristics that could usefully be reported in future to assist comparison between studies. It would be helpful to readers if the self-reported, highest lead climbs (on-sight and redpoint) could be reported for a climbing group, along with the types of climbing regularly undertaken.

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  • Nurses' role in caring for people with a comorbidity of mental illness and intellectual disability: A literature review

    Taua, C.; Hepworth, J.; Neville, C. (2011)

    Journal article
    Christchurch Polytechnic Institute of Technology, Te Wānanga Ōtautahi

    This article examines literature on the role of the nurse caring for people with a dual disability (DD) of intellectual disability and mental illness. A search of the literature between 2000 and 2010 resulted in a total of 21 articles that met the inclusion criteria. Seven key categories of the role of the nurse were identified: (i) advocacy/health promotion (including working with family); (ii) assessment/case management; (iii) behavioural interventions; (iv) communication; (v) leadership and the nurse's role within the multidisciplinary team; (vi) functions regarding medication administration; and (vii) safety/risk management. There is a paucity of research about the role of nurses working with people with DD, although a number of opinion-based articles exist. This article identifies a need for the role of the nurse working in DD to be more clearly articulated and for the development of evidence to guide best practice.

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  • Sport-specific power assessment for rock climbing

    Draper, N.; Dickson, T.; Blackwell, G.; Priestley, S.; Fryer, S.; Marshall, H.; Shearman, J.; Hamlin, M.; Winter, D.; Ellis, G. (2011)

    Journal article
    Christchurch Polytechnic Institute of Technology, Te Wānanga Ōtautahi

    AIM: The popularity of rock climbing has resulted in a growing research base for the sport. However, at present there is a lack of sport-specific measures of performance in the field. The aim of this study was to examine the use of the powerslap test as a sport specific power measure. METHODS: The participants in this study were categorised into four different ability groups (novice, intermediate, advanced and elite) based on self reported lead grade. Two separate experiments were conducted to determine validity and reliability. The powerslap test was conducted on a revolution board with two variations – wide and narrow grip, for both sides of the body. The test started with the climber hanging at full extension from two holds from which a pull up movement was made releasing one hand to slap a scaled score board above. RESULTS:There was a significant relationship between powerslap scores and climbing ability (Left Wide: r=0.7, P<0.0005). Limits of agreement and intra-class correlation indicated that the powerslap test is a reliable performance measure. CONCLUSION:According to the present findings the narrow grip variation of the powerslap test is a useful sport-specific power test that is related to climbing performance.

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  • Disaster preparedness in the tourism industry: A New Zealand case study of constraints and training response

    Garside, R.; Christianson, A.; Johnston, D.; Graham, L. (2011)

    Journal article
    Christchurch Polytechnic Institute of Technology, Te Wānanga Ōtautahi

    Key factors that influence disaster preparedness of organisations at risk from natural hazards are presented in this paper to raise awareness of managers and human resource development specialists. Primary business and regulatory reasons that justify preparedness, and issues that constrain it, are considered from a global and local perspective and applied to a commercial ski area on the slopes of the active Ruapehu volcano in New Zealand. In particular, the case study examines the effectiveness of staff training as an important part of a disaster response plan. Lessons learnt from this case identify a number of points that could be generalised to enhance workplace preparedness capacity in both low and high probability disaster events caused by natural or human-induced hazards.

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  • Psychodrama at distance: Effective supervision practice using communication technologies

    Farnsworth, J. (2011)

    Journal article
    Christchurch Polytechnic Institute of Technology, Te Wānanga Ōtautahi

    Psychodrama and electronic technologies seem unlikely bedfellows. As this paper demonstrates, they are, in fact, made for each other though surprisingly little has been written about their combined potential. Drawing on vignettes and case examples as illustration, John Farnsworth demonstrates how effective supervision can take place in the absence of a physical psychodrama stage. He describes the way in which he uses all aspects of the psychodrama method via email, phone, digital and online communications, to create warm, functional working relationships. Psychodramatists are invited to reflect on the way that psychodrama can and will be used in the emerging vibrant electronic worlds of the future.

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  • Constructing ePortfolios with mobile phones and Web 2.0

    Chan, S. (2011)

    Journal article
    Christchurch Polytechnic Institute of Technology, Te Wānanga Ōtautahi

    This paper provides rationalisation, description and evaluation of a project using mobile phones and web 2.0 sites to collate eportfolios. The paper will firstly provide a brief introduction to the context in which the project has been carried out. An overview of what has taken place in mlearning, eportfolios and web 2.0 that is relevant to this project will then be discussed. Reports on the various parts of the project, findings and results then follow. The paper concludes with a summary of the future work on mlearning pedagogy.

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  • Analgesia for relief of pain due to uterine cramping/involution after birth

    Deussen, A.; Ashwood, P.; Martis, R. (2011)

    Journal article
    Christchurch Polytechnic Institute of Technology, Te Wānanga Ōtautahi

    Background: Women may experience differing types of pain and discomfort following birth, including cramping after birth pains associated with uterine involution. Objectives: To assess the effectiveness and safety of analgesia for relief of after birth pains following vaginal birth. Search methods: We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (31 December 2010) and the reference lists of trials and review articles. Selection criteria: All identified published and unpublished randomised controlled trials comparing two different types of analgesia or analgesia with placebo or analgesia with no treatment, for the relief of after birth pains following vaginal birth. Types of analgesia included pharmacological and non-pharmacological. Data collection and analysis: Two review authors assessed trial quality and extracted data independently. Main results: We have included 18 studies (involving 1498 women) in this review. However, only nine of the included studies (with 750 women) reported 24 comparisons of analgesia with other analgesia or placebo and had data that could be included in our meta-analyses. The majority of studies investigated pharmacological analgesics and these were grouped into classes for this review. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) were significantly better than placebo at relieving pain from uterine involution as assessed by their summed pain intensity differences (SPID) (mean difference (MD) 4.34; 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.87 to 5.82; three studies, 204 women) and summed pain relief scores (MD 5.94; 95% CI 3.83 to 8.01; three studies, 204 women). NSAIDS were compared with opioids in one small study of 23 women reporting SPID and summed pain relief and found no difference. A larger study of 127 women found NSAIDs to be significantly better than opioids at reducing pain intensity six hours following study intervention (MD -0.70; 95% CI -1.04 to -0.35). Opioids were compared with placebo in three studies that could be included in meta-analyses; one small study of 23 women reporting SPID and summed pain relief and found no difference. One study of 95 women found no difference in pain intensity six hours following the study intervention. A third study of 108 women found significantly more women in the placebo group reported no pain relief than women in the opioid group (risk ratio 0.10; 95% CI 0.04 to 0.23). Aspirin was significantly better than paracetamol when pain intensity score was assessed six hours after study intervention (MD 0.85; 95% CI 0.29 to 1.41; one study 48 women) at relieving pain from uterine involution. Paracetamol was not better than placebo when pain intensity was assessed six hours after the study intervention in one study of 48 women. Authors' conclusions: Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) including aspirin were better than placebo at relieving pain from uterine cramping/involution following vaginal birth. NSAIDs were better than paracetamol and paracetamol was not better than placebo, though numbers of participants for these comparisons were small. Data for opioids compared with NSAIDs and opioids compared with placebo were conflicting, with some measures showing similar effect and others indicating NSAIDs were better than opioids and opioids were not better than placebo. There were insufficient data to make conclusions regarding the effectiveness of opioids at relieving pain from uterine cramping/involution. The median year of publication of included studies was 1981; therefore more research is needed to assess the effectiveness of current pharmacological and non-pharmacological analgesia at relieving pain from uterine cramping/involution following vaginal birth.

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  • Influence of wastewater treatment process and the populationsize on human virus profiles in wastewater

    Hewitt , J.; Leonard, M.; Greening, G; Lewis, G. (2011)

    Journal article
    Christchurch Polytechnic Institute of Technology, Te Wānanga Ōtautahi

    Human adenovirus (AdV and AdV species F), enterovirus (EV) and norovirus (NoV) concentrations entering wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) serving different-sized communities, and effectiveness of different treatment processes in reducing concentrations were established. Data was combined to create a characteristic and unique descriptor of the individual viral composition and termed as the sample virus profile. Virus profiles were generally independent of population size and treatment process (moving bed biofilm reactors, activated sludge, waste stabilisation ponds). AdV and EV concentrations in wastewater were more variable in small (130,000 inhabitants) plants. AdV and EV concentrations were detected in influent of most WWTP (AdV range 1.00e4.08 log10 infectious units (IU)/L, 3.25e8.62 log10 genome copies/L; EV range 0.7e3.52 log10 plaque forming units (PFU)/L; 2.84e6.67 log10 genome copies/L) with a reduced median concentration in effluent (AdV range 0.70e3.26 log10 IU/L, 2.97e6.95 log10 genome copies/L; EV range 0.7e2.15 log10PFU/L, 1.54e5.28 log10 genome copies/L). Highest culturable AdV and EV concentrations in effluent were from a medium-sized WWTP. NoV was sporadic in all WWTP with GI and GII concentrations being similar in influent (range 2.11e4.64 and 2.19e5.46 log10 genome copies/L) as in effluent (range 2.18e5.06 and 2.88e5.46 log10 genome copies/L). Effective management of WWTP requires recognition that virus concentration in influent will vary -particularly in small and medium plants. Irrespective of treatment type, culturable viruses and NoV are likely to be present in non-disinfected effluent, with associated human health risks dependent on concentration and receiving water usage.

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  • Survey of evidence-based practice use and understanding among final (5th) year medical students in South-East Asia

    Martis, R.; Ho, J.; Crowther, C. (2011)

    Journal article
    Christchurch Polytechnic Institute of Technology, Te Wānanga Ōtautahi

    The SEA-ORCHID project (South East Asia - Optimising Reproductive Child Health in Developing countries) initiated a survey among undergraduate medical students at five South-East Asia universities to ascertain their understanding of evidence-based practice, information seeking practices, access to Information Technology and evidencebased databases as well as their understanding of clinical practice guidelines. The survey took place during August to December 2006 and was completed by 172 fifth year undergraduate medical students. The findings from this survey indicate that fifth year undergraduate medical students from the participating five South East Asian universities need to be well equipped in knowing what databases exist, how to search these and how to critically appraise the information obtained. This need, plus a lack of exposure to clinical practice guideline appraisal and development, highlights some of the issues medical students encounter when attempting to learn and practice evidence-based practice effectively.

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  • Enablers and constraints to the use of inquiry-based learning in undergraduate education

    Spronken-Smith, R.; Walker, R.; Batchelor, J.; O'Steen, B.; Angelo, T. (2011)

    Journal article
    Christchurch Polytechnic Institute of Technology, Te Wānanga Ōtautahi

    This study involved a meta-analysis of 10 cases of inquiry-based learning (IBL) in undergraduate education to determine the factors which both enable and constrain its use. The enabling factors were found to include: teacher attributes – being student-centred, reflective but rebellious; course design attributes – questions stimulating learning, collaborative learning, progressive development of inquiry skills, required student preparation and constructive alignment; department and institutional attributes – IBL being more accepted if permeating a whole programme, the pivotal role of supportive senior management and assistance by staff developers. The major constraints were gaining philosophical buy-in to inquiry approaches; supporting transition to inquiry; developing self-reflection skills; and coping with varied assessment products. Departmental and institutional challenges included timetables and room allocation and the difficulty of recruiting teachers in a research intensive environment. Some strategies are suggested to help overcome these barriers.

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  • Dancing to sustainable tunes: An exploration of music festivals and sustainable practices in Aotearoa

    O'Rourke, S.; Irwin, D.; Straker, J. (2011)

    Journal article
    Christchurch Polytechnic Institute of Technology, Te Wānanga Ōtautahi

    Living sustainable lifestyles that meet the needs of current generations without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs has become a driving force for social change. Music festivals are contextualized within this setting and can provide both a site to encourage environmentally responsible behaviours and a place for communities of likeminded people to meet. A sense of community and freedom, efficient festival organization, good music, and being in the outdoors are all aspects of positive festival experiences, but so too does caring for the local environment and community. This paper discusses a qualitative research project that investigates the extent and impact of sustainability-related social and environmental aspects of music festival experiences. Tentative conclusions suggest that the way festival organizers plan for social and environmental impacts directly influences the experience of those attending, but also has the potential to instigate social and environmental change in ways which at present are largely untapped.

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  • Social exclusion and poverty: Translating social capital into accessible resources

    Boon, B.; Farnsworth, J. (2011)

    Journal article
    Christchurch Polytechnic Institute of Technology, Te Wānanga Ōtautahi

    This article investigates the dynamic multi-dimensional processes through which the poor become excluded from social participation. Drawing on social capital literature, it traces how bridging and bonding capital do not always translate into expected levels of social participation. It does so by detailing research findings from low income focus groups undertaken in Dunedin, New Zealand. These describe the experiences of group members in attempting to manage connections around employment, their own broader social participation or the participation of their children. In each case, the study highlights the difficulties of translation they experienced: in particular, translating available bridging or bonding capital into useful social, cultural or economic resources which could mitigate their social exclusion or enable fuller social participation.

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