1,250 results for Journal article, 2014

  • The ethics of predictive risk modelling in the Aotearoa/New Zealand child welfare context: child abuse prevention or neo-liberal tool?

    Keddell, Emily (2014-07-28)

    Journal article
    University of Otago

    The current White Paper on Vulnerable Children before the Aotearoa/New Zealand (A/NZ) parliament proposes changes that will significantly reconstruct the child welfare systems in this country, including the use of a predictive risk model (PRM). This article explores the ethics of this strategy in a child welfare context. Tensions exist, including significant ethical problems such as the use of information without consent, breaches of privacy and stigmatisation, without clear evidence of the benefits outweighing these costs. Broader implicit assumptions about the causes of child abuse and risk and their intersections with the wider discursive, political and systems design contexts are also discussed. Drawing on Houston et. al. (2010) this paper highlights the potential for a PRM to contribute to a neo-liberal agenda that individualises social problems, reifies risk and abuse, and narrowly prescribes service provision. However, with reference to child welfare and child protection orientations, the paper suggests ways the model could be used in a more ethical manner.

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  • Religious conversions in the Mediterranean world [Book Review]

    Drury, Abdullah (2014-06)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    This article reviews the book 'Religious conversions in the Mediterranean world', edited by Nadia Marzouki and Oliver Roy.

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  • The Emergence of Islam in Late Antiquity: Allah and His People [Book Review]

    Drury, Abdullah (2014-06)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    This article reviews the book 'The Emergence of Islam in Late Antiquity: Allah and His People', by Aziz Al-Azmch.

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  • A Māori approach to management: Contrasting traditional and modern Māori management practices in Aotearoa New Zealand

    Mika, J.P.; O'Sullivan, J.G. (2014)

    Journal article
    Christchurch Polytechnic Institute of Technology, Te Wānanga Ōtautahi

    This is a conceptual article located in the discourses of indigeneity, post-colonialism and critical management studies in which we seek to renew interest in Māori management as a distinctive form of management within Aotearoa New Zealand. We discuss defining Māori management and Māori organisations and their relevance for today's organsiations in New Zealand and internationally. We examine differences and similarities between Western and Māori management in terms of the four functions of management adapted from principles first proposed by Fayol in 1949. We propose a theoretical model of Māori management and discuss the implications of Māori management for management research, policy and practice.

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  • www.useless.com: Crisis communications on shaky ground

    Vavasour, K (2014)

    Journal article
    Christchurch Polytechnic Institute of Technology, Te Wānanga Ōtautahi

    After the magnitude 6.3 earthquake that struck the city of Christchurch on February 22, 2011, the physical and communications infrastructure that many city dwellers rely on suddenly ceased to function. For many, this disruption to physical and virtual networks resulted in access to media, information, assistance and family being cut off or restricted in a number of different ways. Survey results show residents of the less-damaged suburbs made more use of television, websites and social media than those in badly damaged areas, who relied more on radio, word-­of-mouth, and print material. Social media and new technologies are now an established part of the crisis communications discourse; however, the infrastructure they rely on is not as solid and reliable as it may appear. After exploring the concept of blackboxing, the failures and weaknesses of previously backgrounded objects exposed by the earthquakes provide examples of its undoing (un-blackboxing). Quantitative and qualitative survey data is used to show how variations in location and disruption impacted on the information-­seeking of residents, and how the un-­blackboxing of infrastructure and socio-­technical networks left residents out of the loop. This research also challenges perceptions of how widely used, accessible and/or useful technologies like Twitter are to those in the middle of a disaster.

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  • Exploratory factor analysis of the clinical learning environment, Supervision and Nurses Teacher Scale (CLES+T)

    Watson, P.B.; Seaton, P.; Sims, D.; Jamieson, I.; Mountier, J.; Whittle, R.; Saarikoski, M. (2014)

    Journal article
    Christchurch Polytechnic Institute of Technology, Te Wānanga Ōtautahi

    Background and Purpose: The Clinical Learning Environment, Supervision and Nurse Teacher (CLES1T) scale measures student nurses’ perceptions of clinical learning environments. This study evaluates the construct validity and internal reliability of the CLES1T in hospital settings in New Zealand. Comparisons are made between New Zealand and Finnish data. Methods: The CLES1T scale was completed by 416 Bachelor of Nursing students following hospital clinical placements between October 2008 and December 2009. Construct validity and internal reliability were assessed using exploratory factor analysis and Cronbach’s alpha. Results: Exploratory factor analysis supports 4 factors. Cronbach’s alpha ranged from .82 to .93. All items except 1 loaded on the same factors found in unpublished Finnish data. The first factor combined 2 previous components from the published Finnish component analysis and was renamed: connecting with, and learning in, communities of clinical practice. The remaining 3 factors (Nurse teacher, Supervisory relationship, and Leadership style of the manager) corresponded to previous components and their conceptualizations. Conclusion: The CLES1T has good internal reliability and a consistent factor structure across samples. The consistency across international samples supports faculties and hospitals using the CLES1T to benchmark the quality of clinical learning environments provided to students.

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  • Export performance: multiple predictors and multiple measures approach

    Kahiya, E.T.; Dean, D.L. (2014)

    Journal article
    Christchurch Polytechnic Institute of Technology, Te Wānanga Ōtautahi

    Purpose : The purpose of this paper is to examine the antecedents of export performance within the parameters of the structure-conduct-and-performance (SCP) paradigm, resource-based view (RBV), rational choice (RC) and perceptual view (PV), theoretical templates. Design/methodology/approach: The study surveyed continuing manufacturing exporters from New Zealand (n=118) using an electronic method. Linear regression analysis was used to determine the relationships among the groups of predictors and three types of measures. Findings: The results found that strategic factors (encapsulating RC) were strong predictors of both export intensity (EI) and export intensity growth, followed by export barriers (representing PV). Conversely, firm factors (representing an amalgamation of SCP and RBV variables) generated lower explanatory power in predicting export performance. Regarding measures of export performance, EI carried the highest efficacy. Practical implications: This research suggests export performance depends primarily on deliberate strategic initiatives (RC) (regarding, products, markets and approaches to order generation), and implicitly challenges the resource and natural selection based advantages inherent in firm factors. Originality/value: This is one of the few studies on export performance to test the explanatory power of competing theoretical views using a multiple measures approach. Insights from this research extend to the very definition of an internationalizing SME with significant implications for export researchers.

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  • Measurement of cardiorespiratory fitness in children from two commonly used field tests after accounting for body fatness and maturity

    Hamlin, M.J.; Fraser, M.; Lizamore, C.A.; Draper, N.; Shearman, J.P.; Kimber, N.E. (2014)

    Journal article
    Christchurch Polytechnic Institute of Technology, Te Wānanga Ōtautahi

    Body fat and maturation both influence cardiorespiratory fitness, however few studies have taken these variables into account when using field tests to predict children’s fitness levels. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between two field tests of cardiorespiratory fitness (20 m Maximal Multistage Shuttle Run [20-MST], 550 m distance run [550-m]) and direct measurement of VO2max after adjustment for body fatness and maturity levels. Fifty-three participants (25 boys, 28 girls, age 10.6 ± 1.2 y, mean ± SD) had their body fat levels estimated using bioelectrical impedance (16.6% ± 6.0% and 20.0% ± 5.8% for boys and girls, respectively). Participants performed in random order, the 20-MST and 550-m run followed by a progressive treadmill test to exhaustion during which gas exchange measures were taken. Pearson correlation coefficient analysis revealed that the participants’ performance in the 20-MST and 550-m run were highly correlated to VO2max obtained during the treadmill test to exhaustion (r = 0.70 and 0.59 for 20-MST and 550-m run, respectively). Adjusting for body fatness and maturity levels in a multivariate regression analysis increased the associations between the field tests and VO2max (r = 0.73 for 20-MST and 0.65 for 550-m). We may conclude that both the 20-MST and the 550-m distance run are valid field tests of cardiorespiratory fitness in New Zealand 8-13 year old children and incorporating body fatness and maturity levels explains an additional 5-7% of the variance.

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  • Determining optimal pacing strategy for the track cycling individual pursuit event with a fixed energy mathematical model

    Underwood, L; Jermy, M. C. (2014)

    Journal article
    Christchurch Polytechnic Institute of Technology, Te Wānanga Ōtautahi

    Competitive track cycling races are won by milliseconds, and the regulation of an athlete’s power output is an important factor in performance. The aim of this study was to use a mathematical model to predict finishing times for different pacing strategies for the Individual Pursuit (IP), in order to identify the optimal strategy in terms of fastest finishing time. Power profiles were generated for a number of common pacing strategies used in cycling, which were based on actual SRM power data for an elite, male, IP cyclist for whom the average power, maximum power, total work done and actual finishing time were known. The total work output was the same for all strategies and the finishing time was predicted using a mathematical model developed previously. The results showed that, of the strategies tested, an initial “all-out” high power acceleration phase followed by a lower constant power output produced the fastest finishing time for a 4000m IP event, and that the time spent in the initial high power acceleration phase had a significant effect on performance.

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  • High intensity interval training in a real world setting: A randomized controlled feasibility study in overweight inactive adults, measuring change in maximal oxygen intake

    Lunt, H.; Draper, N.; Marshall, H.C.; Logan, F.J.; Hamlin, M.J.; Shearman, J.P.; Cotter, J.D.; Kimber, N.E.; Blackwell, G.; Frampton, C.M.A. (2014)

    Journal article
    Christchurch Polytechnic Institute of Technology, Te Wānanga Ōtautahi

    Background: In research clinic settings, overweight adults undertaking HIIT (high intensity interval training) improve their fitness as effectively as those undertaking conventional walking programs but can do so within a shorter time spent exercising. We undertook a randomized controlled feasibility (pilot) study aimed at extending HIIT into a real world setting by recruiting overweight/obese, inactive adults into a group based activity program, held in a community park. Methods: Participants were allocated into one of three groups. The two interventions, aerobic interval training and maximal volitional interval training, were compared with an active control group undertaking walking based exercise. Supervised group sessions (36 per intervention) were held outdoors. Cardiorespiratory fitness was measured using VO2max (maximal oxygen uptake, results expressed in ml/min/kg), before and after the 12 week interventions. Results: On ITT (intention to treat) analyses, baseline (N = 49) and exit (N = 39) _VVO2 was 25.364.5 and 25.363.9, respectively. Participant allocation and baseline/exit VO2max by group was as follows: Aerobic interval training N = 16, 24.264.8/25.664.8; maximal volitional interval training N = 16, 25.062.8/25.263.4; walking N = 17, 26.565.3/25.263.6. The post intervention change in VO2max was +1.01 in the aerobic interval training, 20.06 in the maximal volitional interval training and 21.03 in the walking subgroups. The aerobic interval training subgroup increased VO2max compared to walking (p = 0.03). The actual (observed, rather than prescribed) time spent exercising (minutes per week, ITT analysis) was 74 for aerobic interval training, 45 for maximal volitional interval training and 116 for walking (p = 0.001). On descriptive analysis, the walking subgroup had the fewest adverse events. Conclusions: In contrast to earlier studies, the improvement in cardiorespiratory fitness in a cohort of overweight/obese participants undertaking aerobic interval training in a real world setting was modest. The most likely reason for this finding relates to reduced adherence to the exercise program, when moving beyond the research clinic setting.

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  • Development of an Android accessory interface to CPIT AVR training kits

    Li, Y. (2014)

    Journal article
    Christchurch Polytechnic Institute of Technology, Te Wānanga Ōtautahi

    Christchurch Polytechnic Institute of Technology (CPIT) have a long history of teaching embedded systems and microcontrollers in their engineering programmes. The AVR microcontroller training kit was developed as a platform for teaching and for student projects. This paper presents the development of an Android accessory interface to the training kit. The hardware design was based on the Max3421e USB controller. The software of the accessory was designed using the object-oriented concept and the top-down approach. The general behaviour of the accessory were defined in the base class and the USB protocol support defined in its subclass. These are hardware independent and can easily be extended to a subclass with specific hardware support, such as the Max3421e or any microcontroller’s built-in USB controllers. The Android accessory interface together with the AVR microcontroller training kit will be the platform for students to develop embedded systems which can fully use the powerful features of Android devices.

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  • A Māori approach to management: Contrasting traditional and modern Māori management practices in Aotearoa New Zealand

    Mika, J.P.; O'Sullivan, J.G. (2014)

    Journal article
    Christchurch Polytechnic Institute of Technology, Te Wānanga Ōtautahi

    This is a conceptual article located in the discourses of indigeneity, post-colonialism and critical management studies in which we seek to renew interest in Māori management as a distinctive form of management within Aotearoa New Zealand. We discuss defining Māori management and Māori organisations and their relevance for today's organsiations in New Zealand and internationally. We examine differences and similarities between Western and Māori management in terms of the four functions of management adapted from principles first proposed by Fayol in 1949. We propose a theoretical model of Māori management and discuss the implications of Māori management for management research, policy and practice.

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  • New erythraeids (Parasitengona) from recent glacial outwash, Southern Alps, New Zealand; Callidosoma, Momorangia, Grandjeanella, and Pukakia gen. nov.; with a description of the deutonymph of Callidosoma tiki

    Clark, J. (2014)

    Journal article
    Christchurch Polytechnic Institute of Technology, Te Wānanga Ōtautahi

    Callidosoma susanae sp. nov., Momorangia chambersi sp. nov., Grandjeanella macfarlanei sp. nov. and Pukakia aoraki gen. nov., sp. nov., are described from recent glacial outwash in a braided river bed, Southern Alps, New Zealand. Two species previously placed in Momorangia Southcott, 1972 are removed. Neomomorangia Fain and Santiago-Blay, 1993 stat. nov. from Brazil is given generic status, and a Kenyan species is moved to Charletonia Oudemans, 1910 as Charletonia gabini (Haitlinger 2004b) comb. nov. Grandjeanella emanueli Haitlinger, 2010, Grandjeanella londaensis Haitlinger, 2011 and Callidosoma matsumuratettix Tseng et al. 1976 are left as species inquirendae. Pussardia Southcott, 1961, Harpagella Southcott, 1996 and Pukakia gen. nov. are placed in Abrolophinae, Witte, 1995. New host records are given for Callidosoma tiki Southcott, 1972 and Momorangia jacksoni Southcott, 1972. The deutonymph of Callidosoma tiki is described.

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  • Crafting an occupational identity: Learning the precepts of craftsmanship through apprenticeship

    Chan, S. (2014)

    Journal article
    Christchurch Polytechnic Institute of Technology, Te Wānanga Ōtautahi

    The term craftsmanship is associated with pre-industrial craft work with inferences to skilled artisanal manufacture of bespoke products. Apprenticeship learning is often perceived to be synonymous with learning craftsmanship. How then is the trait of craftsmanship through attainment of specific artisanal approaches conveyed and learnt through apprenticeship? This article presents and discusses processes imposed on and utilised by apprentices to attain precepts of artisanal approaches. The dispositional and skill elements of craftsmanship are proposed to be adopted through engagement with and development of craft and workplace specific approaches to contend with aspects of Pye’s (1968) conceptualisation of ‘workmanship of risk’ or the article’s proposed term of ‘artisanal approach of risk’.

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  • That's different! How consumers respond to retail website change

    Ainsworth, J.; Ballantine, P.W. (2014)

    Journal article
    Christchurch Polytechnic Institute of Technology, Te Wānanga Ōtautahi

    Change is an inevitability faced by retail managers with regard to their online presence, yet the impact of retail website change on consumers remains unknown. In this study, two types of retail website change are distinguished – task-relevant and non-task-relevant – and their impact on consumer emotion is examined. Results from an online experiment suggest that consumers’ perceptions of both types of change have distinct impacts on their emotional responses, although the effects differ between the types of change. Moreover, previous experience with the website is shown to have a key moderating role in the response to change.

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  • Effects of bioelectrical impedance-derived fat and lean mass on fitness levels in 8- to 13-year-old children

    Hamlin, M.J.; Fraser, M.; Lizamore, C.A.; Draper, N.; Blackwell, G.; Shearman, J. (2014)

    Journal article
    Christchurch Polytechnic Institute of Technology, Te Wānanga Ōtautahi

    Childhood obesity prevalence is continuing to rise in developed countries, including New Zealand. The effect of increased adiposity on childrens fitness is relatively unresearched, particularly when using methods other than BMI or skinfold thickness to estimate body fatness. The purpose of the study was to examine the association between fitness and bioelectrical impedance-derived body composition in children. Participants (n = 54) performed a treadmill run to exhaustion, a countermovement vertical jump, and 10m sprint test within 2 weeks of each other. Lean and fat mass were estimated via bioelectrical impedance (MF-BIA2; InBody 230, Biospace, Seoul, Korea). Pearson correlations showed that in females, higher fat mass percentage was associated with lower countermovement jump (r = -0.57), longer 10m sprint time (0.51) and a lower VO2peak performance (-0.48). In boys, higher fat mass percentage was associated with lower VO2peak (-0.36). In both boys and girls lean mass percentage was highly correlated with improved performance in all fitness tests (r = 0.40-0.70). We conclude that lean mass in all cases has a beneficial effect on performance, whereas fat mass tends to be detrimental to girls performance and is likely to be detrimental (VO2peak) or possibly beneficial (countermovement jump) in boys physical performance.

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  • Export barriers in a changing institutional environment: A quasi-longitudinal study of New Zealand's manufacturing exporters

    Kahiya, E.T.; Dean, D.L.; Heyl, J. (2014)

    Journal article
    Christchurch Polytechnic Institute of Technology, Te Wānanga Ōtautahi

    The primary gap in export barrier literature has been the lack of studies adopting a longitudinal research design to examine this phenomenon. This vital and timely research addresses this long standing void by investigating the influence of export barriers at two specific points in time, 1995 and 2010. Examining the influence of export barriers across time is fundamental for aligning export development programmes with exporter needs and also for helping export managers craft winning strategies. Following a careful review and synthesis of extant literature, the study uses changes in the exporters’ institutional environment to predict change in the influence of export barriers. Data are drawn via simple random probabilistic samples of manufacturing exporters, from the same working population, using an identical survey instrument. Discriminant analysis results show that the influence of export barriers differs markedly over the two periods as evidenced by the classification accuracy of 85 %. There is support for the overarching hypothesis that export barrier influence is traceable to the changes occurring in the institutional or task environment. Specifically, deregulation of the economy, commitment to free trade, increased adoption of information and communication technology communication and floating of the exchange rate appear to shape the influence of export barriers for New Zealand exporters. Thus, while past research ascribes change in export barrier influence to organizational and internationalization variables, our study suggests that over time the institutional environment can explain export barrier influence. The study makes the case for policymakers to better align export development programmes with prevailing barriers while challenging export managers to revisit and augment the skill sets required for export success.

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  • An exploration of influences on women’s birthplace decision-making in New Zealand: a mixed methods prospective cohort within the Evaluating Maternity Units study

    Grigg, C.; Tracy, S.; Daellenbach, R.; Kensington, M.; Schmied, V. (2014)

    Journal article
    Christchurch Polytechnic Institute of Technology, Te Wānanga Ōtautahi

    Background: There is worldwide debate surrounding the safety and appropriateness of different birthplaces for well women. One of the primary objectives of the Evaluating Maternity Units prospective cohort study was to compare the clinical outcomes for well women, intending to give birth in either an obstetric-led tertiary hospital or a free-standing midwifery-led primary maternity unit. This paper addresses a secondary aim of the study – to describe and explore the influences on women’s birthplace decision-making in New Zealand, which has a publicly funded, midwifery-led continuity of care maternity system. Methods: This mixed method study utilised data from the six week postpartum survey and focus groups undertaken in the Christchurch area in New Zealand (2010–2012). Christchurch has a tertiary hospital and four primary maternity units. The survey was completed by 82% of the 702 study participants, who were well, pregnant women booked to give birth in one of these places. All women received midwifery-led continuity of care, regardless of their intended or actual birthplace. Results: Almost all the respondents perceived themselves as the main birthplace decision-makers. Accessing a ‘specialist facility’ was the most important factor for the tertiary hospital group. The primary unit group identified several factors, including ‘closeness to home’, ‘ease of access’, the ‘atmosphere’ of the unit and avoidance of ‘unnecessary intervention’ as important. Both groups believed their chosen birthplace was the right and ‘safe’ place for them. The concept of ‘safety’ was integral and based on the participants’ differing perception of safety in childbirth. Conclusions: Birthplace is a profoundly important aspect of women’s experience of childbirth. This is the first published study reporting New Zealand women’s perspectives on their birthplace decision-making. The groups’ responses expressed different ideologies about childbirth. The tertiary hospital group identified with the ‘medical model’ of birth, and the primary unit group identified with the ‘midwifery model’ of birth. Research evidence affirming the ‘clinical safety’ of primary units addresses only one aspect of the beliefs influencing women’s birthplace decision-making. In order for more women to give birth at a primary unit other aspects of women’s beliefs need addressing, and much wider socio-political change is required.

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  • Mobilisation of recalcitrant soil nutrient fractions supports foliar nitrogen to phosphorus homeostasis in a seabird soil

    Hawke, D.; Condron, L.M. (2014)

    Journal article
    Christchurch Polytechnic Institute of Technology, Te Wānanga Ōtautahi

    Background and aims: Although the nutrient enrichment literature emphasises anthropogenic sources, seabirds deposit large quantities of marine detritus at breeding and roosting sites. Little is known of the chemical fractions and plant availability of seabird soil nutrients and their relationship to nutrient limitation patterns. Methods: Nutrients in mineral soil from a breeding colony of burrowing seabirds were progressively depleted by growing radiata pine (Pinus radiata D. Don.) and wheat (Triticum aestivum) separately in small pots over 4–10 months. Soil from destructively sampled pots was analysed using a version of the Hedley fractionation scheme; foliage was analysed for C, N and δ15N using isotope ratio mass spectrometry, and for P using microwave assisted digestion and ICP-OES. Results: Foliar C:N and δ15N increased with plant mass for both species, but N:P remained constant within plants of each species. As total soil P was progressively depleted, concentrations of bicarbonate-extractable soil P were maintained. This occurred mainly by depletion of non-labile inorganic P forms, thus demonstrating potential mobilisation of all refractory P (as defined by our chemical fractionation method) into plants growing at the seabird site. The increasing foliar δ15N was consistent with the progressive mobilisation of more highly recycled forms of N. Conclusions: We infer a species-specific stoichiometric homeostasis for N and P in plants grown in seabird soil, facilitated by mobilisation of recalcitrant forms of soil N and P.

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  • The New Zealand earthquakes and the role of schools in engaging children in emotional processing of disaster experiences

    Gawith, E. (2014)

    Journal article
    Christchurch Polytechnic Institute of Technology, Te Wānanga Ōtautahi

    The earthquakes that rocked the city of Christchurch and surrounding districts in Canterbury, New Zealand, were to take their toll on families, schools and communities. The places that had once represented safety and security for most children were literally and figuratively turned upside down. Rather than reinforce the trauma and continue to frame children as passive victims, the study reported here aimed to help children reframe their experiences through active engagement in participatory research projects. This article reports on three schools drawn from a UNESCO-funded project in which schools recorded their earthquake stories. While children were the centre of each of the school’s earthquake stories, schools engaged children to different extents in their chosen projects. These three schools exemplify different places along a continuum of children’s engagement in research on their own experiences. In one school, children, families, teachers and the principal all contributed to an illustrated book of their experiences. In another school, children created a series of mosaic panels to record the community’s story before, during and after the earthquakes. In the third school, children became documentary makers and interviewed other children about their earthquake experiences. In all cases, children found their projects positive and helpful activities, enabling them to put their experiences into a broader context. This article argues that schools have an important role to play in providing emotional processing activities which help children gain perspective and distance as part of their recovery from large-scale disaster events.

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