2,112 results for Journal article, 2016

  • Persistence of biodiversity in a dryland remnant within an intensified dairy farm landscape

    Bowie, Mike H.; Black, Lesley; Boyer, Stephane; Dickinson, Nicholas M.; Hodge, Simon (2016-01-11)

    Journal article
    Unitec

    The lowland Canterbury Plains of New Zealand have been extensively modified since human occupation, but with recent conversions to irrigated dairy farming very few remnants of native dryland vegetation remain in the region. We investigated soil chemistry, plant distribution and soil invertebrates along transects in Bankside Scientific Reserve, a small (2.6 ha) remnant. The vegetation is a mosaic of native woody shrubs, predominantly Kunzea serotina (kanuka, Myrtaceae) and Discaria toumatou (matagouri, Rhamnaceae), and dry grassland. Changed soil conditions appear to have made the reserve less conducive for native species, but better suited to invasion by exotic plants. Compared with detailed surveys before the dairy conversion, only 31% of the original 65 native vascular plant species were recorded in the present study and 27 new exotic species had arrived since the original survey. Soil nutrient concentrations and pH were lower in the reserve than in surrounding farmland; peaks of nitrate and ammonium were recorded at the boundary. Soil phosphate was elevated in lower-lying areas within the reserve, an effect associated with natural drainage channels and evident up to 20 m into the reserve. Four species of native megascolecid earthworms were found in the reserve but not in neighbouring pasture, whereas the diversity and abundance of beetles and spiders in the reserve was similar to that observed at least 10 m into surrounding farmland. This study highlights the importance of the soil environment in sustaining biodiversity. We conclude that this remnant retains valuable communities of native species, but is apparently being impacted by phosphate encroachment and habitat fragmentation. This does not appear to be an intractable management issue for the interface between agricultural systems and conservation sites within a dairy landscape mosaic. We suggest that attention is required to maintain buffer zones adjacent to small, isolated and vulnerable remnants of original biota that are surrounded by intensive agriculture.

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  • From the clinical to the managerial domain : the lived experience of role transition from radiographer to radiology manager in South-East Queensland

    Thompson, Alarna M. N.; Henwood, Suzanne (2016-02-12)

    Journal article
    Unitec

    INTRODUCTION: This study seeks to add to current literature a descriptive account of the lived experience of radiographers’ transition to, and experiences of, management roles and identifies additional resources and support that are perceived as being beneficial for this transition. METHODS: This study employed a descriptive phenomenological stance. Using purposive sampling, six South- East Queensland based private practice radiology managers, who had held their position for longer than 3 months, participated in audiotape recorded in-depth interviews exploring their transition to, and experiences of management in radiology. Thematic analysis was used to describe and make meaning of the data. RESULTS: Overall, five central themes emerged through thematic analysis of the data. The results indicate that all participants’ had an underlying drive to succeed during their role transition and highlight the importance of a comprehensive orientation by a mentor; the training and support to enable preparation for the role, especially in the area of people management skills and communication; the importance of access to networking opportunities and the importance of concise expectations from higher management. CONCLUSION: Role transition can be marred with uncertainty, however; key suggestions indicate the importance of having support mechanisms in place before, during and after transitioning to a managerial role.

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  • People as a source of competitive advantage during recruitment and retention of senior managers in financial services sectors in Laos 

    Du Plessis, Andries; Sumphonphakdy, S. (2016-06)

    Journal article
    Unitec

    The focus of the paper is to identify the importance of recruiting and retaining senior management in the banking industry in Laos. Both quantitative and qualitative research methods were adopted to collect data from three banks in Laos. Interview section: the questions were to explore the understanding of concepts of HRM, perspectives towards HRM about recruitment and retention. Questionnaire section: part one – demographics data, part two attitudes towards HRM processes recruitment and retention. Findings: HRM plays a critically important role in banks in keeping their competitive advantage; lack of development and implementation of HRM practices and policies to recruit and retain the right people.

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  • The productivity paradox in green buildings

    Byrd, Hugh; Rasheed, Eziaku Onyeizu (2016-04-08)

    Journal article
    Unitec

    In this paper we challenge the notion that “green” buildings can achieve greater productivity than buildings that are not accredited as “green”. For nearly two decades, research has produced apparent evidence which indicates that the design of a “green” building can enhance the productivity of its occupants. This relationship between building design and productivity is claimed to be achieved through compliance with internal environmental quality (IEQ) criteria of Green rating tools. This paper reviews methods of measuring productivity and the appropriateness of the metrics used for measuring IEQ in office environments. This review is supported by the results of a survey of office building users which identifies social factors to be significantly more important than environmental factors in trying to correlate productivity and IEQ. It also presents the findings of observations that were discretely carried out on user-response in green buildings. These findings demonstrate that, despite a building’s compliance with IEQ criteria, occupants still resort to exceptional measures to alter their working environment in a bid to achieve comfort. The work has been carried out on “green” buildings in New Zealand. These buildings are rated based on the NZ “Green Star” system which has adopted the Australian “green star” system with its roots in BREEAM. Despite this, the results of this research are applicable to many other “green” rating systems. The paper concludes that methods of measuring productivity are flawed, that IEQ criteria for building design is unrepresentative of how occupants perceive the environment and that this can lead to an architecture that has few of the inherent characteristics of good environmental design.

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  • Respiratory mechanics assessment for reverse-triggered breathing cycles using pressure reconstruction

    Major, V.; Corbett, S.; Redmond, D.; Beatson, A.; Glassenbury, D.; Chiew, Y.S.; Pretty, C.G.; Desaive, T.; Szlávecz, A.; Benyo, B.; Shaw, G.M.; Chase, J.G. (2016)

    Journal article
    University of Canterbury Library

    Monitoring patient-specific respiratory mechanics can be used to guide mechanical ventilation (MV) therapy in critically ill patients. However, many patients can exhibit spontaneous breathing (SB) efforts during ventilator supported breaths, altering airway pressure waveforms and hindering model-based (or other) identification of the true, underlying respiratory mechanics necessary to guide MV. This study aims to accurately assess respiratory mechanics for breathing cycles masked by SB efforts. A cumulative pressure reconstruction method is used to ameliorate SB by identifying SB affected waveforms and reconstructing unaffected pressure waveforms for respiratory mechanics identification using a single-compartment model. Performance is compared to conventional identification without reconstruction, where identified values from reconstructed waveforms should be less variable. Results are validated with 9485 breaths affected by SB, including periods of muscle paralysis that eliminates SB, as a validation test set where reconstruction should have no effect. In this analysis, the patients are their own control, with versus without reconstruction, as assessed by breath-to-breath variation using the non-parametric coefficient of variation (CV) of respiratory mechanics. Pressure reconstruction successfully estimates more consistent respiratory mechanics. CV of estimated respiratory elastance is reduced up to 78% compared to conventional identification (p < 0.05). Pressure reconstruction is comparable (p > 0.05) to conventional identification during paralysis, and generally performs better as paralysis weakens, validating the algorithm’s purpose. Pressure reconstruction provides less-affected pressure waveforms, ameliorating the effect of SB, resulting in more accurate respiratory mechanics identification. Thus providing the opportunity to use respiratory mechanics to guide mechanical ventilation without additional muscle relaxants, simplifying clinical care and reducing risk.

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  • New public management and information communication technology : organisational influences on frontline child protection practice

    Webster, Mike; McNabb, David (2016)

    Journal article
    Unitec

    In this paper the authors examine the new public management (NPM) philosophy influencing the organisational environment in which child protection social workers are located. NPM prioritises outputs through policies, such as results based accountability (RBA) predicated on the expectation that responsibility to achieve designated programme outcomes is sheeted to the agency and its workers. Ongoing funding depends on programme results. NPM ideology assumes that workers and managers in agencies tasked with delivering care and protection services are able to control the variables influencing outputs which contribute to outcomes. The authors will analyse four key aspects of NPM thinking (RBA, outputs, outcomes and key performance indicators) and explore their organisational consequences. The influence on social work practice of information and communications technology (ICT), on which NPM depends, is also considered. The paper is not an ideologically based rejection of NPM, but rather an assessment of its consequences for care and protection practice. The authors call for a return to the centrality of relationally based social work processes embodied in common factors (CF) practice, such as the therapeutic alliance. We argue that CF approaches offer a contrasting and more appropriate practice philosophy than NPM thinking while still enabling achievable, multifaceted organisational benefits.

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  • Housing issues in Auckland

    Haigh, David (2016-02)

    Journal article
    Unitec

    Recently, I went to hear Alan Johnson (Salvation Army Policy Analyst) speak on the topic of housing, and how Auckland itself got into this mess. Here are some of my thoughts on that speech. Alan Johnson started by asking how Government is failing Auckland and came up with four key points: Making promises that are not real promises Failing to come up with genuine ideas that will work Failing to understand Auckland and the governance of Auckland Being guilty of not caring

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  • Lounging with robots – social spaces of residents in care : a comparison trial

    Peri, Kathryn; Kerse, Ngaire; Broadbent, Elizabeth; Jayawardena, Chandimal; Kuo, Tony; Datta, Chandan; Stafford, Rebecca; MacDonald, Bruce (2016)

    Journal article
    Unitec

    Aims: To investigate whether robots could reduce resident sleeping and stimulate activity in the lounges of an older persons’ care facility. Methods: Non-randomised controlled trial over a 12-week period. The intervention involved situating robots in low-level and high-dependency ward lounges and a comparison with similar lounges without robots. A time sampling observation method was utilised to observe resident behaviour, including sleep and activities over periods of time, to compare interactions in robot and no robot lounges. Results: The use of robots was modest; overall 13% of residents in robot lounges used the robot. Utilisation was higher in the low-level care lounges; on average, 23% used the robot, whereas in high-level care lounges, the television being on was the strongest predictor of sleep. Conclusion: This study found that having robots in lounges was mostly a positive experience. The amount of time residents slept during the day was significantly less in low-level care lounges that had a robot.

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  • Bring your own device to secondary school : the perceptions of teachers, students and parents

    Parsons, David; Adhikari, Janak (2016)

    Journal article
    Unitec

    This paper reports on the first two years of a Bring Your Own Device (BYOD) initiative in a New Zealand secondary school, using data derived from a series of surveys of teachers, parents and students, who are the main stakeholders in the transformation to a BYOD school. In this paper we analyse data gathered from these surveys, which consists primarily of qualitative data from free text questions, but also includes some quantitative data from structured questions, giving insights into the challenges faced by teachers, students and parents in moving to a BYOD classroom, and the potential benefits for teaching and learning, and preparing students for a digital world. We frame our analysis from a sociocultural perspective that takes account of structures, agency and cultural practices and the interactions between these domains. Thematic analysis was performed by considering these domains from the responses of the three stakeholder groups. We found that there were some tensions in these domain relationships, with contexts and practices having to be renegotiated as the BYOD classroom and the structures within which it operates have evolved. On the surface, it appears that many of the changes to cultural practice are substitution or augmentation of previous activities, for example using one-to-one devices for researching and presenting material. However, when we look deeper, it is evident that apparently straightforward adoption of digital media is having a more profound impact on structure and agency within the classroom. While the structural impact of digital infrastructures does raise some concerns from all stakeholders, it is clear that it is the curricular structure that is the most contentious area of debate, given its impact on both agency and cultural practice. While the majority of respondents reported positive changes in classroom management and learning, there were nevertheless some concerns about the radical nature of the change to BYOD, though very rarely from teachers. If there is an area where agency may be most problematic, it is in the responses of parents, who may feel increasingly alienated from their children’s learning activities if their own digital skills are lacking. These findings will be of interest to anyone who is engaged in BYOD projects, particularly those who are planning such initiatives or in the early stages of implementation.

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  • Community attitudes and practices of urban residents regarding predation by pet cats on wildlife : an international comparison

    Hall, Catherine M.; Adams, Nigel; Bradley, J. Stuart; Bryant, Kate A.; Davis, Alisa A.; Dickman, Christopher R.; Fujita, Tsumugi; Kobayashi, Shinichi; Lepczyk, Christopher A.; McBride, E. Anne; Pollock, Kenneth H.; Styles, Irene M.; van Heezik, Yolanda; Wang, Ferian; Calver, Michael C. (2016-04-06)

    Journal article
    Unitec

    International differences in practices and attitudes regarding pet cats' interactions with wild-life were assessed by surveying citizens from at least two cities in Australia, New Zealand, the UK, the USA, China and Japan. Predictions tested were: (i) cat owners would agree less than non-cat owners that cats might threaten wildlife, (ii) cat owners value wildlife less than non-cat owners, (iii) cat owners are less accepting of cat legislation/restrictions than non-owners, and (iv) respondents from regions with high endemic biodiversity (Australia, New Zealand, China and the USA state of Hawaii) would be most concerned about pet cats threatening wildlife. Everywhere non-owners were more likely than owners to agree that pet cats killing wildlife were a problem in cities, towns and rural areas. Agreement amongst non-owners was highest in Australia (95%) and New Zealand (78%) and lowest in the UK (38%). Irrespective of ownership, over 85% of respondents from all countries except China (65%) valued wildlife in cities, towns and rural areas. Non-owners advocated cat legislation more strongly than owners except in Japan. Australian non-owners were the most supportive (88%), followed by Chinese non-owners (80%) and Japanese owners (79.5%). The UK was least supportive (non-owners 43%, owners 25%). Many Australian (62%), New Zealand (51%) and Chinese owners (42%) agreed that pet cats killing wildlife in cities, towns and rural areas was a problem, while Hawaiian owners were similar to the mainland USA (20%). Thus high endemic biodiversity might contribute to attitudes in some, but not all, countries. Husbandry practices varied internationally, with predation highest where fewer cats were confined. Although the risk of wildlife population declines caused by pet cats justifies precautionary action, campaigns based on wildlife protection are unlikely to succeed outside Australia or New Zealand. Restrictions on roaming protect wildlife and benefit cat welfare, so welfare is a better rationale.

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  • Scarcity of ecosystem services : an experimental manipulation of declining pollination rates and its economic consequences for agriculture

    Sandhu, Harpinder; Waterhouse, Benjamin; Boyer, Stephane; Wratten, Steve (2016-07-05)

    Journal article
    Unitec

    Ecosystem services (ES) such as pollination are vital for the continuous supply of food to a growing human population, but the decline in populations of insect pollinators worldwide poses a threat to food and nutritional security. Using a pollinator (honeybee) exclusion approach, we evaluated the impact of pollinator scarcity on production in four brassica fields, two producing hybrid seeds and two producing open-pollinated ones. There was a clear reduction in seed yield as pollination rates declined. Open-pollinated crops produced significantly higher yields than did the hybrid ones at all pollination rates. The hybrid crops required at least 0.50 of background pollination rates to achieve maximum yield, whereas in open-pollinated crops, 0.25 pollination rates were necessary for maximum yield. The total estimated economic value of pollination services provided by honeybees to the agricultural industry in New Zealand is NZD $1.96 billion annually. This study indicates that loss of pollination services can result in significant declines in production and have serious implications for the market economy in New Zealand. Depending on the extent of honeybee population decline, and assuming that results in declining pollination services, the estimated economic loss to New Zealand agriculture could be in the range of NZD $295–728 million annually.

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  • Using predicted locations and an ensemble approach to address sparse data sets for species distribution modelling : Long-horned beetles (Cerambycidae) of the Fiji islands

    Aguilar, Glenn; Waqa-Sakiti, Hilda; Winder, Linton (2016-12-09)

    Journal article
    Unitec

    Several modelling tools were utilised to develop maps predicting the suitability of the Fiji Islands for longhorned beetles (Cerambycidae) that include endemic and endangered species such as the Giant Fijian Beetle Xixuthrus heros. This was part of an effort to derive spatially relevant knowledge for characterising an important taxonomic group in an area with relatively few biodiversity studies. Occurrence data from the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) and bioclimatic variables from the WorldClim database were used as input for species distribution modelling (SDM). Due to the low number of available occurrence data resulting in inconsistent performance of different tools, several algorithms implemented in the DISMO package in R (Bioclim, Domain, GLM, Mahalanobis, SVM, RF and MaxEnt) were tested to determine which provide the best performance. Occurrence sets at several distribution densities were tested to determine which algorithm and sample size combination provided the best model results. The machine learning algorithms RF, SVM and MaxEnt consistently provided the best performance as evaluated by the True Skill Statistic (TSS), Kappa and Area Under Curve (AUC) metrics. The occurrence set with a density distribution of one sampling point per 10km2 provided the best performance and was used for the final prediction model. An ensemble of the best-performing algorithms generated the final suitability predictive map. The results can serve as a basis for additional studies and provide initial information that will eventually support decision-making processes supporting conservation in the archipelago.

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  • Language Pedagogy and Non-transience in the Flipped Classroom

    Cunningham, U. (2016)

    Journal article
    University of Canterbury Library

    High connectivity at tertiary institutions, and students who are often equipped with laptops and/or tablets as well as smartphones, have resulted in language learners being able to freely access technology and the internet. Reference tools such as dictionaries, concordancers, translators, and thesauri, with pronunciation and usage tips, are available at the touch of a screen. The web brings a virtually endless corpus of authentic written and spoken target language usage, and instant communication with target language speakers anywhere. Video recordings of teaching or materials created for language learners can be viewed and reviewed at the learner’s convenience and reused by the teacher, freeing contact time for interaction. This paper distinguishes between asynchrony and non-transience and discusses which material can best be offered to language learners in tertiary education in a nontransient or enduring form rather than as live teaching, why this might be a good idea, and how to create and curate non-transient resources for individualised language learning.

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  • Anabelian geometry and descent obstructions on moduli spaces

    Patrikis S; Voloch JF; Zarhin YG (2016)

    Journal article
    University of Canterbury Library

    We study the section conjecture of anabelian geometry and the sufficiency of the finite descent obstruction to the Hasse principle for the moduli spaces of principally polarized abelian varieties and of curves over number fields. For the former we show that the section conjecture fails and the finite descent obstruction holds for a general class of adelic points, assuming several well-known conjectures. This is done by relating the problem to a local-global principle for Galois representations. For the latter, we show how the sufficiency of the finite descent obstruction implies the same for all hyperbolic curves.

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  • Passagiere des Eises: Polarhelden und Arktische Diskurse 1874. [Passengers of the ice: polar heroes and arctic discourses 1874]

    Rack U (2016)

    Journal article
    University of Canterbury Library

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  • The Contractual Interpretation of Tipping J

    Barber MK (2016)

    Journal article
    University of Canterbury Library

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  • Reducing codebook loss with reconfigurable receive antennas

    Afsheen, U.; Smith, P.J.; Martin, P.A. (2016)

    Journal article
    University of Canterbury Library

    In this study, a reconfigurable antenna codebook feedback (FB) scheme is investigated to reduce precoding codebook loss without increasing the number of FB bits. Analysis and simulations show that increasing the number of receive antenna states (S) has the same effect as codebook size expansion when the codeword and state selection is based on minimising the distance between channel and codeword. In addition, the authors propose an optimum selection approach. The signal to noise ratio (SNR) and rates achieved with perfect FB in a traditional nonreconfigurable antenna system, can be exceeded with only S = 2, using the proposed optimum selection. In fact doubling S gives an approximate SNR gain of 40% compared with S = 1. The authors also consider the effects of channel estimation errors and correlated antenna states. The authors show that the performance losses due to correlation can be quantified with a simple closed form result.

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  • Effects of sheep grazing exclusion on alpine tall tussock grassland

    Norton, D.A.; Young, L.M. (2016)

    Journal article
    University of Canterbury Library

    Substantial areas of alpine tall tussock grasslands are being retired from grazing as part of Crown pastoral lease tenure review because of the perceived negative impact of grazing livestock. However, relatively little is known about the effect of sheep exclusion on these grasslands. We analysed data from five grazing exclosure plots over a 6-year period to examine the effect merino sheep have relative to hares and rabbits in alpine tall tussock grasslands used for summer grazing. Unfortunately, because of snow damage to fences, we were unable to detect any significant hare and rabbit effects. Over the time of this study, there was no evidence for significant vegetation recovery after exclusion of sheep grazing. This may be because of other grazing animals in the system, or the low stocking rates and non-random grazing behaviour of merino ewes. There was, however, a significant increase in the cover of exotic herbs Pilosella officinarum and P. praealta and a significant decrease in the cover of native tussocks Festuca novae-zelandiae and Poa colensoi regardless of grazing exclusion. While this pattern has been previously documented in studies at lower elevations and usually with a history of burning, our results demonstrate that alpine grasslands with no burning history can also be invaded by Pilosella spp. over relatively short time frames. Replicated grazing exclosure trials such as the one described in this paper are important for providing objective information on both long-term trends in vegetation composition and the impacts of grazing animals in alpine grasslands as a basis for making informed decisions on their future management.

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  • The sound insulation of single leaf finite size rectangular plywood panels with orthotropic frequency dependent bending stiffness

    Wareing, R.R.; Davy, J.L.; Pearse J.R. (2016)

    Journal article
    University of Canterbury Library

    Current theories for predicting the sound insulation of orthotropic materials are limited to a small range of infinite panels. This paper presents a method that allows for the prediction of the sound insulation of a finite size orthotropic panel. This method uses an equation for the forced radiation impedance of a finite size rectangular panel. This approach produces an equation that has three nested integrals. The long numerical calculation times were reduced by using approximate formulas for the azimuthally averaged forced radiation impedance. This reduced the number of nested integrals from three to two. The resulting predictions are compared to results measured using two sample sizes of four different thicknesses of plywood and one sample size of another three different thicknesses of plywood. Plywood was used for all the tests because it is somewhat orthotropic. It was found during testing that the Young’s moduli of the plywood were dependent on the frequency of excitation. The influence of the frequency dependent Young’s moduli was then included in the prediction method. The experimental results were also compared with a simple isotropic prediction method.

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  • A system to measure volume change of unsaturated soils in undrained cyclic triaxial tests

    Wang, H.; Sato, T.; Koseki, J.; Chiaro, G.; Tian, J.T. (2016)

    Journal article
    University of Canterbury Library

    It is common to employ a traditional double cell system, of which an open-ended inner cell is installed in an ordinary triaxial apparatus, to measure the volume change of unsaturated specimens. In such a system, the total apparent volumetric strain of the specimen (ev) is deduced from the water level change in the inner cell, monitored by a differential pressure transducer (DPT) considering, meanwhile, the top cap intrusion into the inner cell recorded by a vertical displacement transducer (VDT). Severe apparent volumetric strain, caused by the compliance of the double cell system(ev,SC), was observed during the undrained cyclic loading tests in a previous study. Test results on a steel-spring dummy specimen revealed that ev, SC was induced not only by such as themeniscus effect, but unexpectedly also by the asynchronous responses between the DPT and the VDT (i.e., the response of the DPT was delayed compared with that of the VDT). By doing some treatment ev, SC could be reduced to some extent, whereas the magnitude of ev, SC was still too high to be acceptable when the tested specimen approached the liquefied state. To radically solve these technical difficulties, a modified double cell system, named the linkage double cell system, was developed in this study. In this modified system, a linkage rod moving simultaneously with the loading shaft was introduced, through which the DPT could directly measure ev without considering the top cap or loading shaft intrusion. Test results for the steel-spring dummy specimen as well as for saturated and unsaturated soil specimens demonstrated that the linkage double cell system has major advantages in measuring accurately the volume change of the specimen during undrained cyclic triaxial loading tests compared with the traditional double cell system.

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