25,035 results for Journal article

  • Exploring the environmental modeling of road construction operations using discrete-event simulation

    Gonzalez, Vicente; Echaveguren, T (2012)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    The practical implementation of sustainability is a challenge for the construction industry, for which there have been several research efforts to model sustainability. However, the current approaches for modeling sustainability have several limitations: they are mainly deterministic and do not properly describe the dynamic nature of the productive environment in construction. To overcome this, a dynamic modeling framework based on discrete-event simulation, which integrates environmental and traffic models, is explored in this paper. This modeling framework explicitly incorporates environmental goals (a sustainable goal) in the design of road construction operations, in terms of the fugitive and exhaust emissions generated by the production and traffic conditions. A hypothetical project is studied to illustrate the use of this framework. The main results show that an optimum number of trucks and front loaders can minimize the emission levels. Further research should consider multi-objective analyses involving cost, time and emission levels.

    View record details
  • Running with a load increases leg stiffness

    Silder, A; Besier, Thor; Delp, SL (2015-04)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Spring-mass models have been used to characterize running mechanics and leg stiffness in a variety of conditions, yet it remains unknown how running while carrying a load affects running mechanics and leg stiffness. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that running with a load increases leg stiffness. Twenty-seven subjects ran at a constant speed on a force-measuring treadmill while carrying no load, and while wearing weight vests loaded with 10%, 20%, and 30% of body weight. We measured lower extremity motion and created a scaled musculoskeletal model of each subject, which we used to estimate lower extremity joint angles and leg length. We estimated dimensionless leg stiffness as the ratio of the peak vertical ground reaction force (normalized to body weight) and the change in stance phase leg length (normalized to leg length at initial foot contact). Leg length was calculated as the distance from the center of the pelvis to the center-of-pressure under the foot. We found that dimensionless leg stiffness increased when running with load (p=0.001); this resulted from an increase in the peak vertical ground reaction force (p<0.05). Our results reveal that subjects run in a more crouched posture and with higher leg stiffness to accommodate an added load.

    View record details
  • The CellML Metadata Framework 2.0 Specification

    Cooling, Michael; Hunter, Peter (2015)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    The CellML Metadata Framework 2.0 is a modular framework that describes how semantic annotations should be made about mathematical models encoded in the CellML (www.cellml.org) format, and their elements. In addition to the Core specification, there are several satellite specifications, each designed to cater for model annotation in a different context. Basic Model Information, Citation, License and Biological Annotation specifications are presented.

    View record details
  • Skilled use of the media by vested interests to promote drugs and other health products

    Menkes, David; Lexchin, J (2016-03)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    View record details
  • Admediation: New Horizons for Effective Email Advertising

    Gopal, RD; Walter, Z; Tripathi, Arvind (2001-12)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    View record details
  • Invisible care: do we need a Code of Rights to protect family and informal carers?

    Rea, Harold; Kenealy, Timothy; Sheridan, Nicolette; Gorman, Desmond (2010)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    ???Informal carers??? are the people who provide unpaid care and support for those who need it. Care can be personal, such as bathing and dressing; physical, such as housework, cooking and transport; social, such as companionship; and it might meet financial, spiritual or cultural needs, amongst others.

    View record details
  • Comparative quantification of dietary supplemented neural creatine concentrations with (1)H-MRS peak fitting and basis spectrum methods

    Turner, Clare; Russell, Bruce; Gant, Nicholas (2015-11)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) is an analytical procedure that can be used to non-invasively measure the concentration of a range of neural metabolites. Creatine is an important neurometabolite with dietary supplementation offering therapeutic potential for neurological disorders with dysfunctional energetic processes. Neural creatine concentrations can be probed using proton MRS and quantified using a range of software packages based on different analytical methods. This experiment examines the differences in quantification performance of two commonly used analysis packages following a creatine supplementation strategy with potential therapeutic application. Human participants followed a seven day dietary supplementation regime in a placebo-controlled, cross-over design interspersed with a five week wash-out period. Spectroscopy data were acquired the day immediately following supplementation and analyzed with two commonly-used software packages which employ vastly different quantification methods. Results demonstrate that neural creatine concentration was augmented following creatine supplementation when analyzed using the peak fitting method of quantification (105.9%??10.1). In contrast, no change in neural creatine levels were detected with supplementation when analysis was conducted using the basis spectrum method of quantification (102.6%??8.6). Results suggest that software packages that employ the peak fitting procedure for spectral quantification are possibly more sensitive to subtle changes in neural creatine concentrations. The relative simplicity of the spectroscopy sequence and the data analysis procedure suggest that peak fitting procedures may be the most effective means of metabolite quantification when detection of subtle alterations in neural metabolites is necessary. The straightforward technique can be used on a clinical magnetic resonance imaging system.

    View record details
  • Using external environmental reporting to embed sustainability into organisational practices

    Narayan Biswas, Sharlene; O???Grady, W (2016)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Purpose: This paper explores the relationship between external environmental reporting (EER) and internal strategies, processes and activities (ISPA) to understand the role EER plays in embedding sustainability into organisational practices. Design/methodology/approach: The case study considered how carbon measures associated with the carbon emissions management and reporting scheme (CEMARS) embedded sustainability into organisational practices in a family-owned wine company. Evidence collected during semi-structured interviews with informed employees was triangulated with observational data, field notes and documentary evidence. Findings: We found a dynamic relationship between EER and ISPA, which embedded sustainability into organisational practices and promoted the developments of environmental reporting. CEMARS data was embedded into production management, capital expenditure and budget review processes while more frequent EER was required by managers to support their operational activities. The company at times relied on an eco-validation approach to justify sustainability decisions despite their negative impact on short-term profit. EER contributed to the strategic planning, target setting and control functions of the management control system. Research limitations/implications: Sustainability research should simultaneously address EER and ISPA. The interplay between the two dimensions determines whether sustainability is embedded in organisations and whether they will act in a sustainable manner. Practical implications: The practical implication of the research is that organisations need to integrate EER information into internal strategies, processes and activities if they want managers to establish patterns of behaviour that simultaneously consider the financial and environmental impacts of decisions. An EER such as CEMARS can provide coherence and focus for sustainability initiatives. Originality/value: This research reveals that sustainability is embedded into organisations through the interactions between EER and ISPA thus contributing to our understanding of internal organisational change. It identifies an eco-validation approach to decision-making that complements the eco-efficiency approach, and shows that EER need not operate independently of internal processes and can be integrated into management control systems.

    View record details
  • Rectus sheath block for laparoscopic appendicectomy: a randomized clinical trial

    Hamill, James; Liley, A; Hill, Andrew (2015-12)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    The rectus sheath block is effective in elective paediatric operations, but has not been previously studied in acute laparoscopic surgery. We investigated its effect on pain after laparoscopic appendicectomy for acute appendicitis.Children aged 8-14 years admitted to a paediatric teaching hospital participated in a randomized clinical trial comparing a rectus sheath block using bupivacaine plus adrenaline with saline control. The primary outcomes were pain scores and opiate use, and secondary outcomes were time in the post-anaesthetic care unit, duration of hospitalization and recovery.Children in the nerve block group reported significantly reduced global pain scores compared with controls in the first 3???h after surgery, estimated mean 2.22 versus 3.94, effect size -1.80 (P???=???.008). Pain scores after 3???h did not differ between the groups. The groups did not differ in opiate requirements, length of hospital stay or recovery after discharge.In children undergoing acute laparoscopic appendicectomy, a rectus sheath block reduced early post-operative pain, and could contribute to a multimodal recovery programme.

    View record details
  • Glucocorticoids induce senescence in primary human tenocytes by inhibition of sirtuin 1 and activation of the p53/p21 pathway: in vivo and in vitro evidence

    Poulsen, Raewyn; Watts, AC; Murphy, RJ; Snelling, SJ; Carr, AJ; Hulley, PA (2014-07)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Cellular senescence is an irreversible side effect of some pharmaceuticals which can contribute to tissue degeneration.To determine whether pharmaceutical glucocorticoids induce senescence in tenocytes.Features of senescence (??-galactosidase activity at pH 6 (SA-??-gal) and active mammalian/mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) in cell cycle arrest) as well as the activity of the two main pathways leading to cell senescence were examined in glucocorticoid-treated primary human tenocytes. Evidence of senescence-inducing pathway induction in vivo was obtained using immunohistochemistry on tendon biopsy specimens taken before and 7 weeks after subacromial Depo-Medrone injection.Dexamethasone treatment of tenocytes resulted in an increased percentage of SA-??gal-positive cells. Levels of phosphorylated p70S6K did not decrease with glucocorticoid treatment indicating mTOR remained active. Increased levels of acetylated p53 as well as increased RNA levels of its pro-senescence effector p21 were evident in dexamethasone-treated tenocytes. Levels of the p53 deacetylase sirtuin 1 were lower in dexamethasone-treated cells compared with controls. Knockdown of p53 or inhibition of p53 activity prevented dexamethasone-induced senescence. Activation of sirtuin 1 either by exogenous overexpression or by treatment with resveratrol or low glucose prevented dexamethasone-induced senescence. Immunohistochemical analysis of tendon biopsies taken before and after glucocorticoid injection revealed a significant increase in the percentage of p53-positive cells (p=0.03). The percentage of p21-positive cells also tended to be higher post-injection (p=0.06) suggesting glucocorticoids activate the p53/p21 senescence-inducing pathway in vivo as well as in vitro.As cell senescence is irreversible in vivo, glucocorticoid-induced senescence may result in long-term degenerative changes in tendon tissue.

    View record details
  • Alcohol and ischaemic heart disease: probably no free lunch

    Jackson, Rodney; Broad, Joanna; Connor, Jennie; Wells, Linda (2005-12-03)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    View record details
  • Public reporting on quality, waiting times and patient experience in 11 high-income countries

    Rechel, B; McKee, M; Haas, M; Marchildon, GP; Bousquet, F; Bl??mel, M; Geissler, A; van Ginneken, E; Ashton, Toni; Saunes, IS; Anell, A; Quentin, W; Saltman, R; Culler, S; Barnes, A; Palm, W; Nolte, E (2016-04)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    This article maps current approaches to public reporting on waiting times, patient experience and aggregate measures of quality and safety in 11 high-income countries (Australia, Canada, England, France, Germany, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Sweden, Switzerland and the United States). Using a questionnaire-based survey of key national informants, we found that the data most commonly made available to the public are on waiting times for hospital treatment, being reported for major hospitals in seven countries. Information on patient experience at hospital level is also made available in many countries, but it is not generally available in respect of primary care services. Only one of the 11 countries (England) publishes composite measures of overall quality and safety of care that allow the ranking of providers of hospital care. Similarly, the publication of information on outcomes of individual physicians remains rare. We conclude that public reporting of aggregate measures of quality and safety, as well as of outcomes of individual physicians, remain relatively uncommon. This is likely to be due to both unresolved methodological and ethical problems and concerns that public reporting may lead to unintended consequences.

    View record details
  • Clinical Significance of p53 and p16ink4a Status in a Contemporary North American Penile Carcinoma Cohort

    Zargar Shoshtari, Kamran; Spiess, PE; Berglund, AE; Sharma, P; Powsang, JM; Giuliano, A; Magliocco, AM; Dhillon, J (2016-08)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Background: Because of the low incidence of penile carcinoma (PC), the value of p16ink4a, p53, and human papilloma virus (HPV) infection status in clinical practice remains unclear. Herein, we report our experience with potential clinical utility of these markers in men with PC treated at our institution. Patients and Methods: Tissue microarrays of 57 cases of invasive penile squamous cell carcinomas were immunohistochemically stained for p16 and p53. HPV in situ hybridization (ISH) for high-risk subtypes was also performed. Association between marker status, nodal disease, overall (OS) and cancer-specific survival (CSS) were assessed. Results: p16 and HPV ISH were positive in 23 (40%) and 24 (42%) of the cohort, respectively. The proportion of warty, basaloid, or mixed warty basaloid tumor subtypes were significantly greater in the p16-positive patients (48% vs. 3%; P < .01). p53 expression was negative in 31 (54%) cases. Only in p16-negative patients, positive p53 status was associated with pN+ disease (odds ratio, 4.4 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.04-18.6]). In Kaplan???Meier analysis, the unadjusted estimated OS was insignificantly longer in p16-positive patients (median OS, 75 vs. 27 months; P = .27) and median CSS was not reached (P = .16). In a multivariable Cox proportional hazard model, when controlling for pathological nodal status and adjuvant chemotherapy, p16 status was a significant predictor for improved CSS (hazard ratio, 0.36 [95% CI, 0.13-0.99]). The worst CSS was seen in pN+ patients with double negative p16 and p53 expression (8 vs. 34 months; P = .01). Conclusion: In this current cohort, p53 and p16 status showed clinical utility in predicting nodal disease as well as survival.

    View record details
  • Thermal decomposition modes for four-coordinate ruthenium phosphonium alkylidene olefin metathesis catalysts

    Leitao, Erin; Dubberley, SR; Piers, WE; Wu, Q; McDonald, R (2008-12-19)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    The four-coordinate ruthenium phosphonium alkylidenes 1-Cy and 1-iPr, differing in the substituent on the phosphorus center, were observed to decompose thermally in the presence of 1,1-dichloroethylene to produce [H(3)CPR(3)][Cl]. The major ruthenium-containing product was a trichloro-bridged ruthenium dimer that incorporates the elements of the 1,1-dichloroethylene as a dichlorocarbene ligand and a styrenic vinyl group on the supporting NHC ligand. Spectroscopic, kinetic, and deuterium-labeling experiments probed the mechanism of this process, which involves a rate-limiting C-H activation of an NHC mesityl ortho methyl group. These studies provide insight into intrinsic decomposition processes of active Grubbs type olefin metathesis catalysts, pointing the way to new catalyst design directions.

    View record details
  • A functional MRI study of mental image generation

    D'esposito, M; Detre, JA; Aguirre, GK; Stallcup, M; Alsop, DC; Tippett, Lynette; Farah, MJ (1997-04-11)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    The neural substrates of mental image generation were investigated with functional MRI. Subjects listened to words under two different instructional conditions: to generate visual mental images of the words' referents, or to simply listen to each word and wait for the next word. Analyses were performed which directly compared the regional brain activity during each condition, with the goal of discovering whether mental image generation engages modality-specific visual areas, whether it engages primary visual cortex, and whether it recruits the left hemisphere to a greater extent than the right. Results revealed that visual association cortex, and not primary visual cortex, was engaged during the mental image generation condition. Left inferior temporal lobe (Brodmann's area 37) was the most reliably and robustly activated area across subjects, but some subjects had activity which extended superiorly into occipital association cortex (area 19). The results of this experiment support the hypothesis that visual mental imagery is a function of visual association cortex, and that image generation is asymmetrically localized to the left.

    View record details
  • 'I-wave' Recruitment Determines Response to tDCS in the Upper Limb, but Only So Far.

    McCambridge, AB; Stinear, James; Byblow, Winston (2015-11)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (a-tDCS) can facilitate primary motor cortex (M1), but the modulation of motor evoked potentials (MEPs) by a-tDCS varies between participants, and may depend on the balance between early versus late I-wave recruitment, as assessed by the difference in MEP latency between latero-medial and anterior-posterior cortical currents induced by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS).To date, the dependence of tDCS after-effects on I-wave recruitment has only been investigated in intrinsic hand muscles. In order to better understand the effects of tDCS across the upper limb, the present study examined I-wave recruitment and MEP modulation by a-tDCS or dual-hemisphere tDCS in muscles of the forearm (Extensor Carpi Radialis; ECR) and proximal upper limb (Biceps Brachii; BB).We conducted a randomized double-blind study with 18 healthy adults. Each received anodal, dual-hemisphere, or sham tDCS over M1 in separate sessions (tDCS, 1??mA for 15??min).Linear regression analyzes showed a-tDCS modulated MEP size dependent on the latency difference in the ECR (P??=??0.01) but not BB (P??=??0.28). Individuals with small MEP latency differences showed the expected facilitation of ECR MEPs after a-tDCS, whereas those with large MEP latency differences had suppressed ECR MEPs after a-tDCS. This relationship was not present after dual-hemisphere or sham tDCS in either muscle (all P??>??0.32).I-wave recruitment can predict the after-effects of a-tDCS in the distal but not proximal upper limb. These findings provide further insight into the variability of tDCS after-effects, and the relationship between I-wave recruitment and putative mechanisms of tDCS.

    View record details
  • Tools to fight the cataract epidemic: A review of experimental animal models that mimic age related nuclear cataract

    Lim, Julie; Umapathy, A; Donaldson, Paul (2016-04)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Cataract is the leading cause of blindness worldwide and accounts for approximately half of all forms of vision loss. Currently, the only way to treat cataracts is by surgery. However, with an ageing population, the demand for surgery and the need for cost effective alternative solutions grows exponentially. To reduce the need for cataract surgery, alternative medical therapies to delay cataracts are urgently required. However, given the difficulty in accessing human cataract lenses, investigating the process of cataract formation and testing the efficacy of potential therapies in humans is problematic. Therefore, researchers have looked to create suitable animal models of cataractogenesis to identify therapeutic options. This review will provide an overview of the cataract specific changes previously reported in human cataract lenses, before focussing on the specific changes that occur in age related nuclear (ARN) cataract, the most common form of cataract in humans. This will be followed by a discussion of a range of existing animal cataract models and their respective suitability for mimicking the processes associated with the development of ARN cataract, and therefore their utility as models to test anti-cataract therapies for future use in humans.

    View record details
  • Epidemiology of Helicobacter pylori in Bhutan: The Role of Environment and Geographic Location

    Dorji, D; Dendup, T; Malaty, HM; Wangchuk, K; Yangzom, Deki; Richter, JM (2014-02)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Background: Bhutan is small mountainous country bordering India and China and consists of four geographic regions, west, east, central, and south. The epidemiology of Helicobacter pylori infection and risk factors associated with in Bhutan are not previously studied. The World Health Organization reported the incidence of stomach cancer to be very high in Bhutan. Aim: We conducted a cross-sectional study to determine the seroepidemiologic pattern of H. pylori among Bhutanese from the four regions with emphasis on water source and household sanitation. Methods: Between June and November 2012, blood samples from patients with complaints of dyspepsia were collected after obtaining an informed consent. Demographic information, occupation, family size living in the same household, consumption of betel nut, and aspects of household environment including type of latrines, source of drinking water were collected. All serum samples were tested for H. pylori immunoglobulin G (IgG) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using MAGIWELL ELISA kit from United Biotech, USA. Results: Two hundred and forty-four patients between 17 and 75 years of age participated in the study, of them, 102 were men, and the mean age was 38 (??14.2) years. The overall prevalence of H. pylori among patients was 86% with no difference between men and women (90 vs 83%, respectively, p = .12). The prevalence was almost identical among all age groups: 81% at 17???20, 84% at 20???29, 93% at 30???39, 82% at 40???49, 87% at 50???59, and 82% at ???60 years (p = .51). H. pylori prevalence was lower in the southern region of Bhutan (78%) compared with the central region (97%) (OR = 8.6; 95% CI = 1.1???55; p = .02), eastern region (91%) (OR = 2.7; 95% CI = 1.1???7.2, p = .004) or the western region (83%) (OR = 1.4, 95% CI = 0.8???3.1, p = .07). The prevalence of H. pylori was significantly lower among household with less than 4 persons living in the same household. Source of drinking water, type of occupation, type of latrines, or consumption of betel nut showed no association with H. pylori prevalence. Logistic regression analysis revealed that residing region was the only significant variable. Conclusions: The high prevalence of antibodies to H. pylori among patients and in all groups could contribute to the high incident rate of gastric cancer in Bhutan. Crowded living condition and the residing region contribute to the variation of the prevalence of the infection. The lowest prevalence in southern part of the country could be due to the difference in the ethnicity as most of its population is of Indian and Nepal origin. Further data regarding H. pylori in Bhutan are critical to developing surveillance and prevention strategies for gastric cancer.

    View record details
  • Denosumab after 8 years

    Reid, Ian (2015-12)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    View record details
  • Trophoblastic debris modifies endothelial cell transcriptome in vitro: a mechanism by which fetal cells might control maternal responses to pregnancy

    Wei, J; Lau, Sien; Blenkiron, Cherie; Chen, Qi; James, Joanna; Kleffmann, T; Wise, Michelle; Stone, Peter; Chamley, Lawrence (2016-07-29)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    The mechanisms by which the fetus induces maternal physiological adaptations to pregnancy are unclear. Cellular debris, shed from the placental syncytiotrophoblast into the maternal blood and phagocytosed by maternal endothelial and immune cells, may be one of these mechanisms. Here we show that trophoblastic debris from normal first trimester placentae induces changes in the transcriptome and proteome of endothelial cells in vitro, which might contribute to the adaptation of the maternal cardiovascular system to pregnancy. Trophoblastic debris also induced endothelial cells to transcribe placenta-specific genes, including the vasodilator hormone CSH1, thereby expanding the effective functional size of the placenta. Our data suggest that the deportation of trophoblastic debris is an important part of the complex network of feto-maternal communication.

    View record details