25,592 results for Journal article

  • Ecological compensation: an evaluation of regulatory compliance in New Zealand

    Brown, Marie Amanda; Clarkson, Bruce D.; Barton, Barry; Joshi, Chaitanya (2013)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    Ecological compensation is an example of a trade-off whereby loss of natural values is remedied or offset by a corresponding compensatory action on the same site or elsewhere, determined through the process of Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA). Ecological compensation actions are often criticised for having low levels of compliance: meaning that they are achieved only partially or not at all, while development activity proceeds with much greater certainty. Our research investigated compliance with 245 conditions relating to ecological compensation across 81 case studies across New Zealand under the Resource Management Act 1991. Our results show that present tools and practice in New Zealand are not adequately securing the necessary benefits from ecological compensation requirements, with 35.2% of requirements not being achieved. Significant variation in non-compliance with ecological compensation occurs between different activities, applicant types and condition types, while critical variables within the planning process influence levels of compliance. Our research demonstrates the importance of understanding the nature of non-compliance and of providing a consistent and robust decision-making framework for the consideration of ecological compensation in practice

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  • The short-term effects of surface soil disturbance on soil bacterial community structure at an experimental site near Scott Base, Antarctica

    O’Neill, Tanya Ann; Balks, Megan R.; Stevenson, Bryan A.; López-Martínez, Jerónimo; Aislabie, Jackie M.; Rhodes, Phillipa (2013)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    Humans are visiting Antarctica in increasing numbers, and the ecological effect of rapid soil habitat alteration due to human-induced physical disturbance is not well understood. An experimental soil disturbance trial was set up near Scott Base on Ross Island, to investigate the immediate and short-term changes to bacterial community structure, following surface soil disturbance. Three blocks, each comprising an undisturbed control, and an area disturbed by removing the top 2 cm of soil, were sampled over a time series (0, 7, 14, 21, and 35 days), to investigate changes to bacterial community structure using DNA profiling by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism. The simulated disturbance did not cause any major shifts in the structure of the bacterial communities over the 35-day sampling period. Ordination showed that the bacterial community composition correlated strongly with soil EC (R² = 0.55) and soil pH (R² = 0.67), rather than the removal of the top 2 cm of surface material. Although the replicate blocks were visually indistinguishable from one another, high local spatial variability of soil chemical properties was found at the study site and different populations of bacterial communities occurred within 2 m of one another, within the same landscape unit. Given the current knowledge of the drivers of bacterial community structure, that is, soil EC, soil pH, and soil moisture content, a follow-up investigation incorporating DNA and RNA-based analyses over a time frame of 2-3 years would lead to a greater understanding of the effects of soil disturbance on bacterial communities.

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  • Glacial geomorphology, soil development and permafrost features in central-upper Wright Valley, Antarctica

    McLeod, M.; Bockheim, J.G.; Balks, Megan R. (2008)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    We mapped surficial deposits, soils and permafrost features in the central-western Wright Valley, Antarctica, from Lake Vanda in the east to near the mid-part of the South Fork in the west. Outstanding features of the landscape include two large rock glaciers covering approximately 323 ha with a volume of 0.14 km3, and the sinuous Upper Wright III moraine in the South Fork with typifying yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) subsoil colours. Soil morphology and weathering stage indicate the features are early Quaternary age and younger than Alpine III deposits. Soils are dominated by sodium and chloride ions, and the total salt content increases with age except where profile soil water is recharged either by subsurface flow from streams, melt water production at high elevation or sporadic surface flow. Ice-cemented permafrost at less than 70 cm depth is common, being associated with relatively young alluvial soils of the Onyx River, and with soils on the steep slopes of the south valley wall near the Dais where melt water from high elevation recharges soil water.

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  • Cadmium accumulation in three contrasting New Zealand soils with the same phosphate fertilizer history

    Salmanzadeh, Mahdiyeh; Balks, Megan R.; Hartland, Adam; Schipper, Louis A. (2016)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    Cadmium (Cd) concentration in New Zealand (NZ) agricultural soils has increased due to phosphate fertilizer application, but it is not clear whether soils with different properties accumulate Cd at similar rates for given P loadings. Here, the distribution of Cd was measured in three soils: the well-drained Horotiu series (Orthic Allophanic Soil in NZ soil classification, Typic Hapludand in US soil taxonomy), poorly-drained Te Kowhai series (Orthic Gley Soil in NZ classification, Typic Humaquept in US soil taxonomy) and an intergrade between them, Bruntwood series (Impeded Allophanic Soil in NZ soil classification, Aquic Hapludand in US soil taxonomy). All three soils often occur in the same paddock with the same fertilizer history, but have differing drainage and mineralogical characteristics, permitting an assessment of the potential for varying accumulation/translocation of Cd in contrasting soil conditions. Thirty soil profiles from ten paddocks on a dairy farm near Hamilton, NZ, with a uniform fertilizer history were sampled to depth of 60 cm. The Cd concentration in topsoil (0–7.5 cm) samples (mean of 0.79 mg kg−1 ) was about 7–8 times greater than in deeper horizons (P b 0.001). No significant differences in Cd concentration or fractionation among the soil series were detected. Cluster analysis showed that Cd, phosphorus (P) and uranium (U) were highly correlated, consistent with a common source, most likely phosphate fertilizer. The absence of a difference in the Cd depth profiles in the three soils indicates that Cd was preferentially adsorbed to the topsoil and was not significantly mobilized by drainage in the soils. The lack of difference in Cd distribution between contrasting soil series supports the use of one Cd management system tool for all of these soils.

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  • ‘It’s on the tip of my Google’: Intra-active performance and the non-totalising learning environment

    Snake-Beings, Emit (2017)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    Technologies that expand the learning environment to include interactions outside of the physical space of the classroom, such as the use of Google as an aid to memory, represent one aspect of learning that occurs within several seemingly decentralised spaces. On the other hand, it can be argued that such interactive technologies are enclosed in what Bruno Latour calls a ‘Black-box’: a ‘totalising’ enclosure that delimits interaction and channels users towards yet another form of centralised learning space. Used as a starting point, the focus of this article rapidly shifts from the constraints of the ‘Black-box’ towards a type of engagement that embraces material agency: an engagement with materials and fragments of knowledge that emerge from the ‘non-totalising’ assemblage. To assist in this trajectory, Karen Barad’s concept of intra-activity is employed, where agency is seen as distributed between human and non-human actants. The space in which this engagement between human and materials occurs, as a non-totalising learning space, is the concern of this article, which uses an interactive audio/visual performance event called Bingodisiac as a case study to examine various ways in which we can learn to move beyond the constraints of totalising structures. Bingodisiac is a project initiated by the researcher in 2002, as an informal collection of musicians who are assembled for a one-off improvised performance. This article draws upon interviews and journal notes collected at the time of the performances to explore the analogy of ‘noise music’ and how this can be related to ways in which the learning space of the classroom and the types of knowledge produced have become decentralised.

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  • The effect of irrigation on cadmium, uranium, and phosphorus contents in agricultural soils

    Salmanzadeh, Mahdiyeh; Schipper, Louis A.; Balks, Megan R.; Hartland, Adam; Mudge, Paul Lawrence; Littler, Ray A. (2017)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    Cadmium (Cd) is a toxic metal which has accumulated in New Zealand agricultural soils due to phosphate fertilizer application. Understanding the contribution of plant uptake or leaching of Cd to observed Cd losses from soil is important. The concentration and distribution of Cd in irrigated and unirrigated soils with the same phosphate fertilizer history were investigated. Twenty-two pairs of soil samples from four depths (0–0.1, 0.1–0.2, 0.2–0.3 and 0.3–0.4 m) were taken from irrigated and unirrigated areas in the same field on dairy farms in three regions of New Zealand. The mean concentration of Cd at depths of 0–0.1 m and 0.1–0.2 m, as well as the cumulative masses of Cd (0–0.2, 0–0.3 and 0–0.4 m) in unirrigated soils were significantly higher (P < 0.05) than in irrigated soils. The concentration of phosphorus (P) at all depths (except for 0.2–0.3 m), as well as the cumulative mass of P in all depths of unirrigated soils, was also significantly higher (P < 0.05) than irrigated soils. However, no significant difference was detected in the concentrations of uranium (U) between irrigated and unirrigated soils. Irrigation induced a ∼7% Cd loss from topsoil (0–0.1 m), with the average rate of Cd loss from the top 0.1 m (due to irrigation) being 2.3 g ha⁻¹ yr⁻¹. This study therefore confirms that irrigation can enhance Cd mobilization, however Cd is mainly adsorbed to the surface soil.

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  • Permafrost thermal regime from two 30-m deep boreholes in southern victoria land, Antarctica

    Guglielmin, Mauro; Balks, Megan R.; Adlam, Leah Seree; Baio, Fabio (2011)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    Two 30-m deep permafrost temperature-monitoring boreholes were installed in bedrock, one at Marble Point and one in the Wright Valley, in the Ross Sea region of Antarctica. A soil climate-monitoring station in till is located near each borehole. The ground surface temperature (GST) was highly correlated with the air temperature at both sites in 2008. Thermal offsets were small (

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  • Soil and permafrost in the Ross Sea Region of Antarctica: Stable or dynamic?

    Balks, Megan R.; O'Neill, Tanya Ann (2016)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    Soils in the Ross Sea Region of Antarctica generally comprise a surface desert pavement and a seasonally thawed active layer over permafrost. Most soils are formed on regolith such as glacial till or colluvium. Mean annual air temperatures range from -18°C to -24°C with low precipitation. The active layer ranges in depth from minimal in higher altitude, colder sites, to near 1 m deep at warmer coastal sites in the northern part of the region. Underlying permafrost may be ice-cemented, or dry with no ice cement. In some areas ice-cored moraine occurs where there is a large body of ice within the subsoil permafrost. Two examples of active gully/fan -forming events, one at Cape Evans and one at Lake Vanda are described. At the Cape Evans event water from a small lake thawed and came into contact with the ice in the underlying patterned ground ice-wedge causing the ice-wedge to melt and extensive gully erosion to occur. A fan-building event near Lake Vanda in the Wright Valley resulted in erosive and depositional features covering a horizontal distance of about 3 km and an altitudinal range of about 1400 m. Such occasional events, can be attributed to warmer than average summers, and were first described in the Ross Sea Region in the 1970s. The Cape Evans and Lake Vanda events are examples of active, rapid, landscape processes and show that landscapes are not as static as is often assumed.

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  • Malware Propagation and Prevention Model for Time-Varying Community Networks within Software Defined Networks

    Liu, Lan; Ko, Ryan K.L.; Ren, Guangming; Xu, Xiaoping (2017)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    As the adoption of Software Defined Networks (SDNs) grows, the security of SDN still has several unaddressed limitations. A key network security research area is in the study of malware propagation across the SDN-enabled networks. To analyze the spreading processes of network malware (e.g., viruses) in SDN, we propose a dynamic model with a time-varying community network, inspired by research models on the spread of epidemics in complex networks across communities. We assume subnets of the network as communities and links that are dense in subnets but sparse between subnets. Using numerical simulation and theoretical analysis, we find that the efficiency of network malware propagation in this model depends on the mobility rate q of the nodes between subnets. We also find that there exists a mobility rate threshold ??. The network malware will spread in the SDN when the mobility rate ? > ??. The malware will survive when ? > ?? and perish when ? < ??. The results showed that our model is effective, and the results may help to decide the SDN control strategy to defend against network malware and provide a theoretical basis to reduce and prevent network security incidents.

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  • Isotope Tracing of Long-Term Cadmium Fluxes in an Agricultural Soil

    Salmanzadeh, Mahdiyeh; Hartland, Adam; Stirling, Claudine H.; Balks, Megan R.; Schipper, Louis A.; Joshi, Chaitanya; George, Ejin (2017)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    Globally widespread phosphate fertilizer applications have resulted in long-term increases in the concentration of cadmium (Cd) in soils. The accumulation of this biotoxic, and bioaccumulative metal presents problems for the management of soil-plant-animal systems, because the magnitude and direction of removal fluxes (e.g., crop uptake, leaching) have been difficult to estimate. Here, Cd isotopic compositions (δ¹¹⁴/¹¹⁰Cd) of archived fertilizer and soil samples from a 66 year-long agricultural field trial in Winchmore, New Zealand, were used to constrain the Cd soil mass balance between 1959 and 2015 AD, informing future soil Cd accumulation trajectories. The isotopic partitioning of soil Cd sources in this system was aided by a change in phosphate source rocks in 1998 AD, and a corresponding shift in fertilizer isotope composition. The dominant influence of mixing between isotopically distinct Cd end-members was confirmed by a Bayesian modeling approach. Furthermore, isotope mass balance modeling revealed that Cd removal processes most likely increased in magnitude substantially between 2000 and 2015 AD, implying an increase in Cd bioaccumulation and/or leaching over that interval. Natural-abundance stable isotopes are introduced here as a powerful tool for tracing the fate of Cd in agricultural soils, and potentially the wider environment.

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  • Five Bodies

    Egerton, Ben (2017-12-09T13:30:07Z)

    Journal article
    Unitec

    A note on the poems: In 2004, the Los Angeles Police Department released images from its archives of crime-scene photography. The titles of the poems in the Five Bodies sequence are taken from photographs from the LAPD archive. These images, and others, can be viewed online at http://fototeka.com/lapd/gallery.html , or in the book Scene of the Crime: Photographs from the LAPD Archive by Tim Wride (Harry N Adams,2004).

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  • Systematics of Simplicia Kirk (Poaceae, Agrostidinae) – an endemic, threatened New Zealand grass genus

    de Lange, Peter; Smissen, R.D.; Rolfe, J.R.; Ogle, C.C. (2017-12-12T13:30:21Z)

    Journal article
    Unitec

    A new species of the New Zealand endemic grass Simplicia, S. felix is described. The new species is segregated from and compared with S. buchananii and S. laxa. Simplicia felix occurs mostly in lightly shaded areas of seasonally dry alluvial forest. A distribution map and an assessment of the conservation status of the new species are presented. Genetic variation in the genus was examined, building on previously published work but including additional sampling. Analysis of nrDNA ITS and ETS and plastid trnLintron and trnL–F intergenic spacer sequences show S. felix to be more closely related to S. laxa than to S.buchananii. NeighborNet analyses of AFLP profiles for the three species of Simplicia show each to consist of distinct clusters of genotypes well separated from each other.

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  • Evidence of a strong domestication bottleneck in the recently cultivated New Zealand endemic root crop, Arthropodium cirratum (Asparagaceae)

    Shepherd, L.D.; de Lange, Peter; Cox, S.; McLenachan, P.A.; Roskruge, N.R.; Lockhart, Peter (2017-12-12T13:30:21Z)

    Journal article
    Unitec

    We use chloroplast DNA sequencing to examine aspects of the pre-European Māori cultivation of an endemic New Zealand root crop, Arthropodium cirratum (rengarenga). Researching the early stages of domestication is not possible for the majority of crops, because their cultivation began many thousands of years ago and/or they have been substantially altered by modern breeding methods. We found high levels of genetic variation and structuring characterised the natural distribution of A. cirratum, while the translocated populations only retained low levels of this diversity, indicating a strong bottleneck even at the early stages of this species’ cultivation. The high structuring detected at four chloroplast loci within the natural A. cirratum range enabled the putative source(s) of the translocated populations to be identified as most likely located in the eastern Bay of Plenty/East Cape region. The high structuring within A. cirratum also has implications for the conservation of genetic diversity within this species, which has undergone recent declines in both its natural and translocated ranges. This study was funded by a Rutherford Discovery Fellowship from the Royal Society of New Zealand (contract number RDF-MNZ1201) to LDS and the Royal Society of New Zealand’s Marsden Fund (contract number MAU0709). The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript

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  • Duration dependence test of rational speculative bubbles: a case study of the Hong Kong stock market

    Gan, Christopher; Nartea, Gilbert; Dou, Ling Ling; Hu, Baiding

    Journal article
    Lincoln University

    This study tests the presence of rational speculative bubbles in the Hong Kong stock market over a sample period from 1993-2008 using the duration dependence test. The duration dependence test shows no evidence of duration dependence, suggesting that the Hong Kong stock market did not exhibit rational speculative bubbles before (1993-1997) and after (1998-2008) the 1997 Asian financial crisis. The results also suggest that the tests are not sensitive to the choice of different models, monthly versus weekly runs of returns and equally- versus value-weighted portfolio in the Hong Kong stock market. The results imply that the stock prices could be a reflection of the market fundamentals.

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  • Hinengaro, manawa me ng?? ringaringa: Head, heart, hand: Embodying M??ori language through song

    Trinick, Robyn; Dale, H (2015)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    One of the consequences of the increased focus on student achievement in numeracy and literacy in New Zealand schools is the reduction in attention being paid to such subjects as music, and the focus of this paper - singing. Research argues that singing has a meaningful role in the holistic education of children, not just for the sake of singing, but also the contribution that singing makes to the socio-cultural environment of the classroom, providing a valuable context for language learning (Paquette & Reid, 2008). This paper focuses specifically on the value of waiata (M??ori song) as a context for fostering te reo M??ori, the M??ori language. We discuss the current limitations in the teaching and learning of waiata in New Zealand schools and draw on Merleau-Ponty???s (2002) theory of embodiment to explore the potential for deeper learning within the context of both traditional and contemporary waiata. The title of this paper ???Head, Heart and Hand???, is a metaphor used to frame the discussion in regard to cognitive, affective and kinaesthetic domains of learning that may be enhanced through singing of waiata for both M??ori and non-M??ori educators and learners.

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  • Consequences of human-mediated marine intrusions on the zooplankton community of a temperate coastal lagoon

    Duggan, Ian C.; White, Michelle A. (2010)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    Barrier bars separating lagoons from oceans are frequently breached as a management tool to prevent flooding of terrestrial ecosystems. The effects of such human-mediated openings on zooplankton have been investigated only in one tropical system. We investigated the temperate Waituna Lagoon, New Zealand, over a 2-year period when the barrier bar was 'artificially' breached on three occasions. Increases in salinity associated with opening of the barrier bars greatly influenced zooplankton community composition, and recovery of communities was dependent on the rate at which salinity returned to pre-disturbance conditions. As such, resilience of zooplankton in coastal lagoons is a function of the lagoon conditions returning to those experienced prior to barrier breach, rather than being a result of the zooplankton community simply recovering from a single defined disturbance event. In contrast to the tropical lagoon studies, temperature in Waituna Lagoon was inferred to explain a significant proportion of the variability in zooplankton community composition, independent of salinity. Appropriate timing for the opening of barrier bars by management authorities in temperate lagoons, which would allow the greatest opportunity for freshwater zooplankton communities to recover rapidly, will rely on determining the best time for rapid barrier bar reformation and high freshwater inflow rates (i.e. the recovery of zooplankton relies on return to initial conditions). However, such an approach is in direct conflict with the opening of barrier bars for management of water levels.

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  • Education for power: English language in the workplace

    Hunter, Judy; Cooke, David (2014)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    Developed countries around the world are increasingly competing for highly skilled, educated immigrants. A case in point is Aotearoa New Zealand (NZ). The NZ Immigration Service actively encourages skilled migrants, and around the country there are numerous English language programmes focussing on English for employment. The dominant focus of these programmes is on migrants' acquisition of correct, appropriate language form, with some attention to intercultural communication. In the view of the authors, this focus is reductionist and provides inadequate preparation for communication in the workplace. This article considers ambiguity and power relations in positioning and interpreting migrant employees in the workplace. Two sets of data are drawn upon. First, a workplace ethnography in a 'migrant friendly' NZ engineering office reveals a management culture that exercises the power of the dominant Anglo-Saxon population to control and exclude a Japanese migrant engineer. Second, a published analysis of immigrant employees' interactions is revisited in order to interrogate the interpretation of workplace texts and underlying discourses of 'appropriate' workplace language. The analysis traces implications for both formal and informal education, and the discussion raises larger questions of social justice concerning migrants.

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  • The construction of participants, causes and responses in ‘problematic’ health literacy situations

    Franken, Margaret; Hunter, Judy (2011)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    The present study set out to explore primary healthcare practitioners’ views of health literacy. As an initial scoping exercise for a larger project, it sampled a relatively small number of practitioners. It did so by asking them to recount a specific event or situation where language, literacy or numeracy appeared to play a part in a patient’s ability to access and use healthcare services. What emerged in the recounts were representations of patients, literacy-related events and responses that were affective, evaluative and which, in some cases, appeared suggestive of strong attitudes and stereotyping. While a small number appeared to fully understand that health literacy is context and content dependent, other practitioners typically presented a view of health literacy that was narrow in focus and which represented health literacy as primarily drawing on reading skills. These findings suggest that any intervention focusing on health literacy and targeted at primary healthcare practitioners needs to consider the ways in which attitudinal and affective factors may mediate practitioners’ interactions with patients and interactions around healthcare texts; and ways to help practitioners understand the situated and complex nature of health literacy.

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  • Adult literacy in Aotearoa New Zealand: Policy, potential and pitfalls

    Furness, Jane Amanda; Hunter, Judy (2017)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    Policy aimed at increasing adult literacy and numeracy skills has been a strong focus of the New Zealand Ministry of Education since the launch of More than Words: The New Zealand Adult Literacy Strategy in 2001. This policy and the foundation learning strand in consecutive Tertiary Education Strategies since 2002 have involved significant sector investment. This article examines the current state of adult literacy policy, its trajectory, potential, and pitfalls. Applying a sociomaterial perspective, we explore how the discourse of adult literacy is well embedded in dominant ideologies of individual responsibility and entrepreneurialism. We argue that interest in other perspectives that offer the hope of a more inclusive society must be supported through broad dissemination of alternative material text and artefacts.

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  • Tikanga Tainui: Tikanga Whare Wananga

    Roa, Tom; Tuaupiki, Jackie (2005-09-01)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    This paper is a preliminary report on an ongoing research project begun in 1999. The project involves consultation with Waikato-Tainui, the tangata whenua of the Waikato region, about the construction of guidelines for University of Waikato staff (both Māori and non-Māori) who are involved in gatherings that call for adherence to Tainui protocols. Here, the emphasis is on guidelines for the conduct of pōwhiri (formal welcomes) on the University Marae.

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