25,472 results for Journal article

  • Stoat density, diet and survival compared between alpine grassland and beech forest habitats

    Smith, Des; Wilson, Deborah; Moller, Henrik; Murphy, Elaine; Pickerell, Georgina (2008)

    Journal article
    University of Otago

    In New Zealand, alpine grasslands occur above the treeline of beech forest. Historically stoat control paradigms in New Zealand’s montane natural areas have assumed alpine grassland is a marginal habitat that limits dispersal between beech forest stoat populations. We compared the summer-to-autumn (January–April) density, weight, diet and winter survival of stoats between these two habitatsduring years of low beech seedfall. Stoats were live-trapped, marked and released in alpine grassland and low-altitude beech forest in the Borland Valley, Fiordland National Park, during 2003 and 2004, and were caught and euthanased for necropsy in 2005. Stoat density was estimated using spatially explicit capture–recapture (SECR). The proportion of stoats marked in one year but recaptured in the next was used as a measure of ‘observed survival’. Prey remains were identified from scats collected during 2003 and 2004 and stomachs from stoats killed in 2005. Stoat density was similar in both habitats over the two years, about one stoat per square kilometre. Observed survival from 2003–2004 was also similar, but survival from 2004–2005 was higher in alpine grassland than in beech forest. In 2003, male stoats were on average heavier in alpine grassland than in beech forest, although average weights were similar in the other years. Diet differed significantly between the two habitats, with stoats in alpine grasslands eating mainly ground weta (a large invertebrate) (72%) and hares (23%), while stoats in beech forest ate mainly birds (31%) and mice (19%). Collectively these results suggest that alpine grasslands are not a poor quality habitat for stoats. Traditionally it has been thought that stoats cannot survive on invertebrate prey alone. This research demonstrates that stoats relying largely on invertebrate prey can occur at similar densities and with equivalent survival to stoats relying on vertebrate prey.

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  • Supervision for critical thinking: challenges and strategies

    Clear, T

    Journal article
    Auckland University of Technology

    An abstract is not available.

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  • Sustainable design education: designing virtual online teaching resources for fashion and textiles

    Finn, A; Fraser, K

    Journal article
    Auckland University of Technology

    In an environment of economic uncertainty and increasing competition, universities are challenged to find alternate methods of maintaining quality educational outcomes given the rising costs for teaching space. Further, in countries such as Aotearoa New Zealand, geographical isolation from the international research community remains a key issue. The development of virtual learning environments (VLEs) is promoted as a viable solution, particularly methods of narrated lecture slides and video-casting which have the potential to be re-used and offer more flexibility through online delivery. As part of an ongoing teaching and learning research fellowship project at Auckland University of Technology, this paper discusses the specific case of an undergraduate course which was developed using Microsoft™ PowerPoint™ and Screencast-O-Matic. Each approach is analysed in the context of developing and delivering course content via Blackboard Academic Suite ™ in combination with low cost technologies including Skype and YouTube ™. While the freedom to ‘tinker’ with new technologies, particularly in fields of creative practice such as fashion design, provide an opportunity for ‘visionary innovation’ (Finn & Fraser, 2012), the authors identify opportunities and limitations, which warrant consideration for academics who are considering a higher level of engagement with technology to enhance teaching practice.

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  • An association between lifespan and variation in IGF1R in sheep.

    Byun, Seung O.; Forrest, R. H.; Frampton, C. M.; Zhou, Huitong; Hickford, Jonathan G. H.

    Journal article
    Lincoln University

    Longevity in livestock is a valuable trait. When productive animals live longer fewer replacement animals need to be raised. However, selection for longevity is not commonly the focus of breeding programs as direct selection for long-lived breeding stock is virtually impossible until late in the animal's reproductive life. Additionally the underlying genetic factors or genes associated with longevity are either not known, or not well understood. In humans, there is evidence that insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF1R) is involved in longevity. Polymorphism in the IGF1R gene (IGF1R) has been associated with longevity in a number of species. Recently, 3 alleles of ovine IGF1R were identified, but no analysis of the effect of IGF1R variation on sheep longevity has been reported. In this study, associations between ovine IGF1R variation, longevity and fertility were investigated. PCR-single strand conformational polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) was used to type IGF1R variation in 1716 New Zealand sheep belonging to 6 breeds and 36 flocks. Ovine IGF1R C was associated with age when adjusting for flock (present 5.5 ± 0.2 yr, absent 5.0 ± 0.1 yr, P = 0.02). A general linear mixed effects model suggested an association (P = 0.06) between age and genotype, when correcting for flock. Pairwise comparison (least significant difference) of specific genotypes revealed the difference to be between AA (5.0 ± 0.1 yr) and AC (5.6 ± 0.2 yr, P = 0.02). A weak negative Pearson correlation between fertility and longevity traits was observed (r = -0.25, P < 0.01). The finding of an association between variation in IGF1R and lifespan in sheep may be useful in prolonging the lifespan of sheep.

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  • Retinal development and ommin pigment in the cranchiid squid Teuthowenia pellucida (Cephalopoda: Oegopsida)

    Evans, AB; Acosta, ML; Bolstad, K

    Journal article
    Auckland University of Technology

    The cranchiid Teuthowenia pellucida, like many deep-sea squid species, possesses large eyes that maximise light sensitivity in a nearly aphotic environment. To assess ontogenetic changes in the visual system, we conducted morphometric and histological analyses of the eyes using specimens from New Zealand collections. While the ratio between eye diameter and mantle length maintained a linear relationship throughout development, histological sections of the retina revealed that the outer photoreceptor layer became proportionally longer as the animal aged, coincident with a habitat shift into deeper, darker ocean strata. Other retinal layers maintained the same absolute thickness as was observed in paralarvae. Granules of the pigment ommin, normally located in the screening layer positioned at the base of the photoreceptors, were also observed at the outer end of the photoreceptor segments throughout the retina in young and mid-sized specimens. Early developmental stages of this species, dwelling in shallow waters, may therefore rely on migratory ommin to help shield photoreceptors from excess light and prevent over-stimulation. The oldest, deeper-dwelling specimens of T. pellucida examined had longer photoreceptors, and little or no migrated ommin was observed; we suggest therefore that short-term adaptive mechanisms for bright light conditions may be used primarily during epipelagic, early life stages in this species.

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  • From STEM to STEAM: strategies for enhancing engineering & technology education

    Connor, AM; Karmokar, S; Whittington, C

    Journal article
    Auckland University of Technology

    This paper sets out to challenge the common pedagogies found in STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics) education with a particular focus on engineering. The dominant engineering pedagogy remains “chalk and talk”; despite research evidence that demonstrates its ineffectiveness. Such pedagogical approaches do not embrace the possibilities provided by more student-centric approaches and more active learning. The paper argues that there is a potential confusion in engineering education around the role of active learning approaches, and that the adoption of these approaches may be limited as a result of this confusion, combined with a degree of disciplinary egocentrism. The paper presents examples of design, engineering and technology projects that demonstrate the effectiveness of adopting pedagogies and delivery methods more usually attributed to the liberal arts such as studio based learning. The paper concludes with some suggestions about how best to create a fertile environment from which inquiry based learning can emerge as well as a reflection on whether the only real limitation on cultivating such approaches is the disciplinary egocentrism of traditional engineering educators.

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  • Just transitions and a contested space: Antarctica and the Global South

    Verbitsky, JE

    Journal article
    Auckland University of Technology

    This paper suggests that Global South states should prioritize Antarctica as a core trans-national issue because of the potential rewards it offers in terms of opportunities for advancing their common political and development agendas. Global South states are significantly underrepresented in Antarctic Treaty System (ATS) governance. Consequently, they have minimal input into the shaping and direction of ATS decision-making on issues such as Antarctic bio-prospecting, fishing and tourism or, critically, into debates about the role and status of Antarctica in the international system. Nevertheless, Antarctica represents opportunities for Global South states to realize shared cosmopolitan democracy and environmental justice goals. While contemporary media coverage of the southernmost continent has focused on its vital role in global climate change, Antarctica is also important for Global South states because it is a contested, non-sovereign area without a clearly defined status or future (international or global commons, Common Heritage of Mankind, global wilderness?) that could be integral to their future development. The paper advocates the benefits for developing states of participating in Antarctic governance, drawing on theories of cosmopolitan democracy and environmental justice to demonstrate that these can be utilized by Global South states to reinvigorate and move forward international debates about the role, status and future of Antarctica, and provides a central place for Global South states in that future. Additionally, these theories can be practically applied to Global South development goals with respect to issues such as the management of Antarctica, access to sustainable resources and benefit sharing from Antarctic resource extraction.

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  • The Origins of Syrian Nationhood; Histories, Pioneers and Identity [Book Review]

    Drury, Abdullah (2013-11)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    This article reviews the book 'The Origins of Syrian Nationhood; Histories, Pioneers and Identity', edited by Adel Beshara,

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  • Al-Andalus Rediscovered: Iberia's New Muslims [Book Review]

    Drury, Abdullah (2013-07)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    This article reviews the book 'Al-Andalus Rediscovered: Iberia’s New Muslims', by Marvine Howe.

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  • Religion, Ethnicity and Contested Nationhood in the Former Ottoman Space [Book Review]

    Drury, Abdullah (2013-07)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    This article reviews the book 'Religion, Ethnicity and Contested Nationhood in the Former Ottoman Space', edited by Jørgen Nielsen, Leiden, Brill.

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  • The Muslim conquest of Iberia: medieval Arabic narratives [Book Review]

    Drury, Abdullah (2012-10)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    This article reviews the book 'The Muslim conquest of Iberia: medieval Arabic narratives', by Nicola Clarke.

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  • Ibn Khaldun: life and times [Book Review]

    Drury, Abdullah (2012-06)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    This article reviews the book 'Ibn Khaldun: life and times', by Allen James Fromherz.

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  • Red star over Iraq: Iraqi Communism before Saddam [Book Review]

    Drury, Abdullah (2012-03)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    This article reviews the book 'Red star over Iraq: Iraqi Communism before Saddam', by Johan Franzén.

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  • Non-Muslims in Muslim majority societies: with focus on the Middle East and Pakistan [Book Review]

    Drury, Abdullah (2012-05)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    This article reviews the book 'Non-Muslims in Muslim majority societies: with focus on the Middle East and Pakistan', edited by Kajsa Ahlstrand and Göran Gunner.

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  • Islam: a short guide to the faith [Book Review]

    Drury, Abdullah (2012-03)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    This article reviews the book 'Islam: a short guide to the faith', edited by Roger Allen and Shawkat M. Toorawa.

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  • The Islamic law of war: justifications and regulations [Book Review]

    Drury, Abdullah (2012-01)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    This article reviews the book 'The Islamic law of war: justifications and regulations', by Ahmed Al-Dawoody.

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  • Women, war and hypocrites: studying the Qur'an [Book Review]

    Drury, Abdullah (2012-01)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    This article reviews the book 'Women, war and hypocrites: studying the Qur'an', by Robert A. Campbell.

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  • The Muslims of medieval Italy [Book Review]

    Drury, Abdullah (2012-01)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    This article reviews the book 'The Muslims of medieval Italy', by Alex Metcalfe.

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  • Universal dimensions of Islam: studies in comparative religion [Book Review]

    Drury, Abdullah (2012-01)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    This article reviews the book 'Universal dimensions of Islam: studies in comparative religion', edited by Patrick Laude.

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  • Islam and contemporary civilization: evolving ideas, transforming relations [Book Review]

    Drury, Abdullah (2012-03)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    This article reviews the book 'Islam and contemporary civilization: evolving ideas, transforming relations', by Halim Rane.

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