26,347 results for Journal article

  • The Emergence of Islam in Late Antiquity: Allah and His People [Book Review]

    Drury, Abdullah (2014-06)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    This article reviews the book 'The Emergence of Islam in Late Antiquity: Allah and His People', by Aziz Al-Azmch.

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  • Efficient quantile regression for heteroscedastic models

    Jung, Yoonsuh; Lee, Yoonkyung; MacEachern, Steve N, (2015)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    Quantile regression (QR) provides estimates of a range of conditional quantiles. This stands in contrast to traditional regression techniques, which focus on a single conditional mean function. Lee et al. [Regularization of case-specific parameters for robustness and efficiency. Statist Sci. 2012;27(3):350–372] proposed efficient QR by rounding the sharp corner of the loss. The main modification generally involves an asymmetric ℓ₂ adjustment of the loss function around zero. We extend the idea of ℓ₂ adjusted QR to linear heterogeneous models. The ℓ₂ adjustment is constructed to diminish as sample size grows. Conditions to retain consistency properties are also provided.

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  • Measuring the Health-related Sustainable Development Goals in 188 Countries: A Baseline Analysis From the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015

    Feigin, V; GBD 2015 SDG Collaborators

    Journal article
    Auckland University of Technology

    Background In September, 2015, the UN General Assembly established the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). The SDGs specify 17 universal goals, 169 targets, and 230 indicators leading up to 2030. We provide an analysis of 33 health-related SDG indicators based on the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2015 (GBD 2015). Methods We applied statistical methods to systematically compiled data to estimate the performance of 33 healthrelated SDG indicators for 188 countries from 1990 to 2015. We rescaled each indicator on a scale from 0 (worst observed value between 1990 and 2015) to 100 (best observed). Indices representing all 33 health-related SDG indicators (health-related SDG index), health-related SDG indicators included in the Millennium Development Goals (MDG index), and health-related indicators not included in the MDGs (non-MDG index) were computed as the geometric mean of the rescaled indicators by SDG target. We used spline regressions to examine the relations between the Socio-demographic Index (SDI, a summary measure based on average income per person, educational attainment, and total fertility rate) and each of the health-related SDG indicators and indices. Findings In 2015, the median health-related SDG index was 59∙3 (95% uncertainty interval 56∙8–61∙8) and varied widely by country, ranging from 85∙5 (84∙2–86∙5) in Iceland to 20∙4 (15∙4–24∙9) in Central African Republic. SDI was a good predictor of the health-related SDG index (r²=0∙88) and the MDG index (r²=0∙92), whereas the non-MDG index had a weaker relation with SDI (r²=0∙79). Between 2000 and 2015, the health-related SDG index improved by a median of 7∙9 (IQR 5∙0–10∙4), and gains on the MDG index (a median change of 10∙0 [6∙7–13∙1]) exceeded that of the non- MDG index (a median change of 5∙5 [2∙1–8∙9]). Since 2000, pronounced progress occurred for indicators such as met need with modern contraception, under-5 mortality, and neonatal mortality, as well as the indicator for universal health coverage tracer interventions. Moderate improvements were found for indicators such as HIV and tuberculosis incidence, minimal changes for hepatitis B incidence took place, and childhood overweight considerably worsened. Interpretation GBD provides an independent, comparable avenue for monitoring progress towards the health-related SDGs. Our analysis not only highlights the importance of income, education, and fertility as drivers of health improvement but also emphasises that investments in these areas alone will not be suffi cient. Although considerable progress on the health-related MDG indicators has been made, these gains will need to be sustained and, in many cases, accelerated to achieve the ambitious SDG targets. The minimal improvement in or worsening of health-related indicators beyond the MDGs highlight the need for additional resources to eff ectively address the expanded scope of the health-related SDGs.

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  • Development of the Standards of Reporting of Neurological Disorders (Strond) Checklist: A Guideline for the Reporting of Incidence and Prevalence Studies in Neuroepidemiology

    Bennett, DA; Brayne, C; Feigin, V; Barker-Collo, S; Brainin, M; Davis, D; Gallo, V; Jetté, N; Karch, A; Kurtzke, JF; Lavados, PM; Logroscino, G; Nagel, G; Preux, PM; Rothwell, PM; Svenson, LW

    Journal article
    Auckland University of Technology

    Background: Incidence and prevalence studies of neurologic disorders play an important role in assessing the burden of disease and planning services. However, the assessment of disease estimates is hindered by problems in reporting for such studies. Despite a growth in published reports, existing guidelines relate to analytical rather than descriptive epidemiologic studies. There are also no user-friendly tools (e.g., checklists) available for authors, editors, and peer reviewers to facilitate best practice in reporting of descriptive epidemiologic studies for most neurologic disorders. Objective: The Standards of Reporting of Neurological Disorders (STROND) is a guideline that consists of recommendations and a checklist to facilitate better reporting of published incidence and prevalence studies of neurologic disorders. Methods: A review of previously developed guidance was used to produce a list of items required for incidence and prevalence studies in neurology. A 3-round Delphi technique was used to identify the “basic minimum items” important for reporting, as well as some additional “ideal reporting items.” An e-consultation process was then used in order to gauge opinion by external neuroepidemiologic experts on the appropriateness of the items included in the checklist. Findings: Of 38 candidate items, 15 items and accompanying recommendations were developed along with a user-friendly checklist. Conclusions: The introduction and use of the STROND checklist should lead to more consistent, transparent, and contextualized reporting of descriptive neuroepidemiologic studies resulting in more applicable and comparable findings and ultimately support better health care decisions.

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  • The Effect of Spinal Position on Sciatic Nerve Excursion During Seated Neural Mobilisation Exercises: An in Vivo Study Using Ultrasound Imaging

    Ellis, R; Osborne, S; Whitefield, J; Parmar, P; Hing, W

    Journal article
    Auckland University of Technology

    Objectives: Research has established that the amount of inherent tension a peripheral nerve tract is exposed to influences nerve excursion and joint range of movement (ROM). The effect that spinal posture has on sciatic nerve excursion during neural mobilisation exercises has yet to be determined. The purpose of this research was to examine the influence of different sitting positions (slump-sitting versus upright-sitting) on the amount of longitudinal sciatic nerve movement during different neural mobilisation exercises commonly used in clinical practice. Methods:High-resolution ultrasound imaging followed by frame-by-frame cross-correlation analysis was used to assess sciatic nerve excursion. Thirty-four healthy participants each performed three different neural mobilisation exercises in slump-sitting and upright-sitting. Means comparisons were used to examine the influence of sitting position on sciatic nerve excursion for the three mobilisation exercises. Linear regression analysis was used to determine whether any of the demographic data represented predictive variables for longitudinal sciatic nerve excursion. Results: There was no significant difference in sciatic nerve excursion (across all neural mobilisation exercises) observed between upright-sitting and slump-sitting positions (P50.26). Although greater body mass index, greater knee ROM and younger age were associated with higher levels of sciatic nerve excursion, this model of variables offered weak predictability (R 2 50.22). Discussion: Following this study, there is no evidence that, in healthy people, longitudinal sciatic nerve excursion differs significantly with regards to the spinal posture (slump-sitting and upright-sitting). Furthermore, although some demographic variables are weak predictors, the high variance suggests that there are other unknown variables that may predict sciatic nerve excursion. It can be inferred from this research that clinicians can individualise the design of seated neural mobilisation exercises, using different seated positions, based upon patient comfort and minimisation of neural mechanosensitivity with the knowledge that sciatic nerve excursion will not be significantly influenced.

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  • Reliable Individual Change in Post Concussive Symptoms in the Year Following Mild Traumatic Brain Injury: Data From the Longitudinal, Population-based Brain Injury Incidence and Outcomes New Zealand in the Community (Bionic) Study

    Barker-Collo, S; Theadom, A; Jones, K; Ameratunga, S; Feigin, V; Starkey, N; Dudley, M; Kahan, M

    Journal article
    Auckland University of Technology

    Objective: Post concussive syndromes (PCS) is common after mild-TBI, yet are not well studied on a population level. This study examined PCS symptoms, including reliable change over time in a population-based sample up to one year post-TBI. Methods: Prospective follow-up of 527 adults (≥16 years) with mild TBI (mTBI) and assessment data (Rivermead Post concussion Questionnaire; RPQ) at baseline, 1, 6, and/or 12-months post-TBI. Change in mean scores and clinically significant change across RPQ items for each person was calculated between assessment time points using a reliable change index (RCI). Results: While prevalence of all symptoms reduced over time, >30% of participants reported fatigue, slowed thinking, and forgetfulness 12-months postinjury. Using the RCI, <12% of individuals improved from baseline to 1-month, 50% from 1 to 6-months, and 4.2% from 6 to 12-months. Conclusions: Improvements in PCS post-mTBI were most obvious between 1 and 6-months, suggesting lengthy recovery trajectory. A third of patients experience residual cognitive problems 12-months following a mTBI, and while many individuals improve post-TBI, a large proportion remain stable or worsen.

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  • Collaborative European Neurotrauma Effectiveness Research in Traumatic Brain Injury (Center-tbi): A Prospective Longitudinal Observational Study

    Theadom, A; Maas, AIR; Menon, D; Steyerberg, EW; Citerio, G; Lecky, F; Manley, GT; Hill, S; Legrand, V; Sorgner, A; On behalf of the CENTER-TBI participants and, I

    Journal article
    Auckland University of Technology

    BACKGROUND: Current classification of traumatic brain injury (TBI) is suboptimal, and management is based on weak evidence, with little attempt to personalize treatment. A need exists for new precision medicine and stratified management approaches that incorporate emerging technologies. OBJECTIVE: To improve characterization and classification of TBI and to identify best clinical care, using comparative effectiveness research approaches. METHODS: This multicenter, longitudinal, prospective, observational study in 22 countries across Europe and Israel will collect detailed data from 5400 consenting patients, presenting within 24 hours of injury, with a clinical diagnosis of TBI and an indication for computed tomography. Broader registry-level data collection in approximately 20 000 patients will assess generalizability. Cross sectional comprehensive outcome assessments, including quality of life and neuropsychological testing, will be performed at 6 months. Longitudinal assessments will continue up to 24 months post TBI in patient subsets. Advanced neuroimaging and genomic and biomarker data will be used to improve characterization, and analyses will include neuroinformatics approaches to address variations in process and clinical care. Results will be integrated with living systematic reviews in a process of knowledge transfer. The study initiation was from October to December 2014, and the recruitment period was for 18 to 24 months. EXPECTED OUTCOMES: Collaborative European NeuroTrauma Effectiveness Research in TBI should provide novel multidimensional approaches to TBI characterization and classification, evidence to support treatment recommendations, and benchmarks for quality of care. Data and sample repositories will ensure opportunities for legacy research. DISCUSSION: Comparative effectiveness research provides an alternative to reductionistic clinical trials in restricted patient populations by exploiting differences in biology, care, and outcome to support optimal personalized patient management.

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  • Epidemiology of Traumatic Brain Injury in Europe: A Living Systematic Review

    Brazinova, A; Rehorcikova, V; Taylor, MS; Buckova, V; Majdan, M; Psota, M; Peeters, W; Feigin, V; Theadom, A; Holkovic, L; Synnot, A

    Journal article
    Auckland University of Technology

    This systematic review provides a comprehensive, up-to-date summary of traumatic brain injury (TBI) epidemiology in Europe, describing incidence, mortality, age, and sex distribution, plus severity, mechanism of injury, and time trends. PubMed, CINAHL, EMBASE, and Web of Science were searched in January 2015 for observational, descriptive, English language studies reporting incidence, mortality, or case fatality of TBI in Europe. There were no limitations according to date, age, or TBI severity. Methodological quality was assessed using the Methodological Evaluation of Observational Research checklist. Data were presented narratively. Sixty-six studies were included in the review. Country-level data were provided in 22 studies, regional population or treatment center catchment area data were reported by 44 studies. Crude incidence rates varied widely. For all ages and TBI severities, crude incidence rates ranged from 47.3 per 100,000, to 694 per 100,000 population per year (country-level studies) and 83.3 per 100,000, to 849 per 100,000 population per year (regional-level studies). Crude mortality rates ranged from 9 to 28.10 per 100,000 population per year (country-level studies), and 3.3 to 24.4 per 100,000 population per year (regional-level studies.) The most common mechanisms of injury were traffic accidents and falls. Over time, the contribution of traffic accidents to total TBI events may be reducing. Case ascertainment and definitions of TBI are variable. Improved standardization would enable more accurate comparisons.

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  • Daytime Napping Associated With Increased Symptom Severity in Fibromyalgia Syndrome

    Theadom, A; Cropley, M; Kantermann, T

    Journal article
    Auckland University of Technology

    Background: Previous qualitative research has revealed that people with fibromyalgia use daytime napping as a coping strategy for managing symptoms against clinical advice. Yet there is no evidence to suggest whether daytime napping is beneficial or detrimental for people with fibromyalgia. The purpose of this study was to explore how people use daytime naps and to determine the links between daytime napping and symptom severity in fibromyalgia syndrome. Methods: A community based sample of 1044 adults who had been diagnosed with fibromyalgia syndrome by a clinician completed an online questionnaire. Associations between napping behavior, sleep quality and fibromyalgia symptoms were explored using Spearman correlations, with possible predictors of napping behaviour entered into a logistic regression model. Differences between participants who napped on a daily basis and those who napped less regularly, as well as nap duration were explored. Results: Daytime napping was significantly associated with increased pain, depression, anxiety, fatigue, memory difficulties and sleep problems. Sleep problems and fatigue explained the greatest amount of variance in napping behaviour, p < 0.010. Those who engaged in daytime naps for >30 minutes had higher memory difficulties (t = -3.45) and levels of depression (t = -2.50) than those who napped for shorter periods (< 0.010). Conclusions: Frequent use and longer duration of daytime napping was linked with greater symptom severity in people with fibromyalgia. Given the common use of daytime napping in people with fibromyalgia evidence based guidelines on the use of daytime napping in people with chronic pain are urgently needed.

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  • Hospitality Entrepreneurship: A Link in the Career Chain

    Journal article
    Auckland University of Technology

    Purpose – This paper investigates the motivational factors behind the transition of successful hospitality entrepreneurs back to paid employment. The study focuses on small business owners because the majority of the New Zealand hospitality industry is represented by small to medium businesses. Methodology – Qualitative methods were employed to understand the reasons for the transition from entrepreneurship to paid employment. Data were collected through sixteen interviews, and analysed using narrative analysis to examine participants’ stories. Findings – Motivational factors were categorised into ten themes: family, work-life imbalance, health and stress, age, planned exit, security and stability of paid employment, education, expectations of others, lack of development, and intuition. Although a combination of motivational factors was expressed by all participants, work-life imbalance was identifed as a consistence influence on decisions to exit entrepreneurship. Research limitations/implications – Research is relatively sparse on the reasons for returning to paid employment from successful hospitality entrepreneurship, so this study provides a new understanding of this phenomenon, as well as the challenges of the work-life balancing issues in entrepreneurship. Although poor work-life balances were self-imposed, the multiple and conflicting expectations of business owners, partners, family, community and customers were identified as contributing influences on exiting owner-operated businesses. Originality/value – This is the first study of the motivations behind the decision to leave a successful New Zealand hospitality business and move into paid employment.

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  • Teachers’ Reflective Practice in the Context of 21st Century Learning: Applying Vagle’s Five-component Post-intentional Plan for Phenomenological Research

    Journal article
    Auckland University of Technology

    Vagle’s ‘post-intentional phenomenological research approach’ applies post-structural thinking to intentionality. I apply his five-component research process, reflect on some initial findings of semi-structured interview discussions with 25 participants, and consider a meta-reflection by some participants on those findings. My larger on-going qualitative research programme is framed by the question: What is the influence of the concept of ‘twenty-first century learning’ on the work of teachers and the strategic actions of leaders at a selection of New Zealand schools? ‘Twenty-first century learning’ manifests in mandated curricula in the form of the skills, competencies, dispositions and attributes required for productive citizenship. In tandem is the parallel shift to digital pedagogies, increasingly enacted in flexible learning spaces. In interviews, participants considered teachers’ reflective practice in relation to teaching and leadership approaches suited to twenty-first century learning. Selected participants further reflected on and responded to these findings. This article demonstrates research in action, and to emphasise the point, should be read following a reading of an earlier article published in this journal [Benade, L. (2015a). Teachers’ critical reflective practice in the context of twenty-first century learning. Open Review of Educational Research, 2(1), 42–54.]

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  • Enhancing Information Literacy: A Practical Exemplar

    Graham, Jeanine; Parsons, Kathryn (2003)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    This case-study outlines a teaching partnership between library and academic staff at the University of Waikato. It describes the strategies adopted to develop greater student information literacy and knowledge of source materials; and demonstrates the inter-relationship between student assignments and library resourcing. Both achievements and areas of difficulty are discussed.

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  • Rapid Particle Size Measurements Used as a Proxy to Control Instant Whole Milk Powder Dispersibility

    Boiarkina, I; Depree, N; Yu, W; Wilson, D; Young, B

    Journal article
    Auckland University of Technology

    Characterising the dispersion of instant whole milk powder (IWMP) into water is a complex dissolution measurement that is both manual and laborious so is normally carried out post production at industrial dryers. However, this means there is no immediate feedback so the functional quality cannot be controlled in real-time. This work proposes the idea of applying a simpler, surrogate measurement that can be implemented in the plant in order to have useful real-time information regarding the quality of the product being produced. This we term is a proxy measurement. The functional property dispersibility was used as a case study, with particle size being investigated as a proxy at an industrial IWMP plant. It was found that particle sizing could be used to provide useful information regarding the powder, with the proxy measurement being able to predict in-specification powder 97% of the time. Although the test was not as effective for predicting out-of-specification results, with an false-positive rate of 50%, the fact that out-of-specification events are rare in the industry setting means that the overall proxy measurement is still between 78—87 % accurate, and thus useful for predicting the dispersibility quality of the IWMP. Furthermore, these proxy measurements can then be combined with on-line plant information using multivariate techniques to further improve their accuracy and understand how the quality can be controlled by changing the plant processing conditions.

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  • University students' difficulties in solving application problems in calculus: student perspectives

    Klymchuk, S; Zverkova, T; Gruenwald, N; Sauerbier, G

    Journal article
    Auckland University of Technology

    This paper reports on the results of an observational parallel study conducted simultaneously at 2 universities – one each in New Zealand and Germany. It deals with university engineering students’ difficulties in the formulation step of solving a typical application problem from a first-year calculus course. Two groups of students (54 in New Zealand and 50 in Germany) completed a questionnaire about their difficulties in solving the problem which was set as part of a mid-semester test. The research endeavoured to find reasons most of the students could not use their knowledge to construct a simple function in a familiar context. It was neither lack of mathematics knowledge nor an issue with the context. The students’ difficulties are analysed and presented along with their suggestions on how to improve their skills in solving application problems.

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  • Sing No Sad Songs

    Arnold, S. (2010)

    Journal article
    Christchurch Polytechnic Institute of Technology, Te Wānanga Ōtautahi

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  • Sunlight on water (short story)

    Arnold, S. (2013)

    Journal article
    Christchurch Polytechnic Institute of Technology, Te Wānanga Ōtautahi

    Sunlight on the water is an excerpt from a novel in progress: The Eshwell bridge witch project.

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  • Parental bereavement: From grief theory to a creative nonfiction perspective on grieving the death of a young adult child from cancer

    Arnold, S. (2008)

    Journal article
    Christchurch Polytechnic Institute of Technology, Te Wānanga Ōtautahi

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  • Gender and health promotion: a feminist perspective

    Yarwood, J. (2002)

    Journal article
    Christchurch Polytechnic Institute of Technology, Te Wānanga Ōtautahi

    Throughout the twentieth century feminist thinking underwent radical change as the women’s movement gained momentum. The social movement of feminism has embraced many guises, from liberal, to Marxist, to the postmodern. However, critical understanding of the experience of women’s oppression has remained the raison d’être of feminist thinking. The relevance of feminist scholarship within the interrelationship of gender and health care will be analysed and debated in this article, through the dominant discourse of health promotion.Throughout the twentieth century feminist thinking underwent radical change as the women’s movement gained momentum. The social movement of feminism has embraced many guises, from liberal, to Marxist, to the postmodern. However, critical understanding of the experience of women’s oppression has remained the raison d’être of feminist thinking. The relevance of feminist scholarship within the interrelationship of gender and health care will be analysed and debated in this article, through the dominant discourse of health promotion.

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  • Outsider influence and the utility of e-mail as an instrument for teaching in developing nations: a case study in Fiji

    Shanahan, M. W. (2006)

    Journal article
    Christchurch Polytechnic Institute of Technology, Te Wānanga Ōtautahi

    The impact of outsider influence in the advancement of human capital in developing nations is well documented1. This paper examines the utility of e-mail as a mechanism for delivery of outsider influence to middle managers in Fiji via a personal management development programme (PMDP). Thirteen participants took part in the PMDP over a six month period. The programme was aimed at enhancing their managerial skills by achievement of a series of negotiated objectives. There was one face-to-face meeting with each participant to set up the programme and negotiate objectives, and a second face-to-face meeting six weeks later to ensure all processes and systems were operational. During the six month duration of the programme, all other correspondence was limited to e-mail only.

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  • Sen's capability approach in designing and implementing poverty reduction programmes: promoting successful local application through focus groups

    Schischka, J. (2009)

    Journal article
    Christchurch Polytechnic Institute of Technology, Te Wānanga Ōtautahi

    At a theoretical level there has been wide acceptance of Amartya Sen’s Capability Approach (CA) in development. However, questions remain regarding operationalization of the approach within the constraints participants and practitioners and other stakeholders face in designing and implementing poverty reduction programmes.

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