25,038 results for Journal article

  • The Effect of Spinal Position on Sciatic Nerve Excursion During Seated Neural Mobilisation Exercises: An in Vivo Study Using Ultrasound Imaging

    Ellis, R; Osborne, S; Whitefield, J; Parmar, P; Hing, W

    Journal article
    Auckland University of Technology

    Objectives: Research has established that the amount of inherent tension a peripheral nerve tract is exposed to influences nerve excursion and joint range of movement (ROM). The effect that spinal posture has on sciatic nerve excursion during neural mobilisation exercises has yet to be determined. The purpose of this research was to examine the influence of different sitting positions (slump-sitting versus upright-sitting) on the amount of longitudinal sciatic nerve movement during different neural mobilisation exercises commonly used in clinical practice. Methods:High-resolution ultrasound imaging followed by frame-by-frame cross-correlation analysis was used to assess sciatic nerve excursion. Thirty-four healthy participants each performed three different neural mobilisation exercises in slump-sitting and upright-sitting. Means comparisons were used to examine the influence of sitting position on sciatic nerve excursion for the three mobilisation exercises. Linear regression analysis was used to determine whether any of the demographic data represented predictive variables for longitudinal sciatic nerve excursion. Results: There was no significant difference in sciatic nerve excursion (across all neural mobilisation exercises) observed between upright-sitting and slump-sitting positions (P50.26). Although greater body mass index, greater knee ROM and younger age were associated with higher levels of sciatic nerve excursion, this model of variables offered weak predictability (R 2 50.22). Discussion: Following this study, there is no evidence that, in healthy people, longitudinal sciatic nerve excursion differs significantly with regards to the spinal posture (slump-sitting and upright-sitting). Furthermore, although some demographic variables are weak predictors, the high variance suggests that there are other unknown variables that may predict sciatic nerve excursion. It can be inferred from this research that clinicians can individualise the design of seated neural mobilisation exercises, using different seated positions, based upon patient comfort and minimisation of neural mechanosensitivity with the knowledge that sciatic nerve excursion will not be significantly influenced.

    View record details
  • Reliable Individual Change in Post Concussive Symptoms in the Year Following Mild Traumatic Brain Injury: Data From the Longitudinal, Population-based Brain Injury Incidence and Outcomes New Zealand in the Community (Bionic) Study

    Barker-Collo, S; Theadom, A; Jones, K; Ameratunga, S; Feigin, V; Starkey, N; Dudley, M; Kahan, M

    Journal article
    Auckland University of Technology

    Objective: Post concussive syndromes (PCS) is common after mild-TBI, yet are not well studied on a population level. This study examined PCS symptoms, including reliable change over time in a population-based sample up to one year post-TBI. Methods: Prospective follow-up of 527 adults (≥16 years) with mild TBI (mTBI) and assessment data (Rivermead Post concussion Questionnaire; RPQ) at baseline, 1, 6, and/or 12-months post-TBI. Change in mean scores and clinically significant change across RPQ items for each person was calculated between assessment time points using a reliable change index (RCI). Results: While prevalence of all symptoms reduced over time, >30% of participants reported fatigue, slowed thinking, and forgetfulness 12-months postinjury. Using the RCI, <12% of individuals improved from baseline to 1-month, 50% from 1 to 6-months, and 4.2% from 6 to 12-months. Conclusions: Improvements in PCS post-mTBI were most obvious between 1 and 6-months, suggesting lengthy recovery trajectory. A third of patients experience residual cognitive problems 12-months following a mTBI, and while many individuals improve post-TBI, a large proportion remain stable or worsen.

    View record details
  • Collaborative European Neurotrauma Effectiveness Research in Traumatic Brain Injury (Center-tbi): A Prospective Longitudinal Observational Study

    Theadom, A; Maas, AIR; Menon, D; Steyerberg, EW; Citerio, G; Lecky, F; Manley, GT; Hill, S; Legrand, V; Sorgner, A; On behalf of the CENTER-TBI participants and, I

    Journal article
    Auckland University of Technology

    BACKGROUND: Current classification of traumatic brain injury (TBI) is suboptimal, and management is based on weak evidence, with little attempt to personalize treatment. A need exists for new precision medicine and stratified management approaches that incorporate emerging technologies. OBJECTIVE: To improve characterization and classification of TBI and to identify best clinical care, using comparative effectiveness research approaches. METHODS: This multicenter, longitudinal, prospective, observational study in 22 countries across Europe and Israel will collect detailed data from 5400 consenting patients, presenting within 24 hours of injury, with a clinical diagnosis of TBI and an indication for computed tomography. Broader registry-level data collection in approximately 20 000 patients will assess generalizability. Cross sectional comprehensive outcome assessments, including quality of life and neuropsychological testing, will be performed at 6 months. Longitudinal assessments will continue up to 24 months post TBI in patient subsets. Advanced neuroimaging and genomic and biomarker data will be used to improve characterization, and analyses will include neuroinformatics approaches to address variations in process and clinical care. Results will be integrated with living systematic reviews in a process of knowledge transfer. The study initiation was from October to December 2014, and the recruitment period was for 18 to 24 months. EXPECTED OUTCOMES: Collaborative European NeuroTrauma Effectiveness Research in TBI should provide novel multidimensional approaches to TBI characterization and classification, evidence to support treatment recommendations, and benchmarks for quality of care. Data and sample repositories will ensure opportunities for legacy research. DISCUSSION: Comparative effectiveness research provides an alternative to reductionistic clinical trials in restricted patient populations by exploiting differences in biology, care, and outcome to support optimal personalized patient management.

    View record details
  • Epidemiology of Traumatic Brain Injury in Europe: A Living Systematic Review

    Brazinova, A; Rehorcikova, V; Taylor, MS; Buckova, V; Majdan, M; Psota, M; Peeters, W; Feigin, V; Theadom, A; Holkovic, L; Synnot, A

    Journal article
    Auckland University of Technology

    This systematic review provides a comprehensive, up-to-date summary of traumatic brain injury (TBI) epidemiology in Europe, describing incidence, mortality, age, and sex distribution, plus severity, mechanism of injury, and time trends. PubMed, CINAHL, EMBASE, and Web of Science were searched in January 2015 for observational, descriptive, English language studies reporting incidence, mortality, or case fatality of TBI in Europe. There were no limitations according to date, age, or TBI severity. Methodological quality was assessed using the Methodological Evaluation of Observational Research checklist. Data were presented narratively. Sixty-six studies were included in the review. Country-level data were provided in 22 studies, regional population or treatment center catchment area data were reported by 44 studies. Crude incidence rates varied widely. For all ages and TBI severities, crude incidence rates ranged from 47.3 per 100,000, to 694 per 100,000 population per year (country-level studies) and 83.3 per 100,000, to 849 per 100,000 population per year (regional-level studies). Crude mortality rates ranged from 9 to 28.10 per 100,000 population per year (country-level studies), and 3.3 to 24.4 per 100,000 population per year (regional-level studies.) The most common mechanisms of injury were traffic accidents and falls. Over time, the contribution of traffic accidents to total TBI events may be reducing. Case ascertainment and definitions of TBI are variable. Improved standardization would enable more accurate comparisons.

    View record details
  • Daytime Napping Associated With Increased Symptom Severity in Fibromyalgia Syndrome

    Theadom, A; Cropley, M; Kantermann, T

    Journal article
    Auckland University of Technology

    Background: Previous qualitative research has revealed that people with fibromyalgia use daytime napping as a coping strategy for managing symptoms against clinical advice. Yet there is no evidence to suggest whether daytime napping is beneficial or detrimental for people with fibromyalgia. The purpose of this study was to explore how people use daytime naps and to determine the links between daytime napping and symptom severity in fibromyalgia syndrome. Methods: A community based sample of 1044 adults who had been diagnosed with fibromyalgia syndrome by a clinician completed an online questionnaire. Associations between napping behavior, sleep quality and fibromyalgia symptoms were explored using Spearman correlations, with possible predictors of napping behaviour entered into a logistic regression model. Differences between participants who napped on a daily basis and those who napped less regularly, as well as nap duration were explored. Results: Daytime napping was significantly associated with increased pain, depression, anxiety, fatigue, memory difficulties and sleep problems. Sleep problems and fatigue explained the greatest amount of variance in napping behaviour, p < 0.010. Those who engaged in daytime naps for >30 minutes had higher memory difficulties (t = -3.45) and levels of depression (t = -2.50) than those who napped for shorter periods (< 0.010). Conclusions: Frequent use and longer duration of daytime napping was linked with greater symptom severity in people with fibromyalgia. Given the common use of daytime napping in people with fibromyalgia evidence based guidelines on the use of daytime napping in people with chronic pain are urgently needed.

    View record details
  • Happiness, welfare and ethics: dissonant consequences and conflicting values

    Clydesdale, G.

    Journal article
    Lincoln University

    This paper draws attention to an uncomfortable ethical issue with regard to happiness and welfare. The introduction of Western healthcare to Africa has resulted in significant population growth, with implications for human and animal welfare. However, the issue of population control or withdrawing health aid raises serious ethical concerns. This paper introduces the ethical problem and the factors giving rise to it. It then provides an exploratory analysis of the various ethical positions from which this problem can be viewed, with an eye to maximising human and animal welfare. Recent psychological work on welfare is considered when discussing the different ethical approaches. The discussion highlights the fact that conflicts in values can occur, and ways of resolving these are discussed.

    View record details
  • Contrasting approaches to fuel poverty in New Zealand

    Lawson, Rob; Williams, John; Wooliscroft, Ben (2015-02-18)

    Journal article
    University of Otago

    We contrast two measures of fuel poverty in New Zealand. The first is based on estimated expenditure of over 10% of household income on fuel. The second is self-reported deprivation of fuel because of an inability to afford it. Households denoted as fuel poor on the two measures are mostly different and the findings suggest that research is needed to investigate if different households make different trade-offs between expenditure on fuel and other necessities.

    View record details
  • Understanding the energy consumption choices and coping mechanisms of fuel poor households in New Zealand

    McKague, Fatima; Lawson, Rob; Scott, Michelle; Wooliscroft, Ben (2016)

    Journal article
    University of Otago

    One in four households in New Zealand are fuel poor. A growing body of evidence links the technical and economic aspects of this phenomenon, however comparatively little research has focused on the wider social impacts. The behavioural and social interactions associated with fuel poverty have not taken centre stage in the literature. This study presents, through fuel poor households’ voices, the realities of living in energy hardship, and the impact on day to day lives. Our research finds that fuel poverty impacts widely on the quality of life of participants, and highlights the barriers and support systems in place that may hinder or help their circumstances. This in depth, multi-faceted portrayal of fuel poverty will aid in policy development and contribute to efforts to curtail fuel poverty in New Zealand.

    View record details
  • Plant mutualisms with rhizosphere microbiota in introduced versus native ranges

    Shelby, N.; Duncan, Richard P.; van der Putten, W. H.; McGinn, K. J.; Weser, Carolin; Hulme, Philip E.

    Journal article
    Lincoln University

    © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Ecology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British Ecological Society. The performance of introduced plants can be limited by the availability of soil mutualists outside their native range, but how interactions with mutualists differ between ranges is largely unknown. If mutualists are absent, incompatible or parasitic, plants may compensate by investing more in root biomass, adapting to be more selective or by maximizing the benefits associated with the mutualists available. We tested these hypotheses using seven non-agricultural species of Trifolium naturalized in New Zealand (NZ). We grew seeds from two native (Spain, UK) and one introduced (NZ) provenance of each species in glasshouse pots inoculated with rhizosphere microbiota collected from conspecifics in each region. We compared how plant biomass, degree of colonization by rhizobia and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), and the growth benefit associated with each mutualist differed between provenances (native and introduced populations) when grown with soil microbiota from each region. We also tested whether the growth benefit of colonization by mutualists was correlated with the extent to which alien plants were distributed in the introduced range. Rhizobia colonization was generally lower among introduced relative to native provenances. In NZ soils, 9% of all plants lacked rhizobia and 16% hosted parasitic nodules, whereas in native-range soils, there was no evidence of parasitism and all but one plant hosted rhizobia. Growth rates as a factor of rhizobia colonization were always highest when plants were grown in soil from their home range. Colonization by AMF was similar for all provenances in all soils but for four out of seven species grown in NZ soils, the level of AMF colonization was negatively correlated with growth rate. In general, introduced provenances did not compensate for lower growth rates or lower mutualist associations by decreasing shoot–root ratios. Synthesis. Despite differences between introduced and native provenances in their associations with soil mutualists and substantial evidence of parasitism in the introduced range, neither level of colonization by mutualists nor the growth benefit associated with colonization was correlated with the extent of species’ distributions in the introduced range, suggesting mutualist associations are not predictive of invasion success for these species.

    View record details
  • Hospitality Entrepreneurship: A Link in the Career Chain

    Journal article
    Auckland University of Technology

    Purpose – This paper investigates the motivational factors behind the transition of successful hospitality entrepreneurs back to paid employment. The study focuses on small business owners because the majority of the New Zealand hospitality industry is represented by small to medium businesses. Methodology – Qualitative methods were employed to understand the reasons for the transition from entrepreneurship to paid employment. Data were collected through sixteen interviews, and analysed using narrative analysis to examine participants’ stories. Findings – Motivational factors were categorised into ten themes: family, work-life imbalance, health and stress, age, planned exit, security and stability of paid employment, education, expectations of others, lack of development, and intuition. Although a combination of motivational factors was expressed by all participants, work-life imbalance was identifed as a consistence influence on decisions to exit entrepreneurship. Research limitations/implications – Research is relatively sparse on the reasons for returning to paid employment from successful hospitality entrepreneurship, so this study provides a new understanding of this phenomenon, as well as the challenges of the work-life balancing issues in entrepreneurship. Although poor work-life balances were self-imposed, the multiple and conflicting expectations of business owners, partners, family, community and customers were identified as contributing influences on exiting owner-operated businesses. Originality/value – This is the first study of the motivations behind the decision to leave a successful New Zealand hospitality business and move into paid employment.

    View record details
  • Teachers’ Reflective Practice in the Context of 21st Century Learning: Applying Vagle’s Five-component Post-intentional Plan for Phenomenological Research

    Journal article
    Auckland University of Technology

    Vagle’s ‘post-intentional phenomenological research approach’ applies post-structural thinking to intentionality. I apply his five-component research process, reflect on some initial findings of semi-structured interview discussions with 25 participants, and consider a meta-reflection by some participants on those findings. My larger on-going qualitative research programme is framed by the question: What is the influence of the concept of ‘twenty-first century learning’ on the work of teachers and the strategic actions of leaders at a selection of New Zealand schools? ‘Twenty-first century learning’ manifests in mandated curricula in the form of the skills, competencies, dispositions and attributes required for productive citizenship. In tandem is the parallel shift to digital pedagogies, increasingly enacted in flexible learning spaces. In interviews, participants considered teachers’ reflective practice in relation to teaching and leadership approaches suited to twenty-first century learning. Selected participants further reflected on and responded to these findings. This article demonstrates research in action, and to emphasise the point, should be read following a reading of an earlier article published in this journal [Benade, L. (2015a). Teachers’ critical reflective practice in the context of twenty-first century learning. Open Review of Educational Research, 2(1), 42–54.]

    View record details
  • Enhancing Information Literacy: A Practical Exemplar

    Graham, Jeanine; Parsons, Kathryn (2003)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    This case-study outlines a teaching partnership between library and academic staff at the University of Waikato. It describes the strategies adopted to develop greater student information literacy and knowledge of source materials; and demonstrates the inter-relationship between student assignments and library resourcing. Both achievements and areas of difficulty are discussed.

    View record details
  • Rapid Particle Size Measurements Used as a Proxy to Control Instant Whole Milk Powder Dispersibility

    Boiarkina, I; Depree, N; Yu, W; Wilson, D; Young, B

    Journal article
    Auckland University of Technology

    Characterising the dispersion of instant whole milk powder (IWMP) into water is a complex dissolution measurement that is both manual and laborious so is normally carried out post production at industrial dryers. However, this means there is no immediate feedback so the functional quality cannot be controlled in real-time. This work proposes the idea of applying a simpler, surrogate measurement that can be implemented in the plant in order to have useful real-time information regarding the quality of the product being produced. This we term is a proxy measurement. The functional property dispersibility was used as a case study, with particle size being investigated as a proxy at an industrial IWMP plant. It was found that particle sizing could be used to provide useful information regarding the powder, with the proxy measurement being able to predict in-specification powder 97% of the time. Although the test was not as effective for predicting out-of-specification results, with an false-positive rate of 50%, the fact that out-of-specification events are rare in the industry setting means that the overall proxy measurement is still between 78—87 % accurate, and thus useful for predicting the dispersibility quality of the IWMP. Furthermore, these proxy measurements can then be combined with on-line plant information using multivariate techniques to further improve their accuracy and understand how the quality can be controlled by changing the plant processing conditions.

    View record details
  • Use of social media in the Australian and New Zealand wine industries

    Forbes, S. L.; Goodman, S.; Dolan, R.

    Journal article
    Lincoln University

    Wineries are keen to adopt social media, but they struggle to identify the return on investment and there appears to be a distinct level of strategy regarding adoption. Sharon L Forbes, from the Faculty of Agribusiness and Markets at Lincoln University, New Zealand; together with Steve Goodman and Rebecca Dolan, from the Marketing & Management department of The University of Adelaide's Business School, have surveyed wineries about social media use and the perceived benefits.

    View record details
  • Translocations of North Island kokako, 1981-2011

    Innes, J.; Molles, Laura; Speed, H.

    Journal article
    Lincoln University

    The North Island kokako (Callaeas wilsoni) is a threatened endemic passerine whose distribution has declined greatly on the New Zealand mainland due primarily to predation by ship rats (Rattus rattus) and brushtail possums (Trichosurus vulpecula). It persists in 21 populations, of which 10 (48%) have been established by translocation, and 1 has been supplemented by translocation. Of the 11 populations subject to translocation, 4 are on islands and the remainder are on the mainland; 7 translocations have resulted in successful new or supplemented populations and another 4 translocations are in progress. Translocations to another 5 sites did not establish breeding populations for various reasons. In total, there were 94 translocations of 286 kokako to the 16 sites, and the number released at a site averaged 18 (range 3-33) birds. Kokako were released at a site over an average period of 49 months (range 1-159 months) with a mean of 3 birds (maximum 10) released per day. The small numbers of kokako released and the long time required to complete a translocation were due to the difficulty and high expense of catching kokako. Translocations will continue to be important for the conservation of this species, to establish further new populations and to limit inbreeding depression and allele loss in existing populations.

    View record details
  • Sexually dimorphic vocalisations of the great spotted kiwi (Apteryx haastii)

    Dent, J. M.; Molles, Laura

    Journal article
    Lincoln University

    © The Ornithological Society of New Zealand Inc. Kiwi (Apteryx spp.) are the most vocal of the ratites. Of the 5 Apteryx species only 2 have previously been subject to detailed vocal analysis: the North Island brown kiwi (A. mantelli) and the little spotted kiwi (A. owenii). This paper describes the vocalisations of the great spotted kiwi (A. haastii), the largest of the Apteryx species. Acoustic recorders were installed near the breeding den sites of 7 great spotted kiwi pairs residing in Hawdon Valley, Canterbury between November 2012 and March 2013. A total of 133 whistle vocalisations from 10 individuals were subject to detailed temporal and spectral analysis. Male and female syllables were found to be sexually dimorphic; syllables in male calls tended to be longer and more highly pitched than their female counterparts. Despite this dimorphism, patterns of intra-call variation were consistent between the sexes. It appears that intra-call variation is a trait which varies markedly within the Apteryx genus.

    View record details
  • "Acoustic anchoring" and the successful translocation of North Island kokako (Callaeas cinerea wilsoni) to a New Zealand mainland management site within continuous forest

    Molles, Laura; Calcott, A.; Peters, D.; Delamare, G.; Hudson, J. D.; Innes, J.; Flux, I.; Waas, J. R.

    Journal article
    Lincoln University

    In Jul and Aug 2005, 18 North Is kokako (Callaeas cinerea wilsoni) were released into a 450-ha area of New Zealand native forest subject to intensive control of introduced mammalian predators. The area, Ngapukeriki (near Omaio, Bay of Plenty, New Zealand), lies within a 13,000-ha matrix of native and exotic forest subject to lower and variable degrees of predator control. In contrast to most previous kokako translocations, this project employed 3 tactics to maximise the likelihood that kokako would remain in the target area: 1) many birds were released in a short period; 2) playback of kokako song was broadcast in the release area (potentially creating an “acoustic anchor”); and 3) a kokako pair was held at the release site in an aviary. Most birds approached to within 20 m of playback speakers, some approaching repeatedly. Several interactions between released birds were observed, including vocal interactions and instances of birds associating with one another temporarily. Visits to the aviary pair were rare. On 13 Apr 2006, all 8 trackable birds and 4 birds whose transmitters had failed remained in the core management area; locations of remaining birds (with lost or non-functional transmitters) were unknown. At least 5 territorial pairs had formed, and 1 chick was known to have fledged. To our knowledge, this was the 1st time song playback had been used as an attractant in a terrestrial bird reintroduction.

    View record details
  • University students' difficulties in solving application problems in calculus: student perspectives

    Klymchuk, S; Zverkova, T; Gruenwald, N; Sauerbier, G

    Journal article
    Auckland University of Technology

    This paper reports on the results of an observational parallel study conducted simultaneously at 2 universities – one each in New Zealand and Germany. It deals with university engineering students’ difficulties in the formulation step of solving a typical application problem from a first-year calculus course. Two groups of students (54 in New Zealand and 50 in Germany) completed a questionnaire about their difficulties in solving the problem which was set as part of a mid-semester test. The research endeavoured to find reasons most of the students could not use their knowledge to construct a simple function in a familiar context. It was neither lack of mathematics knowledge nor an issue with the context. The students’ difficulties are analysed and presented along with their suggestions on how to improve their skills in solving application problems.

    View record details
  • Sing No Sad Songs

    Arnold, S. (2010)

    Journal article
    Christchurch Polytechnic Institute of Technology, Te Wānanga Ōtautahi

    View record details
  • Sunlight on water (short story)

    Arnold, S. (2013)

    Journal article
    Christchurch Polytechnic Institute of Technology, Te Wānanga Ōtautahi

    Sunlight on the water is an excerpt from a novel in progress: The Eshwell bridge witch project.

    View record details