26,203 results for Journal article

  • Testing the diagnostic efficacy of the iPad2 for emergency radiologic consultation in rural New Zealand

    Hayes, J. (2012)

    Journal article
    Christchurch Polytechnic Institute of Technology, Te Wānanga Ōtautahi

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine whether the diagnostic accuracy of handheld computing devices is comparable to that of monitors that might be used in emergency teleconsultation. Subjects and Methods: One handheld device, an Apple iPad2 was studied. The diagnostic efficacy of this device was tested against that of secondary-class monitor - the reference standard (primary class being clinical workstation display) for images of slices from CT of the brain. Participants read 100 brain images looking for a specific abnormality (example: fresh intracranial bleed) and rated their confidence in their decisions. Participants were timed but told that the timing was for statistical purposes only, so we could compare the time taken to read images on both monitors. Readings were by Intensive Care physician consultants. These consultants were selected as they were the ideal professional to review images of CT heads with the ability to take part in study. Results: Despite experiencing slower workflow, clinicians evaluating patients for injuries reported similar diagnostic performance regardless of whether they read images from Apple's iPad2 or a traditional LCD monitor. The results are encouraging and indicate that from a hardware perspective, the iPad2 display is suitable for preliminary emergency interpretation.

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  • Ayersacarus, an endemic mite genus from Zealandian seabird nest environments: revision, with four new species (Acari: Mesostigmata: Leptolaelapidae)

    Clark, J. M.; Hawke, D. J. (2012)

    Journal article
    Christchurch Polytechnic Institute of Technology, Te Wānanga Ōtautahi

    Four new species of Ayersacarus Hunter (Acari: Mesostigmata: Leptolaelapidae) are described: A. hurleyi sp. n. from Stephens I./Takapourewa (Cook Strait, New Zealand); A. forsteri sp. n. from Pitt I./Rangiauria, Chatham Is.; A. knoxi sp. n. from Snares Is./Tini Heke; and A. savilli sp. n. from Stewart I./Rakiura (New Zealand). Prestacarus gen. n. is proposed with Ayersacarus tilbrooki Hunter, 1967 from South Georgia as the type species. This restores Hunter's original 1964 conception of the genus and leaves Ayersacarus with nine species confined to Zealandia. A key to the females of all nine Ayersacarus species is included. All Ayersacarus and Prestacarus species are restricted to seabird nests and their immediate environs.

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  • Developing and embedding inquiry-guided learning across an institution

    Jenkins, M.; Healey, M. (2012)

    Journal article
    Christchurch Polytechnic Institute of Technology, Te Wānanga Ōtautahi

    This chapter presents a case study of how inquiry-guided learning has been developed and embedded within a small university in the United Kingdom. It highlights the different theoretical and conceptual frameworks that contributed to our evolving understanding of inquiry-guided learning and the importance of recognizing and working with disciplinary differences.

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  • Analgesia for relief of pain due to uterine cramping/involution after birth

    Deussen, A.; Ashwood, P.; Martis, R. (2011)

    Journal article
    Christchurch Polytechnic Institute of Technology, Te Wānanga Ōtautahi

    Background: Women may experience differing types of pain and discomfort following birth, including cramping after birth pains associated with uterine involution. Objectives: To assess the effectiveness and safety of analgesia for relief of after birth pains following vaginal birth. Search methods: We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (31 December 2010) and the reference lists of trials and review articles. Selection criteria: All identified published and unpublished randomised controlled trials comparing two different types of analgesia or analgesia with placebo or analgesia with no treatment, for the relief of after birth pains following vaginal birth. Types of analgesia included pharmacological and non-pharmacological. Data collection and analysis: Two review authors assessed trial quality and extracted data independently. Main results: We have included 18 studies (involving 1498 women) in this review. However, only nine of the included studies (with 750 women) reported 24 comparisons of analgesia with other analgesia or placebo and had data that could be included in our meta-analyses. The majority of studies investigated pharmacological analgesics and these were grouped into classes for this review. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) were significantly better than placebo at relieving pain from uterine involution as assessed by their summed pain intensity differences (SPID) (mean difference (MD) 4.34; 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.87 to 5.82; three studies, 204 women) and summed pain relief scores (MD 5.94; 95% CI 3.83 to 8.01; three studies, 204 women). NSAIDS were compared with opioids in one small study of 23 women reporting SPID and summed pain relief and found no difference. A larger study of 127 women found NSAIDs to be significantly better than opioids at reducing pain intensity six hours following study intervention (MD -0.70; 95% CI -1.04 to -0.35). Opioids were compared with placebo in three studies that could be included in meta-analyses; one small study of 23 women reporting SPID and summed pain relief and found no difference. One study of 95 women found no difference in pain intensity six hours following the study intervention. A third study of 108 women found significantly more women in the placebo group reported no pain relief than women in the opioid group (risk ratio 0.10; 95% CI 0.04 to 0.23). Aspirin was significantly better than paracetamol when pain intensity score was assessed six hours after study intervention (MD 0.85; 95% CI 0.29 to 1.41; one study 48 women) at relieving pain from uterine involution. Paracetamol was not better than placebo when pain intensity was assessed six hours after the study intervention in one study of 48 women. Authors' conclusions: Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) including aspirin were better than placebo at relieving pain from uterine cramping/involution following vaginal birth. NSAIDs were better than paracetamol and paracetamol was not better than placebo, though numbers of participants for these comparisons were small. Data for opioids compared with NSAIDs and opioids compared with placebo were conflicting, with some measures showing similar effect and others indicating NSAIDs were better than opioids and opioids were not better than placebo. There were insufficient data to make conclusions regarding the effectiveness of opioids at relieving pain from uterine cramping/involution. The median year of publication of included studies was 1981; therefore more research is needed to assess the effectiveness of current pharmacological and non-pharmacological analgesia at relieving pain from uterine cramping/involution following vaginal birth.

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  • Influence of wastewater treatment process and the populationsize on human virus profiles in wastewater

    Hewitt , J.; Leonard, M.; Greening, G; Lewis, G. (2011)

    Journal article
    Christchurch Polytechnic Institute of Technology, Te Wānanga Ōtautahi

    Human adenovirus (AdV and AdV species F), enterovirus (EV) and norovirus (NoV) concentrations entering wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) serving different-sized communities, and effectiveness of different treatment processes in reducing concentrations were established. Data was combined to create a characteristic and unique descriptor of the individual viral composition and termed as the sample virus profile. Virus profiles were generally independent of population size and treatment process (moving bed biofilm reactors, activated sludge, waste stabilisation ponds). AdV and EV concentrations in wastewater were more variable in small (130,000 inhabitants) plants. AdV and EV concentrations were detected in influent of most WWTP (AdV range 1.00e4.08 log10 infectious units (IU)/L, 3.25e8.62 log10 genome copies/L; EV range 0.7e3.52 log10 plaque forming units (PFU)/L; 2.84e6.67 log10 genome copies/L) with a reduced median concentration in effluent (AdV range 0.70e3.26 log10 IU/L, 2.97e6.95 log10 genome copies/L; EV range 0.7e2.15 log10PFU/L, 1.54e5.28 log10 genome copies/L). Highest culturable AdV and EV concentrations in effluent were from a medium-sized WWTP. NoV was sporadic in all WWTP with GI and GII concentrations being similar in influent (range 2.11e4.64 and 2.19e5.46 log10 genome copies/L) as in effluent (range 2.18e5.06 and 2.88e5.46 log10 genome copies/L). Effective management of WWTP requires recognition that virus concentration in influent will vary -particularly in small and medium plants. Irrespective of treatment type, culturable viruses and NoV are likely to be present in non-disinfected effluent, with associated human health risks dependent on concentration and receiving water usage.

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  • Survey of evidence-based practice use and understanding among final (5th) year medical students in South-East Asia

    Martis, R.; Ho, J.; Crowther, C. (2011)

    Journal article
    Christchurch Polytechnic Institute of Technology, Te Wānanga Ōtautahi

    The SEA-ORCHID project (South East Asia - Optimising Reproductive Child Health in Developing countries) initiated a survey among undergraduate medical students at five South-East Asia universities to ascertain their understanding of evidence-based practice, information seeking practices, access to Information Technology and evidencebased databases as well as their understanding of clinical practice guidelines. The survey took place during August to December 2006 and was completed by 172 fifth year undergraduate medical students. The findings from this survey indicate that fifth year undergraduate medical students from the participating five South East Asian universities need to be well equipped in knowing what databases exist, how to search these and how to critically appraise the information obtained. This need, plus a lack of exposure to clinical practice guideline appraisal and development, highlights some of the issues medical students encounter when attempting to learn and practice evidence-based practice effectively.

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  • Problem-based learning in a technical course in computing: A case study

    Correia, E.; Watson, R. (2010)

    Journal article
    Christchurch Polytechnic Institute of Technology, Te Wānanga Ōtautahi

    Problem-based learning has been well-documented, from its early days in the teaching of medical professionals to its more recent use in other disciplines. It has been adopted in many educational institutions because it gives students a realistic problem and provides opportunities to translate knowledge into solutions. This article is a case study of this approach at a second-year technical course, in which members of the class were divided into groups and given a scenario concerning a fictitious organisation about to embark on a major upgrade to its existing and problematic networking infrastructure. The course consisted of two parts. The first group was provided with a set of virtual machines to upgrade, and the second group chose and implemented a major technology on this newly upgraded network. The authors outline how problem-based learning is used in this context in a way that informs the teaching of any technical computing course.

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  • Enablers and constraints to the use of inquiry-based learning in undergraduate education

    Spronken-Smith, R.; Walker, R.; Batchelor, J.; O'Steen, B.; Angelo, T. (2011)

    Journal article
    Christchurch Polytechnic Institute of Technology, Te Wānanga Ōtautahi

    This study involved a meta-analysis of 10 cases of inquiry-based learning (IBL) in undergraduate education to determine the factors which both enable and constrain its use. The enabling factors were found to include: teacher attributes – being student-centred, reflective but rebellious; course design attributes – questions stimulating learning, collaborative learning, progressive development of inquiry skills, required student preparation and constructive alignment; department and institutional attributes – IBL being more accepted if permeating a whole programme, the pivotal role of supportive senior management and assistance by staff developers. The major constraints were gaining philosophical buy-in to inquiry approaches; supporting transition to inquiry; developing self-reflection skills; and coping with varied assessment products. Departmental and institutional challenges included timetables and room allocation and the difficulty of recruiting teachers in a research intensive environment. Some strategies are suggested to help overcome these barriers.

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  • Dancing to sustainable tunes: An exploration of music festivals and sustainable practices in Aotearoa

    O'Rourke, S.; Irwin, D.; Straker, J. (2011)

    Journal article
    Christchurch Polytechnic Institute of Technology, Te Wānanga Ōtautahi

    Living sustainable lifestyles that meet the needs of current generations without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs has become a driving force for social change. Music festivals are contextualized within this setting and can provide both a site to encourage environmentally responsible behaviours and a place for communities of likeminded people to meet. A sense of community and freedom, efficient festival organization, good music, and being in the outdoors are all aspects of positive festival experiences, but so too does caring for the local environment and community. This paper discusses a qualitative research project that investigates the extent and impact of sustainability-related social and environmental aspects of music festival experiences. Tentative conclusions suggest that the way festival organizers plan for social and environmental impacts directly influences the experience of those attending, but also has the potential to instigate social and environmental change in ways which at present are largely untapped.

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  • Social exclusion and poverty: Translating social capital into accessible resources

    Boon, B.; Farnsworth, J. (2011)

    Journal article
    Christchurch Polytechnic Institute of Technology, Te Wānanga Ōtautahi

    This article investigates the dynamic multi-dimensional processes through which the poor become excluded from social participation. Drawing on social capital literature, it traces how bridging and bonding capital do not always translate into expected levels of social participation. It does so by detailing research findings from low income focus groups undertaken in Dunedin, New Zealand. These describe the experiences of group members in attempting to manage connections around employment, their own broader social participation or the participation of their children. In each case, the study highlights the difficulties of translation they experienced: in particular, translating available bridging or bonding capital into useful social, cultural or economic resources which could mitigate their social exclusion or enable fuller social participation.

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  • A new sub-alpine mite from New Zealand (Acari: Astigmatina: Histiostomatidae)

    Clark, J. (2010)

    Journal article
    Christchurch Polytechnic Institute of Technology, Te Wānanga Ōtautahi

    The female, male, tritonymph and hypopus of Histiostoma montanum new species is described and illustrated from the sub-alpine shrub Brachyglottis elaeagnifolia litter at 11001300 m, North Egmont, Mt Egmont, Taranaki, New Zealand.

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  • A new hypertrichous larval Erythrites (Erythraeinae) from Banks Peninsula, New Zealand

    Clark, J. (2013)

    Journal article
    Christchurch Polytechnic Institute of Technology, Te Wānanga Ōtautahi

    Erythrites otamahua sp. n. is described from three unfed larvae recovered from pitfall traps on Otamahua (Quail) Island, Lyttelton Harbour, and Banks Peninsula, New Zealand. This hypertrichous mite bears an idiosoma clothed in 99 dark, dorsal setae; has up to 5 pairs of scutalae all longer than 100 microns and a scutum much wider (W) than long (L), (L:W = 0.673). All legs are long; >800 microns and genua I bears one σ solenidion. It is most similar to Erythrites reginae (Hirst, 1928) and Erythrites urrbrae (Womersley, 1934), both Australian species. It is posited that the hypertrichous idiosoma confers solar gain advantage to these larvae seeking a host at higher latitudes.

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  • The effect of physical activity on serum lipids, lipoprotein, and apolipoproteins

    Shearman, J. P.; Micklewright, D.; Hardcastle, J.; Hamlin, M.; Draper, N. (2010)

    Journal article
    Christchurch Polytechnic Institute of Technology, Te Wānanga Ōtautahi

    The aim of this study was to measure apolipoprotein-A1 and apolipoprotein-B serum concentrations during a physical activity program. Serum apolipoprotein concentrations may be a more sensitive indicator of coronary heart disease (CHD) risk than total cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoproteins and high density lipoproteins. Design: Thirty-seven sedentary, healthy adult males were randomly allocated to an exercise group (n=20) who underwent 12 weeks of aerobic physical activity or a sedentary group (n=17) who acted as non- exercising controls. Results: The exercise group increased their aerobic capacity (from 33±4 mL•kg-1•min-1 to 40±4 mL•kg-1•min-1) but the sedentary group did not. The percentage of body fat decreased in the exercise group (from 21.8% to 19.5%) but remained unchanged in the sedentary group. Serum cholesterol, lipoprotein and apolipoprotein concentrations did not change but serum triglyceride concentrations were reduced in the exercise group (from 1.8±1.3 mmol•L-1 to 1.2±0.4 mmol•L-1, p<0.05) but not in the sedentary group. Conclusion: Apolipoprotein concentrations in sedentary males are no more sensitive than other serum lipid concentrations but are appropriate for monitoring CHD risk-factor change during short-term light exercise interventions.

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  • The EU as a force to ‘Do good’: the EU’s wider influence on environmental matters

    Fini, M. (2011)

    Journal article
    Christchurch Polytechnic Institute of Technology, Te Wānanga Ōtautahi

    This research paper examines the capacity of the EU to exercise its influence in relation to environmental matters beyond its Member States. More specifically, this paper identifies that EU law and policy has the potential to influence environmental laws and business practices in New Zealand. Two hypotheses are put forward: first, that the EU can use its market force in such a way as to influence laws in third countries such as New Zealand - that is, relatively small countries seeking economies of scale and for whom the EU represents a valuable market. It is suggested that such influence can be observed in New Zealand through a spill-over effect in product standards for those goods exported to the EU and sold within New Zealand. Secondly, it is argued that the EU overcomes legal jurisdictional limits by relentlessly pursuing the adoption of its environmental policies and practices outside the EU through international consensus.

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  • New erythraeids (Parasitengona) from recent glacial outwash, Southern Alps, New Zealand; Callidosoma, Momorangia, Grandjeanella, and Pukakia gen. nov.; with a description of the deutonymph of Callidosoma tiki

    Clark, J. (2014)

    Journal article
    Christchurch Polytechnic Institute of Technology, Te Wānanga Ōtautahi

    Callidosoma susanae sp. nov., Momorangia chambersi sp. nov., Grandjeanella macfarlanei sp. nov. and Pukakia aoraki gen. nov., sp. nov., are described from recent glacial outwash in a braided river bed, Southern Alps, New Zealand. Two species previously placed in Momorangia Southcott, 1972 are removed. Neomomorangia Fain and Santiago-Blay, 1993 stat. nov. from Brazil is given generic status, and a Kenyan species is moved to Charletonia Oudemans, 1910 as Charletonia gabini (Haitlinger 2004b) comb. nov. Grandjeanella emanueli Haitlinger, 2010, Grandjeanella londaensis Haitlinger, 2011 and Callidosoma matsumuratettix Tseng et al. 1976 are left as species inquirendae. Pussardia Southcott, 1961, Harpagella Southcott, 1996 and Pukakia gen. nov. are placed in Abrolophinae, Witte, 1995. New host records are given for Callidosoma tiki Southcott, 1972 and Momorangia jacksoni Southcott, 1972. The deutonymph of Callidosoma tiki is described.

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  • Supporting New Zealand graduate midwives to stay in the profession: An evaluation of the Midwifery First Year of Practice programme

    Dixon,L; Calvert,S; Tumilty, E; Kensington, M; Gray, E; Campbell, N; Lennox, S; Pairman, S (2015)

    Journal article
    Christchurch Polytechnic Institute of Technology, Te Wānanga Ōtautahi

    Background: the transition from undergraduate midwifery student to working as a confident midwife can be challenging for many newly qualified midwives. Supporting a smooth transition may have a positive impact on the confidence and retention of the new graduates with in the workforce. In New Zealand the Midwifery First Year of Practice programme (MFYP) was introduced in 2007 as a structured programme of support for new graduate midwives for the whole of their first year of practice.The main components of the programme include support during clinical practice, provision of a funded mentor midwife chosen by the new graduate midwife, financial assistance for education and a requirement to undertake aquality assessment and reflection process at the end of the first year. Aim: the aim of this study was to explore the retention of new graduates in midwifery practice following participation in the Midwifery First Year of Practice programme. Method: data was obtained from the register of MFYP participants between the years 2007 and 2010. This data was cross referenced with the Midwifery Council of New Zealand register and work force data for 2012. Findings: between the years 2007 and 2010 there were 441 midwives who graduated from a midwifery pre-registration education programme in New Zealand. Of these 415 participated in the MFYP programme. The majority were of New Zealand European ethnicity with 10% identifying as Māori. The mean age of participants reduced from 36.4 (SD 7.3) in 2007 to 33.4 (SD 8.1) in 2010. The overall retention rate for new graduate midwives who had participated in the MFYP programme was 86.3%, with 358 midwives still pracising in 2012. Conclusion: there is good retention of new graduate midwives within New Zealand and the MFYP programme would appear to support retention.

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  • Analysing group dynamics within the focus group

    Farnsworth, J.; Boon, B. (2010)

    Journal article
    Christchurch Polytechnic Institute of Technology, Te Wānanga Ōtautahi

    Focus groups are routinely used as a research tool in a wide variety of settings. Based on recent experience with poverty research, we argue this method needs to be problematized and further rethought. The article draws on focus group studies conducted over seven years to argue that the method routinely excludes a key area of group interaction: group dynamics. Our work underlines how these are central to shaping group participation as well as the themes, absences and forms of reporting in studies. We employ Whitaker and Lieberman’s (1964) focal conflict theory as a methodology to follow the configuration of these dynamics within a group setting. Drawing on this analytic framework, and examples from the study, we argue that an orientation to group relations is essential to expanding the method’s sensitivity as an effective research procedure.

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  • Outdoor learning in Aotearoa New Zealand: Voices past, present, and future

    Cosgriff, M.; Legge, M.; Brown, M.; Boyes, M.; Zink, R.; Irwin, D. (2012)

    Journal article
    Christchurch Polytechnic Institute of Technology, Te Wānanga Ōtautahi

    Many of the principles and practices that have influenced outdoor education in Aotearoa New Zealand find their genesis in the United Kingdom and North America. In recent times, many of these foundational assumptions have been called into question. This paper highlights how emerging ‘local’ voices are questioning and reframing how outdoor education is conceptualised and practiced. In large part this is due to a sense of distinctiveness borne from the bicultural foundations that underpin governance and policy-making. This paper explores how outdoor educators are developing pedagogies that acknowledge the particularities of our context, particularly the bicultural foundation of Aotearoa New Zealand. The paper highlights how social and cultural influences shape educational policy and how outdoor educators are responding, both theoretically and practically, to meet the needs of learners in an increasingly diverse society.

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  • Crafting an occupational identity: Learning the precepts of craftsmanship through apprenticeship

    Chan, S. (2014)

    Journal article
    Christchurch Polytechnic Institute of Technology, Te Wānanga Ōtautahi

    The term craftsmanship is associated with pre-industrial craft work with inferences to skilled artisanal manufacture of bespoke products. Apprenticeship learning is often perceived to be synonymous with learning craftsmanship. How then is the trait of craftsmanship through attainment of specific artisanal approaches conveyed and learnt through apprenticeship? This article presents and discusses processes imposed on and utilised by apprentices to attain precepts of artisanal approaches. The dispositional and skill elements of craftsmanship are proposed to be adopted through engagement with and development of craft and workplace specific approaches to contend with aspects of Pye’s (1968) conceptualisation of ‘workmanship of risk’ or the article’s proposed term of ‘artisanal approach of risk’.

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  • Applying user interface guidelines to the development of educational software for equation solving

    Robson, D.E.; Abell, W; Boustead, T. (2013)

    Journal article
    Christchurch Polytechnic Institute of Technology, Te Wānanga Ōtautahi

    Creating educational software requires a thorough understanding of several key areas: pedagogy, software development and user interface design. This study, which is part of a larger investigation into the impact on learning of educational software for learning equation solving, focuses on user interface design and its relationship to pedagogical principles. User interface features considered include: nature of feedback, screen layout, metaphors, instructions, buttons, and score. This paper is based on trials with real users of educational software at Christchurch Polytechnic Institute of Technology and provides practical information for computing students designing user interfaces.

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