25 results for Report, Unitec Research Bank

  • Factors influencing the ownership and management structure decision making in hotel investments

    Krivosheev, Antonia (2010)

    Report
    Unitec

    Hotel properties constitute a relatively small percentage out of the commercial property investment sector in New Zealand due to two main factors. One is the significant amount of capital required for the development of such properties while the second factor is the direct relationship between the developer and the specialized tourism industry. The ownership and management structures of such property investment activities are crucial as they determine the risk and financial performance associated with such investments in the long term. The purpose of the research is to assess the hotel development process in terms of ownership and management structures by identifying the common ownership and management structures and factors influencing on the decision making of such structures. The research reports on the findings of a multi-method methodology approach. Firstly, a survey participated in by major hotel developers within New Zealand has been conducted to assess the common ownership and management structures and the factors influencing the decision making of such structures. Mainly multi-criteria and some open questions have been used to assess the weight attached to each structure. Secondly, in-depth open-ended interviews have been conducted in order to fully clarify and support the data obtained from the survey results. The research develops the contention that the most commonly used ownership structure in the New Zealand hotel investment market is the Strata Title, while the contractual relationship with the hotel operator is the most commonly used management structure. Furthermore, the study argues that financial factors have a significantly higher influence on the decision making of the ownership and management structures compared with non-financial factors that cannot directly be measured in dollar terms.

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  • Employee motivation factors within a large New Zealand construction company

    Holmes, Bartt (2011)

    Report
    Unitec

    Despite the popularity of motivational research in the latter half of the twentieth century, little has been undertaken within the New Zealand construction industry and internationally little evidence exists on the motivation factors that influence different occupational groups within the industry. As construction remains one of the most people-reliant sectors, employee motivation is a crucial element needed to increase productivity. This research aimed to fill these knowledge gaps by exploring the motivation of employees working on New Zealand’s largest construction project. The research regarded the employees firstly as a single group, and the factors considered as influential motivationally, and also investigated whether specific occupational groups were motivated by differing motivating factors. The four occupational groups included in the research were Project Managers, Construction Supervisors, Quantity Surveyor and Contract Administrators. A questionnaire was administered to 39 employees. 33 responded and partook in structured interviews. The findings revealed that the respondents as a group were motivated by intrinsic rewards such as co-worker relationships and completing challenging tasks which are highly rated on Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs. It was also found that Project Managers had a marked desire for intrinsic rewards compared to the three other occupational groups. Quantity Surveyors and Construction supervisors provided mixed responses, however they still identified intrinsic rewards as their most significant motivating factors. Contract Administrators were found to have a stronger desire for extrinsic rewards such as monetary rewards and job security. It was concluded that the employees of a large New Zealand construction company were primarily motivated by intrinsic rewards, and employers should perhaps base their employee motivation strategies around these preferred motivators. On a more detailed level, different motivating factors were favoured by each individual occupational group, and this should also be taken into account to improve motivation and overall productivity.

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  • Survival strategies of services subcontracting firms in an economic downturn

    Scott, Bevan (2011)

    Report
    Unitec

    The construction industry is extremely responsive to the pressures of the economic conditions of the wider economy. Between 2007 and 2008 a major economic downturn affected economies around the world. New Zealand was one of these economies and as a result of this downturn the New Zealand’s economy was pushed into a recession. The construction industry in New Zealand has subsequently suffered from a downturn as a result of this. There is a small amount research available which focuses on how firms within the construction industry adapt to cope with these external changes. However there is very little research available on how subcontracting firms adapt to survive such times. This is particularly evident of the New Zealand market. The research therefore has the objective to discover what strategies are used by subcontractors, particularly of the services trades, to survive these times. The research has been based off previous research on an earlier downturn in the Singaporean main contractor’s market by Lim, Oo & Ling (2010). The survey method was a semi-structured questionnaire of eight participants who were senior managers of subcontracting firms from the services markets. The participants were first asked demographic questions on themselves and their company followed by questions on the utilisation and importance of a list of strategies. The list of strategies was based on the findings from a literature review. Findings of the paper were that there are various strategies which are most important to the survival of these firms increasing the focus on forming relationships with main contractors’, ‘implementing stricter financial management on company cash flow’ and ‘implementing stricter site management to reduce material and time wastage’. A strategy which was also highly utilised but found to be of lesser importance as the strategies above was ‘trying to break into new sources of work (i.e. different main contractors)’. Further studies around this topic could investigate how companies implement these strategies. Research could also be undertaken into how employment in subcontracting firms is affected by economic downturns, as there was a very low response recorded by the participants to any change in employment strategy.

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  • BIM 2010: The benefits and barriers for construction contractors in Auckland

    Morrison, Callum (2010)

    Report
    Unitec

    Building Information Modelling (BIM) is the process of using computer software to create object-oriented, parametric models of buildings from which useful data can be retrieved. BIM can be used either collaboratively or under a traditional procurement structure, however collaboration is required to realise the full potential of the process. Building Information Modelling represents an opportunity for main contractors in Auckland to counter the productivity losses that have been experienced in the New Zealand construction industry. Despite this, the adoption of BIM technologies by main contractors in Auckland appears to be much slower than in the United States or Europe where a large number of benefits have been documented as stemming from the use of the process. Further adoption of BIM in Auckland will be dictated both by real benefits and barriers and perceived benefits and barriers. By conducting seven semi-structured interviews with medium to large commercial main contractors operating in Auckland this exploratory research has allowed a comparison between the benefits and barriers experienced by foreign contractors with the experiences and perceptions of medium to large main contractors operating in the Auckland construction industry towards BIM. Although a number of the surveyed main contractors were already using BIM technologies, the research has found that their level of engagement with the Building Information Modelling process has been relatively low. This has meant that the intensity of both the benefits and the barriers is lower than those documented in the predominantly foreign literature. All the surveyed contractors felt that the use of BIM technologies would grow within the Auckland market, but also that the drive towards this growth will not come from main contractors.

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  • Factors affecting the uptake of building information modelling (BIM) in the Auckland architecture, engineering & construction (AEC) industry

    McCartney, Christian (2010)

    Report
    Unitec

    Building Information Modelling (BIM) is seen as the next big paradigm shift in the building design and construction industry since the move from traditional drafting to 2D computer aided design systems, but although it has been available for a number of years, its adoption and use in the New Zealand, and specifically Auckland Architecture, Engineering and Construction (AEC) industry has been relatively limited. During the course of this study, a number of interviews were held with industry professionals from the architecture, structural engineering, services engineering, and construction contractor industry sectors, to gain an insight into how they currently use BIM, and what benefits and barriers they encountered in its use and implementation. The interview participants were selected using purposive sampling based on what was already known about the participant’s use of BIM. Interviews were semi-structured and semiformal in nature. The findings of this research showed that most industry sectors are currently using BIM as a three dimensional coordination tool for coordinating the various design disciplines, as well as for 3D clash detection and 2D document production. Other reasons for BIM use included producing 3D and 4D visualizations and virtual walkthroughs to help nontechnical people understand the design intent. Although the literature describes training and cost of implementation as major factors affecting the uptake of BIM, most of the research participants downplayed these issues, explaining that adopting BIM was a commercial decision made to stay ahead of their competitors, and that the extra training involved actually improved the skill base of their organizations. Ultimately, what was found by this study is that to progress with the use of BIM, changes must be made to the whole process of design and construction. A truly integrated and collaborative approach must be adopted where the various designers and contractors involved in a construction project work closely together using BIM to achieve gains in coordination, productivity, cost management, and overall project outcomes.

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  • Key procurement selection criteria of Auckland interior fitout clients: An empirical study

    Mahon, Cameron (2011)

    Report
    Unitec

    Over the past twenty years the construction industry has developed a myriad of alternative procurement routes to offer its clients. As a result of this vast quantity of options it has become imperative that construction industry clients utilise a set of well defined criteria or parameters to assess the merits of the various procurement routes available. The interior fitout sector is characterised by its tight time frames, challenging work environments where construction operatives often have to work around fully functioning offices, tight budgets, the prevalence of third parties in the form of building managers and tight budgets. Relatively little prior research has been conducted into the specific procurement selection criteria of Auckland interior fitout clients. This study’s objectives are to evaluate how influential pre defined procurement selection criteria or parameters are on the procurement decisions of Auckland interior fitout clients. The results obtained from this study will then be partially compared to the results of a similar study conducted in Australia (Thanh Luu, Thomas, & Chen, 2003). A semi structured interview incorporating a questionnaire facilitated the collection of specific data addressing backgrounds of respondents, current procurement selection practices, influence of 34 procurement selection parameters in terms of procurement decision making and open ended questions around overall impressions of construction procurement. The results show that cost related criteria and time related criteria are by far the most influential parameters in terms of procurement decision making. The findings of this study support the findings of numerous previous studies that time and cost are the primary initial indicators of project success of failure and therefore most prevalent in procurement decision making. Furthermore results from this study suggest that interior fitout clients utilise consultant advice to determine a procurement path. Responses to open ended questions indicate contradictory thinking amongst research participants as the same clients who overwhelmingly rated time and cost as the most critical procurement selection criteria feel that too much emphasis is placed on cost factors at the expense of other valid considerations. Future study could focus on how factors other than time and cost could be incorporated into procurement decision making.

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  • Project management competencies that lead to project success in the Auckland commercial construction market

    Anderson, Daniel (2011)

    Report
    Unitec

    Project Manager (PM) is a title commonly used in the construction industry and given to people carrying out many roles. Each role having its own particular skill set. This project investigated the skills required of a Client’s Project Manager that contribute towards project success within the Auckland commercial construction market. This PM represents the procuring party often referred to as ‘the client’ in construction projects. Through a review of existing literature it was found that bodies of knowledge (BOK) exist, these BOK’s outline the ‘project management approach’, which when applied is said to be able to be used internationally and across industries. Other literature reviewed outlines important competence factors for project success; being project manager’s style, the company at which the project manager is employed, and relationships between the client and project manager. The competencies outlined in the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK) documents are claimed by the Project Managers Institute to be the framework for project management. This research tested part of this claim and other research. Senior Project Managers working in the Auckland commercial construction market were asked to rank the various skills identified in the literature as important to project success. They were also asked to give their opinions on project manager’s style, how important company reputation is, and the importance of holding a formal project management qualification. All of the individual PMBOK competencies were quite tightly clustered in the ‘high importance to project success’ category. Weightings showed that Cost Management and Scope Management were the most important of the PMBOK areas. However, the competencies were all shown to be important. Client Relationships and the Project Management Style were also of the highest importance to project success. The employing company’s reputation was also of high importance and holding a project management qualification was seen as only of average importance.

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  • Loss estimation and data storage methods utilised by stakeholders involved in residential reconstruction - A study of the Canterbury earthquake

    Burrell, Daniel (2011)

    Report
    Unitec

    The importance of natural disaster economic loss estimations cannot be overstated. They help to assist policy maker in mitigation decisions, risk assessments and track the losses which occur due to such events. Despite this New Zealand has not employed a systematic method to estimate or record the losses which have occurred as a result of natural disasters therefore the records are poor. The Canterbury Earthquake is one the most significant natural disasters in New Zealand’s history, with economic loss occurring at all levels of the economy. There are numerous complexities regarding how to measure this loss, and what should be included and excluded in these estimates. To further complicate this there are unique factors to this event such as the government’s intervention with red zone residents. Loss estimates in the past have relied heavily on insurance information and this is one of the main sources of data for large scale events. This research aimed to investigate the estimation and data storage methods utilised by stakeholders involved in the residential reconstruction of Christchurch and compare the findings to the literature reviewed. By conducting six semi-structured interviews with Insurance and Project Management Companies operating in Christchurch this exploratory research has allowed comparisons between the Insurance Companies, Project Management Companies and the literature with reference to estimation and data storage methods. Although not all companies interviewed utilised an estimation method the research has found that there is a lack of consistency of process and method within the industry, which is in-line with the main findings from the literature. This was due to a number of factors most notably the lack of regulation within the industry and the competitive environment in which they operate. Due to the inconsistency there could be advantage in employing a systematic framework and centrally storing the information, however this too has its limitations and issues to overcome.

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  • The use of schedules of quantities in providing financial management in construction projects

    Jackson, Grant (2011)

    Report
    Unitec

    The Schedule of Quantities (SOQ) emerged after the industrial revolution of the 19th century in Europe however due to the popularity of alternative procurement methods, their use over the past 20 years has dramatically decreased. The literature noted that a SOQ is considered the most misunderstood facet of construction contracts and there is a belief by some clients that a SOQ is an additional cost that produces no benefit to the project. The misunderstanding is further compounded by the perception that a SOQ can become a key source of variations due to potential measurement errors However the literature also presented a conflicting view whereby the benefits of a SOQ are clearly demonstrated. These benefits include providing financial management in the form of cost certainty and control. Due to these conflicting views, the objective of the research was to obtain client representative feedback on the efficacy of a SOQ in providing financial management. The research method was in the form of semi-structured interviews which comprised a questionnaire collecting both quantitative and qualitative data from client representatives. The overall findings demonstrate the use of a SOQ to be effective for financial management because it provided a documented price containing the proposed scope, quantity and cost for a project. Furthermore the SOQ provided numerous financial management benefits which extend throughout the duration of the project. These benefits include a fair basis for the comparison of contractors’ tender submissions, an effective variation management tool, basis for progress payment evaluation, a useful cost database for future estimation purposes, together with other beneficial uses.

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  • Factors affecting the bid/ no bid decision making process of small to medium size contractors in Auckland

    Ma, Huan (2011)

    Report
    Unitec

    Companies must have the capability to deal with various bidding situations successfully in today‟s highly competitive construction market. The first step that the companies need to consider is whether to bid or not to bid when they received a tender invitation. The contractors‟ decision is affected by various factors and influences. This decision is highly reliant to the specific project and the macro environment. It is difficult to make this crucial decision in a short time frame by the management team. This research is looked at the factors affecting the bid/ no bid decision making and the focus group was on the small to medium sized contractors in Auckland region. Data were collected for by carrying out a face to face structured interview format, incorporating a questionnaire with eight participants. Through the course of the interview, both quantitative and qualitative questions were asked. “Experience and familiarity of your firm with this specific type of work”, “Possible contribution in building long-term relationships with other key parties” and “Current financial capability of the client” were the top 3 most important factors identified by the participants. There are many differences between the small and medium sized contractors‟ opinion for the bid/ no bid decision. Small sized contractors have very similar responses about important factors affecting bid/ no bid decision. By contrast, every medium sized contractor has nearly every different individual comment on most important factors. It is seen that medium sized contractors have stronger individual business strategy. In comparison to the literature, it was apparent that the bid/ no bid decision making is very dependent on the location the contractors are. The Marco environment is a very big influence driver for contractors‟ decisions. So, it is important that the different construction contractors should not use one standard to make the bid/ no bid decision for projects in different countries.

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  • Employee preferences for work-life balance initiatives in a large New Zealand construction company

    Morrison, Emily Jane (2010)

    Report
    Unitec

    Work-life balance initiatives are often provided by companies to counter the prevalence of work-life conflict stemming from today‟s societal pressures. The construction industry can be a high pressure, high stress industry demanding long working hours, and it is posited that work-life balance initiatives are important for the future sustainability of the industry. Relatively little is known regarding the types of initiatives employees within the New Zealand construction industry prefer. The study‟s objectives are to (1) rank and compare preferences for work-life balance initiatives of employees within a large New Zealand construction company and compare these results with those of a similar Australian study (Lingard and Francis, 2005) and (2) use the demographic information gathered to define typical working hours. The survey method incorporating an electronic questionnaire enabled the collection of a cross-section of wide-ranging, empirical data from a large number of respondents in a relatively short amount of time. Elicited data included demographic information, employee preference ratings for work-life balance initiatives and two, qualitative, open ended questions. The results show that employees are interested in a variety of work-life balance initiatives and do have concerns regarding different issues around work-life balance. Findings support the notion that there is no „one-size-fits-all‟ policy appropriate for all companies or group of employees and that the provision of a wide variety of initiatives from which employees can choose during different stages in their life and career is ideal. Furthermore, it was found that a significant portion of employees work very long hours and that working hours vary significantly depending on job role and location. Qualitative results suggest that there is some work-life conflict associated with working long hours and weekend work. In order to attract and maintain valuable employees, it is important that the industry continually strives to provide useful work-life balance initiatives, reasonable working hours for its employees, and supportive workplace cultures in line with such initiatives. Further study could address whether or not employees feel organisational culture, supervisors and managers support the initiatives provided within their company. A sub-research question could investigate whether employees are aware of all available initiatives and how they are used.

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  • Implementing web-based project management systems in the New Zealand construction industry

    Goodhue, James (2010)

    Report
    Unitec

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  • Property development on Auckland's Hauraki Gulf islands

    Sutton, James (2010)

    Report
    Unitec

    The Hauraki Gulf consists of ninety two islands that are contained within the Hauraki Gulf Marine Park. This report aims to explain why property development occurs more on certain islands, rather than others, within the Hauraki Gulf. This is achieved by identifying the key drivers and barriers to property development and determining the perceptions that influence these factors. The research commenced with a comprehensive literature and document analysis from which key themes and ideas were extracted. From these key themes and ideas, ten interview questions were developed. Face to face interviews with ten industry professionals involved in property development on the Hauraki Gulf islands were then carried out. The aim of the interviews was to evaluate real life examples and perceptions to compare with the results of the literature and document analysis. The research identified a wide range of factors affecting property development on the Hauraki Gulf Islands. Overwhelming evidence from the interview participants suggests that Auckland City Council has the greatest affect on property development followed by island accessibility & transport. The research also identified that there is a need for the Gulf Islands to be treated independently from one another, and what is a significant factors affecting property development on one island may not be a driver or barrier for another.

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  • The carbon footprint of the increase in home insulation levels in New Zealand

    Andric, Jovan (2011)

    Report
    Unitec

    As an energy saving measure, part of an integrated response to mitigate climate change, the New Zealand Government raised the legal minimum requirements for the thermal performance of new homes. A carbon footprint provides a means to quantify the effect this action has had to reduce the impact our new homes have on the environment. To date however, no study has been conducted to ascertain the carbon footprint of this change. This industry research project addresses this issue by determining the carbon footprint of the increase in home insulation levels in New Zealand. An investigation was made to quantify the additional embodied energy required to meet the new standard, and the resulting savings in electrical home space heating energy use. A scientific test and control method was employed. A standard timber framed three bedroom house design complying with the new thermal insulation standard was tested against the same design complying with the old standard over an operational life of 50 years. The test was conducted in New Zealand’s three climate zones with the aid of a computer thermal simulation programme. It was found that double glazed windows make up the bulk of the additional embodied energy and carbon. The benefits of the increase in thermal insulation increased with the colder climate zones which produced the smaller carbon footprint. The heating schedule employed within the home proved to be the most influential factor to both the carbon footprint size and the rate of environmental/carbon payback. It was also found that while current fluctuations in emissions from electricity generation, or even a potential increase in emissions from non-renewable energy sources had little effect on the rate of carbon payback, electricity from all renewable, clean energy sources lengthened carbon payback time six fold. The study showed that carbon payback for the increase in embodied energy could not be reached through heat energy savings within the 50 year operational life of the building if a typical low heating schedule was used powered through electricity generated by all renewable energy sources.

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  • Engaging SME subcontractors on alliance delivered infrastructure projects

    Wieneke, Karl (2010)

    Report
    Unitec

    This research report is aimed at identifying the issues that are encountered by an Alliance when engaging SME subcontractors on a major infrastructure project. It also aims to investigate how these issues are compounded when additional SME subcontractors are engaged to work on an Alliance delivered infrastructure project in New Zealand. To investigate this topic, the research question was defined as: What are the issues with engaging SME subcontractors in a conventional manner on an Alliance project? The findings of this report were gathered from the analysis of documentation and opinions of interview participants from the Victoria Park Tunnel Project (VPT). This project is currently under construction and is being delivered through an Alliance procurement methodology. The key issues identified from this report have indicated that the use of SME subcontractors leads to additional management and associated risks to an Alliance team. To optimise the use of SME subcontractors, additional support needs to be provided to them to aid their development and capability for use on future Alliance delivered projects in New Zealand.

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  • The adaptation and implementation of lean production in the New Zealand construction industry

    Sadler, Luke (2011)

    Report
    Unitec

    Japanese manufacturers and in particular Toyota in the 1990s have had large amounts of success in the car manufacturing industry. This success has been directly attributed to a set of management tools and methods put in place to create operational excellence known as lean production. After the success in the manufacturing industry lean production principles have been applied to many other industries and sectors worldwide. This research investigates how lean production has been adapted and applied to the construction industry and more specifically New Zealand’s construction industry. The driving force behind the research is to identify whether or not lean production, which has its origins in a different industry and culture is applicable to New Zealand’s construction industry. Through a review of the existing literature on lean production and ‘lean construction’ as it is known it was established that lean ideas are implemented through many different tools such as the last planner system and just-in-time delivery. To establish how these tools and ideas have been used in New Zealand’s construction case studies were conducted of two main contracting companies who use lean construction was conducted. Finding showed that lean production has been adapted to the point where the lean implementation tools used in construction are almost exclusively specifically designed for the industry. Lean construction is predominantly implemented through the last planner system which promotes the use of almost all of the key lean ideas to various extents. Other lean tools and ideas are implemented at the discretion of individual construction managers. The success of LPS and to a lesser extent JIT indicates that given the same time to develop, potentially tools such as the 5S’s may also share the same success. As there is very little downside to using these tools an obvious suggestion would be that they can be used and perfected to gain an advantage in a very competitive industry.

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  • Risk analysis of public private partnerships in the development of new schools in New Zealand

    Rothery, Mark (2010)

    Report
    Unitec

    The following report has been compiled for Industry Project, a paper within Unitec’s Bachelor of Construction (CM). This report intends to evaluate the influence of risk in the procurement of a new school in New Zealand under a Public Private Partnership. Senior Unitec Lecturer Roger Birchmore will be supervising and grading this report.

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  • Weathering the global financial crisis 2008-2011: Successful business strategies for the New Zealand boat building export industry

    Waller, Margaret (2011)

    Report
    Unitec

    The export boat building sector is predominantly focused on the construction of custom and semi-custom projects with individual customers. It is a very volatile market characterised by a high level of complexity and low margins for the builders. The boat building industry is not geographically constrained so is bound by the market forces of the global economy particularly the national economies of the clients which have traditionally been the USA and Europe. The industry is characterised by a large number of family owned businesses run by people who have been drawn to the industry by a passion for the sea and previous boating experience, but often with limited business management knowledge. The scope of this research was to establish what factors influenced the business strategies of selected boat building companies to enable them to survive the recessionary period of 2008-2011. The emphasis was on how the style of leadership influenced the business and what adapative behaviours were evident. Case studies were carried out with two selected black boat and two white boat exporters along with the industry body. Semi structured narrative interviews were conducted with the leaders. The insights from the industry body were sought to counter any individual company bias. These were evaluated within an interpretive analytical framework. Despite all the businesses being led by quite diverse personalities, several key themes emerged from the interviews which were supported by the literature. The single project nature of contracts gives rise to a fluid workflow. This necessitates an emergent business strategy approach allowing flexibility and cumulatively significant decisions being based on subjective judgement calls. All companies kept a consistent approach to their business policies to be high value rather than low cost producers but were forced to increase their marketing budget. They stayed within their market niche whilst finding another facet within that niche that was more robust during a recessionary period. Ultimately a combination of strong technical and managerial skills in conjunction with a passion for the industry and their product and a high level of tenacity from the entrepreneurial leaders to work through difficult trading conditions are the hallmarks of New Zealand exporting boat builders surviving the recession.

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  • Factors affecting building services designs of consultants vs. that of design & build subcontractors in Melbourne

    Yanez, Mathew (2011)

    Report
    Unitec

    Building services make up a large portion of a building's capital cost and are also responsible for majority of its operating cost throughout its life. If designed or installed incorrectly can cause damage, nuisance or death disserving building owners, businesses, developers and main contractors. Building services are being designed by consultant designers or design and build subcontractors and there are some fundamental influences and motivations which may affect the way one designs as oppose to the other. The aim of this research was to investigate, identify and compare what factors influence a building services design completed by a design consultancy versus a design and build subcontractor in Melbourne, Australia to report on what’s determining the final characteristics and specifications of the designs for each type of organisation. Through a review of existing literature many aspects that could influence a design have been discovered. There are numerous factors under themes such as procurement, decision making, design aspects and design process. By conducting eight semi structured interviews with four consultant designers and four design and build designers, one from each of the major four building services disciplines electrical, hydraulic, mechanical and fire, and collecting numerical and written qualitative data, this has permitted the comparison of the identified factors between the two organisations to highlight the variances. The variances signified that consultant designer’s designs appear to be influenced in a larger way by factors such as Communication, Alternatives, Maintenance, Ecologically Sustainable Development / Energy Efficiency, Aesthetics, Whole Life Cost, Redundancy / Back-Up, Safety, Coordination and Standardisation; and design and build designer’s designs appear to be influenced in a larger way by factors such as Capital Cost, Prefabrication, Team Building / Team Work, Relationships, Buildability and Innovation & Creativity.

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  • Accuracy of estimating techniques for predicting residential construction costs – A case study of an Auckland residential construction company

    Barzandeh, Mohammad (2011)

    Report
    Unitec

    Estimating is one of the most important functions of a successful project. Accurate estimates optimise good contracting as well as the process of calculating and analysing all the costs that will enter into a particular job to arrive at a set total. The estimator is responsible for these estimates which serve to ensure the project will have a successful financial outcome and these estimates also influence the decisions made for budgeting and assist in clients’ decisions for contractor selection. This research will determine the current practice of a case study company’s accuracy in estimation and will also identify the associated issues with the preparation of the estimates which can lead to inaccuracy. The methodology for this research has been a triangulation from an extensive literature survey review and analysis, then followed by a document analysis of the case study company’s project accuracy over the last 5 years and then analysis which is an interpretation of the author’s understanding. The findings have indicated that there are inaccuracies which can be from a range of factors identified in the literature as crucial indicators for deviations from the intended budget. This includes for the selection of provisional sum expenditures, historical data validity, factors affecting the accuracy of the estimate and model house base rate. The conclusions that have been drawn are that there is only one method of estimation being used in the case study company and when a house becomes an architecturally design house, the model house base rate seems to become invalid completely. The historical data is not being regularly updated with feedback processes and the learning curve of the estimator reviewing each project after completion seems to be limited as the inaccuracies are being carried forward onto the new projects. The estimator’s judgement is identified in the literature as one of the most important factors to estimation; however, the data collected indicated that an inexperienced estimator has made decisions that have resulted in ramifications.

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