108 results for Report, All rights reserved, 2007

  • Geoarchaeological investigation of Aboriginal landscape occupation in Paroo-Darling National Park, Western NSW, Australia

    Holdaway, Simon J.; Fanning, Patricia C.; Shiner, Justin (2007)

    Report
    The University of Auckland Library

    This report provides a preliminary statement of the scientific (archaeological) significance of Aboriginal stone artefact scatters and associated heat-retainer hearths at three locations in Paroo-Darling National Park in western NSW, by undertaking reconnaissance geoarchaeological surveys and analyses of artefact assemblages at these locations. It extends previous studies undertaken by WNSWAP (Western New South Wales Archaeological Programme) in the western region of NSW by studying the relationship between geomorphological history and surface archaeological exposure in environments that are unique to Paroo-Darling National Park. Geoarchaeological survey techniques developed elsewhere in western NSW were applied at each of the three locations to provide the information needed to assess the nature, extent and scientific significance of stone artefact scatters and the likely impacts of visitor activity. The three locations preserve dense concentrations of artefacts that, when treated as three separate assemblages, reveal a varied behavioural record. The Peery (Pine) Creek (CW) location contains a high proportion of lightly worked silcrete cores, many retaining cortex, suggesting that the people who occupied this place were not concerned to conserve the raw material they introduced. The assemblage features an unusually high proportion of adzes, many as expended slugs that have been resharpened to exhaustion. Evidently, the people who occupied this place had the time to repair the tools for which these adzes formed the cutting edge. By contrast, at the Peery Lake foreshore (NP), adzes are not frequent but pirri points and backed blades are unusually common. The assemblage from Round Hill is also distinct, being dominated by flakes and cores as would be expected if this location were used primarily as a source for abundant good quality raw material. Radiocarbon age determinations on charcoal extracted from the remains of heat-retainer hearths at CW and NP provide evidence for Aboriginal occupation in the last 2000 years. Like other locations in western NSW, the nine age determinations from CW are clustered into three groups, separated by gaps, rather than evenly or randomly distributed through time. However, the pattern of clusters and gaps at CW appears different to those from other locations we have studied, and will require further verification. There were no hearth remains at the Round Hill location, so no absolute determination of the timing of use by Aboriginal people is possible. However, it may support a much longer record, perhaps tens of thousands of years, as it is a residual surface not subject to the kinds of geomorphic processes that obliterate or obscure the record at valley floor locations. The archaeological material preserved at the three locations in Paroo-Darling National Park contains a regionally specific record of past human behaviour when compared to other similarly studied locations in western NSW, and therefore is of archaeological significance. Efforts should be made to ensure the protection of the archaeological record from damage caused by an increase in visitors from the present levels. If visitor facilities are to be created at these areas, consideration should be given to positioning them so that the artefacts are not further disturbed or damaged, and that they are located to keep visitors at some distance from the artefacts and hearths. Alternative locations for the proposed visitor facilities are suggested for each location.

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  • Oceanic music encounters : the print resource and the human resource : essays in honour of Mervyn McLean

    Moyle, Richard (editor) (2007)

    Report
    The University of Auckland Library

    Mervyn Evan McLean, teacher, mentor, researcher and archivist, is the worthy recipient of this set of essays. Oceanic Music Encounters - the Print Resource ano" the Human Resource. The authors include colleagues and former students of an academic who was a practising ethnomusicologist only three years after the term was coined. Although most of his university career was spent at the University of Auckland, Mervyn's influence in the fields of Pacific music research and archiving were such that the contributions in this volume arc the result of both distant reputation and personal acquaintance. The volume is the product of the Study Group on Musics of Oceania within the International Council for Traditional Music, of which Mervyn has been a member for many years. The volume title is intended to encompass the span of Mervyn's professional interests, which include the role of archives in Oceanic music research and performance; material culture collections in music research and performance; the role of transcription in music research and performance; the importance of bibliographic research in tracing the connections between the past and the present; the significance of collaboration in research, particularly with scholars in other disciplines, and its significance to performance; and the colonial encounter and its implications for historical and contemporary performance.

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  • A two-phase algorithm for the biobjective integer minimum cost flow problem

    Raith, Andrea; Ehrgott, Matthias (2007)

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    The University of Auckland Library

    We present an algorithm to compute a complete set of efficient solutions for the biobjective integer minimum cost flow problem. We use the two phase method with a parametric network simplex algorithm in phase 1 to compute all supported non-dominated extreme points. In phase 2, the remaining nondominated points (non-extreme supported and non-supported) are computed using a k best flow algorithm on single-objective weighted sum problems. We implement the algorithm and report run-times on problem instances generated with a modified version of the NETGEN generator and also for some networks with grid structure.

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  • An investigation of pedagogically and technically appropriate virtual learning and collaboration environments

    Paton, Christopher (2007)

    Report
    The University of Auckland Library

    There are many terms that describe the employment of assorted technologies via the internet (or local intranet) in order to assist and better learning, both in terms of performance and knowledge. This integration of ICT with learning theory has been popularly coined 'e-learning or 'web based learning', (WBL). The effective use of these novel technologies should optimise learning and should also justify the considerable investments in time and money that are required to properly establish them. To achieve this it follows that our use of educational technologies must be guided by established educational theory. E-learning has been heralded as a unique tool that can assist in the establishment of modern pedagogical models in particular by enabling individualised learning while promoting an interactive role for the educator. In a web based learning environment the educator can act as a facilitator of learning, as opposed to a mere disseminator of content that is the role sometimes ascribed to instructors in more traditional models. While there is much discussion regarding how best to implement the various new tools that e-learning offers, the increasing number of publications relating to educational technologies highlights the need for evidence relating to when, how and which option to employ. This report will address these issues. We will present the existing research or empirical data available that gives evidence to guide informed decisions and support definitive protocols regarding the use of these technologies in medical education. In addition similar data from outside of a medical environment gives breadth to our understanding of the problem.

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  • Audit committee financial expertise, corporate governance and accruals quality: An empirical analysis

    Dhaliwal, D; Naiker, Vicky; Navissi, F (2007)

    Report
    The University of Auckland Library

    The Sarbanes Oxley Act advocates the presence of financial experts on audit committees. However, the requirement proved controversial, culminating with the stock exchanges adopting a broad definition of financial expertise. We investigate the association between three types of audit committee financial expertise (accounting, finance and supervisory expertise) and accruals quality, in the presence of strong audit committee or board governance. Results indicate a positive relation between accounting expertise and accruals quality, which is more pronounced in the presence of strong audit committee governance. The findings suggest that future refinements to the financial expertise definition must focus on accounting expertise.

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  • Approximating the nondominated set of an MOLP by approximately solving its dual problem

    Shao, Lizhen; Ehrgott, Matthias (2007)

    Report
    The University of Auckland Library

    The geometric duality theory of Heyde and Lohne (2006) defines a dual to a multiple objective linear programme (MOLP). In objective space, the primal problem can be solved by Benson’s outer approximation method (Benson, 1998a,b) while the dual problem can be solved by a dual variant of Benson’s algorithm (Ehrgott et al., 2007). Duality theory then assures that it is possible to find the nondominated set of the primal MOLP by solving its dual. In this paper, we propose an algorithm to solve the dual MOLP approximately but within specified tolerance. This approximate solution set can be used to calculate an approximation of the nondominated set of the primal. We show that this set is an ε-nondominated set of the original primal MOLP and provide numerical evidence that this approach can be faster than solving the primal MOLP approximately.

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  • A comparison of stochastic programming and bi-objective optimization approaches to robust airline crew scheduling

    Tam, Bassy; Ehrgott, Matthias; Ryan, David; Zakeri, Golbon (2007)

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    The University of Auckland Library

    A prominent problem in airline crew scheduling is the pairings or Tour-of-Duty planning problem. The objective is to determine a set of pairings (or Tours-of-Duty) for a crew group to minimize the planned cost of operating a schedule of flights. However, due to unforeseen events the performance in operation can differ considerably from planning, sometimes causing significant additional recovery costs. In recent years there has been a growing interest in robust crew scheduling. Here, the aim is to find solutions that are “cheap” in terms of planned cost as well as being robust, meaning that they are less likely to be disrupted in case of delays. Taking the stochastic nature of delays into account, Yen and Birge (2006) formulate the problem as a two-stage stochastic integer programme and develop an algorithm to solve this problem. Based on the contradictory nature of the goals, Ehrgott and Ryan (2002) formulate a bi-objective set partitioning model and employ elastic constraint scalarization to enable the solution by set partitioning algorithms commercially used in crew scheduling software. In this paper we compare the two solution approaches. We improve the algorithm of Yen and Birge (2006) and implement both methods with a commercial crew scheduling software. The results of both methods are compared with respect to characteristics of robust solutions, such as the number of aircraft changes for crew. We also conduct experiments to simulate the performance of the obtained solutions. All experiments are performed using actual schedule data for a New Zealand domestic airline.

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  • A Note on "A Stochastic Programming Approach to the Airline Crew Scheduling Problem" by J.W. Yen and J.R. Birge, Transportation Science, 40:3-14, 2006.

    Tam, Bassy; Ehrgott, Matthias; Ryan, David; Zakeri, Golbon (2007)

    Report
    The University of Auckland Library

    Yen and Birge (2006) formulate the airline crew scheduling problem as a two-stage stochastic integer programme with recourse. They develop an algorithm, the flight-pair branching algorithm, to solve the problem. In this note we show, by means of an example, that the algorithm does not necessarily terminate with an optimal solution.

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  • A Dual Variant of Benson's Outer Approximation Algorithm

    Shao, Lizhen; Ehrgott, Matthias; Lohne, Andreas (2007)

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    The University of Auckland Library

    Geometric duality theory for multiple objective linear programmes is used to derive a dual variant of Bensonâ s outer approximation algorithm to solve multiobjective linear programmes in objective space. We also suggest some improvements of the original version of the algorithm and prove that solving the dual provides a weight set decomposition. We compare both algorithms on small illustrative and on practically relevant examples.

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  • Column Generation with Free Replicability in DEA

    Ehrgott, Matthias; Tind, Jorgen (2007)

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    The University of Auckland Library

    The evaluation of efficiency scores in data envelopment analysis is based on the construction of artificial decision making units subject to some assump- tions, usually requiring convexity of the production possibility set. This demands divisibility in input and output, which is not always possible. The so-called free replicability model, proposed by Henry Tulkens, permits input and output to enter in only discrete amounts. The model is of a mixed integer programming type, for which the number of variables, here corre- sponding to the decision making units, may be critical in order to reach an optimal solution. We suggest to use column generation techniques to include only those decision making units that may contribute to the creation of an optimal solution.

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  • Column generation in integer programming with applications in multicriteria optimization

    Ehrgott, Matthias; Tind, Jorgen (2007)

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    The University of Auckland Library

    This paper presents in a unified form a column generation scheme for integer programming. The scheme incorporates the two major algorithmic approaches in integer programming, the branch and bound technique and the cutting plane technique. With integrality conditions imposed on the variables it is of importance to limit the number of columns introduced in the integer programming problem. This is equally important in the case of multiple criteria where usually multiple alternative efficient solutions are required. The suggested scheme gives additional dual information that limits the work required to move among the alternatives to be generated.

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  • A Comparison of Solution Strategies for Biobjective Shortest Path Problems.

    Raith, Andrea; Ehrgott, Matthias (2007)

    Report
    The University of Auckland Library

    We consider the biobjective shortest path (BSP) problem as the natural extension of the single objective shortest path problem. BSP problems arise in various applications where networks usually consist of large numbers of nodes and arcs. Since obtaining the set of efficient solutions to a BSP problem is more difficult (i.e. NP-hard and intractable) than solving the corresponding single objective problem there is a need for fast solution techniques. Our aim is to compare different strategies for solving the BSP problem. We consider a standard label correcting method, a purely enumerative near shortest path approach, and the two phase method, investigating different approaches to solving problems arising in phase 1 and phase 2. In particular, we propose to combine the two phase method with ranking in phase 2. In order to compare the different approaches, we investigate their performance on three different types of networks. We employ grid networks and random networks, as is generally done in the literature. Furthermore, road networks are utilized to compare performance on networks with a structure that is more likely to actually arise in applications.

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  • Approximately Solving Multiobjective Linear Programmes in Objective Space and an Application in Radiotherapy Treatment Planning

    Shao, Lizhen; Ehrgott, Matthias (2007)

    Report
    The University of Auckland Library

    In this paper we propose a modification of Benson’s algorithm for solving multiobjective linear programmes in objective space in order to approximate the true nondominated set. We first summarize Benson’s original algorithm and propose some small changes to improve computational performance. We then introduce our approximation version of the algorithm, which computes an inner and an outer approximation of the nondominated set. We prove that the inner approximation provides a set of ε-nondominated points. This work is motivated by an application, the beam intensity optimization problem of radiotherapy treatment planning. This problem can be formulated as a multiobjective linear programme with three objectives. The constraint matrix of the problem relies on the calculation of dose deposited in tissue. Since this calculation is always imprecise solving the MOLP exactly is not necessary in practice. With our algorithm we solve the problem approximately within a specified accuracy in objective space. We present results on four clinical cancer cases that clearly illustrate the advantages of our method.

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  • Iterative Airline Scheduling

    Weide, Oliver; Ryan, David; Ehrgott, Matthias (2007)

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    The University of Auckland Library

    In airline scheduling a variety of planning and operational decision problems have to be solved. We consider the problems aircraft routing and crew pairing: Aircraft and crew must be allocated to flights in a schedule in a minimal cost way. Although these problems are not independent, they are usually formulated as independent mathematical optimisation models and solved sequentially. This approach might lead to a suboptimal allocation of aircraft and crew, since a solution of one of the problems may restrict the solution of the problem solved later. Also, when minimal cost solutions are used in operations, a short delay of one flight can cause very severe disruptions of the schedule later in the day. We generate solutions that incur small costs and are also robust to typical stochastic variability in airline operations. We solve the two original problems iteratively. Starting from a minimal cost solution, we produce a series of solutions which are increasingly robust. Using data from domestic airline schedules we evaluate the benefits of the approach as well as the trade-off between cost and robustness. We extend our approach considering the aircraft routing problem together with two crew pairing problems, one for technical crew and one for flight attendants.

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  • Remote sensing of water quality in the Rotorua lakes

    Allan, Mathew Grant; Hicks, Brendan J.; Brabyn, Lars (2007)

    Report
    University of Waikato

    The aim of this study was to determine empirical models between Landsat imagery and lake water quality variables (chlorophy11(ch1) a and Secchi depth) to enable water quality variables to be synoptically quantified. These models were then applied to past satellite images to determine temporal patterns in the spatial variation of water quality. Monitoring of lakes to determine temporal patterns in the spatial variation of water quality. Monitoring of lakes using traditional methods is expensive and lakes the ability to effectively monitor the spatial variability of water quality within and between lakes. Remote sensing can provide truly synoptic assessments of water quality, in particular the spatial distribution of phytoplankton. Recent studies monitoring lake water quality using Landsat series platforms have been successful in predicting water quality with a high accuracy. Analysis was carried out on two Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM+) satellite images of the Rotorua lakes and Lake Taupo, for which most in situ observations were taken within two days of image capture. Regression equations were developed between the Band 1/Band 3 rations (B1/B3) from Landsat images from summer (25 Jan 2002) and spring (24 Oct 2002) and water quality variables measured in the lakes by Environment Bay of Plenty. For summer, the regression of in situ ch1 a concentration in µg/1 from ground data against the Band 1/Band 3 ratio (B1/B3) was Ln ch1 a = 14.141 – 5.0568 (B!/B3) (r² = 0.91, N=16, P<0.001). Ch1 a water quality maps were than produced using these models which were also applied to other images without in situ observations near the time of image capture.

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  • Indigenous vegetation types of Hamilton Ecological District

    Clarkson, Bruce D.; Clarkson, Beverley R.; Downs, Theresa M. (2007)

    Report
    University of Waikato

    The following descriptions of indigenous vegetation types and lists of the most characteristic species have been compiled for the major landform units of the Hamilton Ecological District, which lies within the Waikato Ecological Region (McEwen 1987). The boundaries of the Hamilton Ecological District correspond approximately to those of the Hamilton basin, with the addition of parts of hills and foothills at the margins of the basin. The vegetation descriptions and species lists are based on knowledge of the flora of vegetation remnants in the ecological district, historical records (e.g., Gudex 1954), and extrapolation of data from other North Island sites with similar environmental profiles.

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  • Boat electrofishing survey of five Waitakere City ponds

    Hicks, Brendan J.; Brijs, Jeroen; Bell, Dudley G.; Powrie, Warrick (2007)

    Report
    University of Waikato

    We conducted a fish survey of five ponds (Lake Panorama, Paremuka Pond 1 & 2, Danica Esplanade and Longbush Pond) in the Waitakere District by single-pass boat electrofishing on 18 and 19 of July 2007. We caught 337 fish comprising four introduced and two native fish species in 2.89 km of fished distance from all 5 ponds. Assuming that each of the two bow-mounted anodes caught fish within a 1 m radius, the width fished was 4 m, and the total area fished was 11,537 m² or 1.154 ha. The water temperature for the 5 different ponds ranged between 10.8°C and 14.9°C. In Lake Panorama, shortfinned eel (Anguilla australis) were the most numerous species caught (130 fish ha⁻¹ ), followed by perch (Perca fluviatilis) (100 fish ha⁻¹) and tench (Tinca tinca) (40 fish ha⁻¹). In Paremuka Pond 1, koi carp (Cyprinus carpio) were the most numerous species caught (120 fish ha⁻¹), followed by shortfinned eels (50 fish ha⁻¹). In Paremuka Pond 2, koi carp were again the most numerous species caught (340 fish ha⁻¹), followed by tench (250 fish ha⁻¹) and shortfinned eels (70 fish ha⁻¹). In Danica Esplanade and Longbush Pond, shortfinned eels were the most numerous species caught (140 and 550 fish ha⁻¹respectively), followed by mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis). There was more macrophyte cover around the edges of Danica Esplanade compared to Longbush Pond and this decreased the catch rate as a large number of eels in Danica Esplanade were sighted but were unable to be captured. Koi carp were only caught in the Paremuka ponds. The majority of koi carp were caught on the edges of the lake in macrophytes and rushes. Koi carp biomasses were highest in Paremuka Pond 2 at 261 kg ha⁻¹ compared to 106 kg ha⁻¹ in Paremuka Pond 1. Biomass is a more accurate reflection of the potential ecological impact of koi carp than their density. Previous results suggest that 21-73% of the total population is caught on the first removal, depending on water visibility. As we fished the area at each site only once, the estimates in this survey represent a minimum abundance, and true population sizes are likely to be 1.4-4.8 times greater. The density of eels in both the Paremuka ponds is also likely to be higher as a large proportion of eels were able to escape into the macrophytes before they could be captured in the nets. Mosquitofish were also observed to be living in both the Paremuka ponds. Of ecological concern for the Paremuka ponds is the dominance of the fish biomass by introduced koi carp, which have a deleterious impact on aquatic habitats. Another concern for these ponds is the presence of small koi carp (<200 mm), which suggests that natural spawning is most likely occurring, although recent releases of carp into the ponds in another possibility. The fate of the introduced fish varied depending on what species they were. Perch and tench were released back into the ponds after captures as they are classified as sports fish. Koi carp and mosquitofish are classified as unwanted organisms and were humanely destroyed with an anaesthetic overdose (benzocaine), and retained for further analysis.

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  • Top down or bottom up? Feasibility of water clarity restoration in the lower Karori Reservoir by fish removal

    Hicks, Brendan J.; Hamilton, David P.; Ling, Nicholas; Wood, Susanna A. (2007)

    Report
    University of Waikato

    As part of an overall ecosystem assessment of lower Karori Reservoir Sabctuary, Wellington, a number of variables are being monitored routinely, including temperature, nutrients, and phytoplankton and zooplankton populations. Ammonium (NH₄) tends to be the dominant species of inorganic nitrogen most of the time except in late winter when nitrate (NO₃) becomes dominant. Total nitrogen concentrations place Karori Sancturay in a mesotrophic to eutrophic category.

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  • The Waikato Region: Major tourism issues and opportunities to facilitate tourism development: Public summary

    Zahra, Anne Louise; Walter, Naomi Jane (2007-11-19)

    Report
    University of Waikato

    A regional tourism project was commissioned by Katolyst, the Waikato Economic Development Agency, to assess the following: What is meant by regional tourism; the current views of industry stakeholders within the tourism and hospitality sectors; major issues, drivers, and obstacles facing tourism and pathways to address them, including industry capabilities and new opportunities for industry growth. The purpose of this research was to record the voice of tourism operators and stakeholders at the grass roots, to identify the specific issues facing the Waikato. Visitors do not focus on geographical or political boundaries, but rather are seeking an experience that transcends these boundaries. The region is generally ignorant of the significant economic impacts of the tourism sector, and education and advocacy is urgently needed. Tourism should not be seen in isolation to other key economic generators for the region, and there is potential for cross sector regional initiatives between tourism and other major sectors within the Waikato that could lead to cross sector strategic growth. The Waikato is a significant player in international visitor expenditure (7th out of 30 tourism regions), although the forecasted growth to 2012 for the Waikato is less than the national average. Although the Australian visitor market is significant for Hamilton International Airport, it comprises just 2% of all Australian visitors to New Zealand. Domestic visitors are the major driver of visitor expenditure in the region, with domestic visitor expenditure in the Waikato the third highest among the 30 tourism regions in New Zealand. Events are a driver, yet there is a perception that there is a lack of coordination and regional linkages. i-SITEs are inadequately funded and can rely on non-visitor revenue streams. There is a need to improve tourism expertise and knowledge to facilitate product development, especially getting current and potential tourism product export ready and to understand the distribution channels for domestic and international marketing. Most operators in the region are small owner operated firms with a few medium sized firms. A number are lacking tourism sector knowledge and business capabilities.

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  • A sensitive genetic-based detection capability for Didymosphenia geminate (Lyngbye) M. Schmidt: Phases two and three

    Cary, S. Craig; Hicks, Brendan J.; Coyne, Kathryn J.; Rueckert, Andreas; Gemmill, Chrissen E.C.; Barnett, Catherine Margaret Eleanor (2007-10)

    Report
    University of Waikato

    This study sought to develop a sensitive DNA-based protocol capable of detecting D. germinate in environmental samples with extreme sensitivity. This report is a direct extension from our previous interim report and addresses the subsequent progress in the development and validation of two DNA detection methods for D. germinata.

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