148 results for Report, 2009

  • RLTS 2010 Health Impact Assessment

    Field, Adrian; Macmillan, Alexandra; Lindsay, Andrew; Tunks, M; Arcus, K; Jayasekera, N (2009-10)

    Report
    The University of Auckland Library

    Purpose The following four reports have been prepared to assist the Auckland Regional Transport Committee with preparation of the Auckland Regional Land Transport Strategy 2010 the reports include: • Auckland Regional Land Transport Strategy Health and Wellbeing Impact Assessment – Appraisal Report • Auckland Regional Land Transport Strategy Health Impact Assessment – Scoping Workshop Report • Auckland Regional Land Transport Strategy Health Impact Assessment – Literature Review • Auckland Regional Land Transport Strategy Health Impact Assessment – Area Profile Report

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  • Learning from human diversity to manage bio-diversity

    Fuller, Rebekah (2009-03)

    Report
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • MESIF: A Two-Hop Cache Coherency Protocol for Point-to-Point Interconnects (2009)

    Goodman, James; Hum, HHJ (2009)

    Report
    The University of Auckland Library

    We describe MESIF, the first source-snooping cache coherence protocol. Built on point-to-point communication links, the protocol maintains no directory, and mimics the broadcast behavior of a snooping cache protocol. MESIF supplies data cached in other nodes in a single round-trip delay (2-hop latency) for all common operations. Because of the speed of the links, the protocol can outperform a bus-based protocol for a small number of nodes, but scales through hierarchical extension to a large-scale multiprocessor system. Salient features of the protocol are described. The introduction of a novel forwarding state is used to assure a single response to shared data and to simplify conflict resolution. In the hierarchical extension, auxiliary hardware data structures can be included to provide 2-hop latency for most operations. The recently revealed Intel® Quick-Path InterconnectTM protocol is derived from MESIF. Some design differences are highlighted.

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  • Modelling of Charles Darwin earthquake reports as catastrophic wave phenomena

    Galiev, Shamil Usmanovich (2009)

    Report
    The University of Auckland Library

    As it is the 200th anniversary of Darwin’s birth, 2009 has also been marked as 170 years since the publication of his book Journal of Researches, commonly referred to as The Voyage of the Beagle. During the voyage Darwin landed at Valdivia and Concepcion, Chile, just before, during and after a great earthquake which demolished hundreds of buildings, killing and injuring many people. It was a giant natural catastrophe. He saw the land rise before his eyes. Land was waved, lifted and cracked, volcanoes awoke and giant ocean waves attacked the coast. There are two main goals of this book. The first is emphasising the priority of Darwin in the description and the analysis of the results of the severe earthquakes (Chapter I). Extracts from Darwin’s Diary and Narrative 2 , ‘Journal of Researches’ and ‘The autobiography of Charles Darwin’ are presented. In the extracts Darwin described a few days of his work. Perhaps, those days were among the most important days of his life. We group the material of the extracts so that a reader can trace the evolution of Darwin’s thoughts. The key observations and ideas of Darwin, presented in the material, are shortly formulated. Then these ideas are analysed and compared with modern experimental and theoretical data. In particular, Darwin wrote ‘… the whole body of the sea retires from the coast, and then returns in great waves of overwhelming force...’, ‘ …Santa Maria was upheaved nine feet…’ (Santa Maria is the island), ‘… the displacement at first appears to be owing to a vorticose movement beneath each point thus affected;…’. Taking into account Darwin’ key ideas we construct the mathematical models of natural catastrophic phenomena. Chapter II is devoted to catastrophic ocean waves. The Lagrangian description is used. Highly nonlinear wave equations are derived, which describe the evolution of the waves propagating over a variable depth. An attention is focused on the transresonant evolution of periodic ocean waves, catastrophic waves and tsunami. An appearance of extreme waves is explained by resonant effects. The theory of uplift, loosening and rupture of weakly cohesive geomaterials, gassy soils and magma under sharp decompression within tension seismic waves is developed in Chapter III. In particular, our attention was attracted by Darwin’ words ‘… a severe earthquake, may, I think, be attributed to the disturbance of mud containing organic matter…’. Because of the global warming the mathematical description of properties of gassy liquids and soils becomes more and more timely. The last Chapter is devoted to Nonlinear Science problems, in particular, to the evolution of initially smooth wave motion into vortex motion, and turbulence. This evolution can take place in many layered systems: ground, ocean, air and plasma. The generation of elastica (mushroom)-like waves, surface drops and jets, vortices and turbulence is simulated by the same highly nonlinear wave equation. The transresonant evolution of highly nonlinear waves is studied. The transition to turbulence of these waves is modelled. It is emphasised that respectively simple nonlinear wave equations can describe wide spectre of catastrophic wave phenomena.

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  • An evaluation of sample adequacy for the Lapita-style ceramic assemblages from three sites located in the Reef/Santa Cruz group, Outer Eastern Islands of the Solomons.

    Green, R. C. Roger Curtis 1932- (2009)

    Report
    The University of Auckland Library

    Emeritus Professor Roger Green is an archaeologist in the Department of Anthropology at the University of Auckland. His interests include the anthropological history of the Pacific derived from detailed study of the archaeology, linguistics and ethnography of the region developed over 50 years of research. The Reef/Santa Cruz Lapita sites discussed in this volume were excavated by Roger Green as part of the Southeast Solomons Culture History project in the early 1970s. These three sites were, and continue to be, central to the development of our understanding of the Lapita phenomenon, situated as they are in the first island group east of the Near/Remote Oceania boundary. Given their status these key sites have been the focus of considerable review and debate. This volume provides commentary on aspects of that debate, and makes available detailed analysis of variation in ceramic decorative motifs which is used in the support of a model of chronological change and continuity for these sites.

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  • Changes in Aged Care Residents’ Characteristics and Dependency in Auckland 1988 to 2008. Findings from OPAL 10/9/8 Older Persons’ Ability Level Census

    Boyd, Michal; Connolly, Martin; Kerse, Ngaire; Foster, Susan; von Randow, Martin; Lay-Yee, Roy; Chelimo, Carol; Broad, Joanna; Whitehead, Noeline; Walters-Puttick, Sarah (2009)

    Report
    The University of Auckland Library

    Are older people in aged care facilities frailer and more dependent now than in previous years? Many aged residential care (ARC) providers in New Zealand report that the dependency levels of their residents have increased considerably in recent years, yet there is little longitudinal evidence to support this perception (Kiata, Kerse, & Dixon, 2005). The purpose of the 2008 Older Persons’ Ability Level (OPAL 10/9/8) study was to evaluate the demographics and dependency of the current generation in aged residential care. Since 1988, four dependency census surveys provided data describing all ARC residents in the Auckland region. These studies were conducted in 1988, 1993, 1998, and 2008. They were performed by the Academic Section of Geriatric Medicine (1988, 1993, & 1998) and the Freemasons’ Department of Geriatric Medicine (2008) from The University of Auckland (Bonita, et al., 1990a; Bonita, et al., 1990b; Broad, et al., 1995a; Wood, et al., 1998a; Wood, et al., 1998b). The same assessment tool and similar protocols were used for each of the studies providing a 20-year span of comparable resident dependency data.

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  • 2010 RLTS WP20 Environmental Sustainability and Public Health Policies

    Kuschel, G; Macmillan, Alexandra (2009)

    Report
    The University of Auckland Library

    This report is a background paper produced to assist the preparation of the 2010 Auckland Regional Land Transport Strategy (RLTS). It has been developed by a subcommittee consisting of Regional Land Transport Strategy Technical Advisory Committee (TAC) members and additional experts from the member organisations but it also incorporates comments, email and phone correspondence supplied by other TAC members and regional stakeholders. It is intended as a stand-alone report and mirrors the structure of the 2010 RLTS so that relevant sections, as they relate to environmental sustainability and public health, can be inserted directly into the final 2010 strategy.

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  • Usability and Mental Models of Google and PRIMO in the Context of an Academic Tertiary Library

    Wilkinson, Elizabeth Helen (2009)

    Report
    The University of Auckland Library

    Library websites and search tools are a crucial interface between the user, the organisation and its resources. Most users now have easy access to other sources of information via the Internet, such as Google, and studies show the vast majority are using these in preference to library resources. The information architecture of library search tools is unfamiliar to users and is believed to constitute a barrier to usability. This is an industry-critical issue. Products have recently become available based on decoupled architecture, where the library management system is dis-integrated from the user discovery interface. One of these products is Ex Libris’ PRIMO, termed LibrarySearch at the time of this project by the University of Auckland Library, an academic tertiary library. The researcher used qualitative methods in order to gain an understanding of users’ starter frameworks and information-seeking behaviour in the contexts of mental models, usability and sense-making. The purpose was to raise providers’ awareness of their own and students’ mental models and the disparities between them, with a view to closing gaps from the providers’ side. Results indicate there is potential to improve web design, teaching, reference and other explanatory material.

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  • GenBank sequence assessment for species assignment - control region sequences published for baleen whales in 2007

    Ross, Howard; Shearman, Helen (2009)

    Report
    The University of Auckland Library

    The tree-based methods in DNA Surveillance, in conjunction with the curated reference sequence alignments known as Witness for the Whales, were used to assign species identities to the 499 sequences from baleen whales published in Genbank during 2007. All of the sequences were assigned to the same species as that recorded in Genbank. For the common minke whale, 73 of the 74 sequences were not indentified in Genbank as belonging to one of the subspecies, while they could be assigned unambiguously using the WFTW references. There was uncertainty regarding whether blue whale sequences could be assigned to a subspecies. All of the sequences appeared to be of reliable quality. No geographic information was recorded for nearly all of the sequences.

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  • Boat electrofishing survey of Lake Rotokaeo, Hamiton

    Hicks, Brendan J.; Brijs, Jeroen; Bell, Dudley G. (2009)

    Report
    University of Waikato

    Lake Rotokaeo (Forest Lake) is a small (3.7 ha) lake set in suburban surroundings in the north-west of Hamilton city located at 37° 46.387’S and 175° 15.059’E. The lake is very shallow, with ~80% of its area <1.8 m water depth, depending on season. The bed is composed of soft sediments, and margins vary from grassed parkland to restored native wetlands and forest vegetation. On 12 December 2008, we conducted eleven 10-min fishing shots comprising nine shoreline shots and two mid-lake shots. The shallowness of the lake precluded fishing along the western shored of the lake. All introduced fish species were removed and humanely killed, whilst all native fish species were counted, measured for length and returned to the lake. Water temperature recorded at the start of fishing was 21.3°C, and electrical conductivity was 110 µS cm⁻¹ ambient and 118 µS cm⁻¹ specific. The water had a distinct brownish hue, indicating tannin staining, but there was no obvious suspended sediment. The black disc measurement (horizontal water clarity) was 0.55 m. Aquatic plants present in the lake included filamentous algae, water lily (Nymphaea sp.), and parrot’s feather (Myriophyllum aquaticum). Carex species and raupo (Typha orientalis) comprised the riparian and marginal vegetation.

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  • Influence of human pressures on large river structure and function

    Collier, Kevin J.; Clapcott, Joanne E.; Young, Roger G. (2009)

    Report
    University of Waikato

    A large river study was conducted as part of the Cross Departmental Research Pool (CDRP) ecological integrity project to (i) provide an overview of the macroinvertebrate faunas of large rivers, including those in deep-water habitats, and (ii) to elucidate links between these faunas, river function and anthropogenic stressors. Eleven sites on 6th-order or 7th-order rivers were sampled; four in the South Island and seven in the North Island. We measured (i) macroinvertebrate communities colonising wood, riffles (where present), littoral habitats (1.5 m deep) (ii) ecosystem metabolism using a single-station open-channel approach based on natural changes in dissolved oxygen concentration over a 24-hour period, and (iii) wood and cellulose breakdown. Relationships were investigated between these response variables and reach-scale assessments of habitat quality, underlying upstream and segment environmental variables provided in the Freshwater Environments of New Zealand (FWENZ) database, and anthropogenic pressure variables provided by the Waters of National Importance (WONI) database.

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  • Water flow between Ohau Channel and Lake Rotoiti following implementation of a diversion wall.

    Hamilton, David P.; Paul, Wendy J.; McBride, Chris G.; Immenga, Dirk (2009)

    Report
    University of Waikato

    The water quality in Lake Rotoiti has become increasingly degraded since the 1950s. Water from Lake Rotorua, with elevated phytoplankton and nutrient concentrations, has entered Lake Rotoiti via the Ohau Channel. To help improve water quality in Lake Rotoiti, a constructed wall was completed in July 2008, to divert water from the Ohau Channel towards Okere Arm in Lake Rotoiti, with the objective to transport this water into the Kaituna Rivr instead of entering the main basin of Lake Rotoiti. This report has been produced in response to a request from the Rotorua Lake Technical Advisory Group to determine water velocities in the region of the constructed wall, in order to consider the effectiveness of the diversion.

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  • Boat electrofishing survey of common smelt and common bullies in the Ohau Channel in December 2008

    Brijs, Jeroen; Hicks, Brendan J.; Bell, Dudley G. (2009)

    Report
    University of Waikato

    We conducted a boat electrofishing survey of the Ohau Channel, which flows from Lake Rotorua to Lake Rotoiti, on 11 December 2008. The purpose of this was to repeat a survey that took place on 13 December 2007 concerning the longitudinal pattern in densities of common smelt (Retropinna retropinna) and common bully (Gobiomorphus cotidianus). We caught 776 fish comprising three native species and three introduced species in 2.03km of fished distance at a total of 10 sites. Native species caught were common smelt, common bully and longfin eel (Anguilla dieffenbachii) and introduced species were rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), goldfish (Carassius auratus) and mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis). The total area fished was 8,133 m² (0.813 ha) giving an estimated density of 9.5 fish 100 m⁻².

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  • Boat electrofishing survey of the upper Turitea Reservoir, Palmerston North.

    Hicks, Brendan J.; Brijs, Jeroen; Bell, Dudley G.; Ling, Nicholas; Blair, Jennifer Marie; Powrie, Warrick (2009)

    Report
    University of Waikato

    The upper Turitea Reservoir is a 12-ha reservoir that supplies water to the city of Palmerston North (Figure 1). It was constructed in 1957 and is located in the foothills of the Tararua Ranges at 40.43208°S, 175,67669°E. The 2,300 hectare catchment area is comprised mainly of native forest with a small section of pine forest bordering the northern end of the reservoir. The reservoir is contained by a 39-m high concrete gravity arch dam.

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  • Pest fish survey of Hokowhitu (Centennial) Lagoon, Palmerston North

    Brijs, Jeroen; Hicks, Brendan J.; Ling, Nicholas; Bell, Dudley G. (2009)

    Report
    University of Waikato

    The koi carp is an ornamental strain of the common carp which is believed to be one of the most ecologically detrimental of all freshwater invasive fish species. Numerous “koi carp” sightings have been made by the public in the Holowhitu Lagoon, Palmerston North. Because koi carp is designated an unwanted organism under the Biosecurity Act, the Department of Conservation commissioned a survey be undertaken to determine whether koi carp were present in the lagoon. Due to the abundance of aquatic birds and the public nature of the lagoon, nets were unable to be set and thus the use of an electric fishing boat from the University of Waikato was required. This method provided a non-lethal, quantifiable, method of collecting freshwater fish species in a non-wadeable freshwater habitat. The boat operated by supplying a pulsed DC current into the water column where it attracts and then incapacitates fish, allowing operators to remove them from the water with hand nets.

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  • Abundance of mysid shrimp (Tenagomysis chiltoni) in shallow lakes in the Waikato region and implications for fish diet

    Brijs, Jeroen; Hicks, Brendan J.; Powrie, Warrick (2009)

    Report
    University of Waikato

    Tenagomysis chiltoni, a species of mysid shrimp, is widely distributed amongst the riverine lakes of the lower Waikato basin. They appear to thrive in turbid waters, with the greatest abundances found in lakes such as Waahi and Waikare, which have low Secchi transparencies and sparse aquatic macrophyte communities representing remnants of formerly dense beds (Kirk, 1983; Chapman el al., 1991). Maximum mysid abundances of 2,868 and 857 individuals m⁻² in Lake Waahi and Waikare respectively were recorded by Chapman et al. (1991) in March-April 1987. Anecdotal evidence suggests that mysid abundance in Lake Waikare is markedly reduced since the late 1980s (Gary Watson, Te Kauwhata, pers. comm.) with the arrival and proliferation of koi carp (Cyprinus carpio) presumed to be the cause. Koi carp arrived in Lake Waikare after 1987 and by 2007 it was estimated that over 80% of the fish biomass present in Lake Waikare was comprised of koi carp (Hicks, 2007). Sable isotope studies on carp (Matsuzaki et al., 2007) have shown that mysid shrimp can form a significant component of their diet. This suggests that mysid shrimp may be predated on by koi carp in the Waikato which has implications on mysid shrimp abundance as well as the abundance of native fish species which rely on mysid shrimp as a food source (Champman et al., 1991). The objective of this study was to measure mysid abundance in three shallow, turbid lakes in the lower Waikato basin (Lake Waikare, Whangape and Waahi) to compare with previous abundance estimates made in the late 1980s. A second objective was to determine whether mysid shrimp form a significant component of the diet of koi carp in the study sites by examining their stable isotope signatures.

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  • Boat electrofishing survey of Lake Ngaroto

    Hicks, Brendan J.; Brijs, Jeroen (2009-10)

    Report
    University of Waikato

    Lake Ngaroto, a 130-ha hypertrophic lake located near Te Awamutu, has previously been found to contain a diverse fish fauna of both native and introduced fish. Native fish in the lake are common bullies (Gobiomorphus cotidianus), shortfin eels (Anguilla australis), longfin eels (Anguilla dieffenbachii) and common smelt (Retropinna retropinna). Introduced species include goldfish (Carassius auratus), brown bullhead catfish (Ameiurus nebulosus), rudd (Scardinius erythrophthalmus), gambusia (Gambusia affinis) and koi carp (Cyprinus carpio), with some koi carp/goldfish hybrids. As part of the ongoing research of the invasive fish research programme, run by the Centre for Biodiversity and Ecology Research (CBER), current baseline values for species abundance and indigenous biodiversity need to be established for at least 5 Waikato lakes over 5 ha in size, with Lake Ngaroto selected as a candidate.

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  • Assessing movement of rainbow trout and common smelt between Lake Rotoiti and Lake Rotorua using otolith chemical signatures: A summary of work so far

    Blair, Jennifer Marie; Hicks, Brendan J. (2009-07)

    Report
    University of Waikato

    This study used otolith microchemistry to investigate movement of common smelt and rainbow trout between Lake Rotorua and Lake Rotoiti. Rainbow trout were collected from Lake Rotoiti, Lake Rotorua and the Ohau Channel, and smelt were collected from several locations in Lake Rotoiti and Lake Rotorua.

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  • Remote sensing of freshwater environments: Trial application on the lower Waikato River.

    Ashraf, Muhammad Salman; Brabyn, Lars; Hicks, Brendan J. (2009-06)

    Report
    University of Waikato

    The overall goal of the study is to evaluate multi-sensor and multi-spectral satellite data to characterise different freshwater habitat zones of large rivers and lakes of the Waikato region. The earlier evaluation of different sources of remotely sensed data suggested the implementation of sub-pixel classification on the QuickBird satellite image of Tongariro River delta region. The current research is further expanding the same research on other freshwater environments within the Waikato region.

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  • Otolith chemistry, stomach contents and stable isotope analysis of a snapper (Pagrus auratus) caught in the Waikato River at Ngaruawahia

    Blair, Jennifer Marie; Hicks, Brendan J. (2009-10)

    Report
    University of Waikato

    Analyses of stomach contents, stable isotopes and otolith microchemistry were carried out in order to ascertain the length of freshwater residence of a snapper (Pagrus auratus) caught in the Waikato River at Ngaruawahia in a net set for grey mullet(Mugil cephalus). Results of all analyses suggest that the snapper had spent all of its life in a marine environment with no evidence of freshwater residence in the otolith. Stable isotope analyses (δ15N = 17.0‰, δ13C = –17.1‰) indicated an entirely marine diet, and the stomach contents (two New Zealand screwshells, Maoricolpus roseus, and a hermit crab, Pagurus novizelandiae), suggested that the fish had not fed while in freshwater. However, this does not preclude the possibility that the snapper quickly travelled up the river, without eating, and was caught very soon after.

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