126 results for Report, 2016

  • Progress toward pathways prioritization in compliance to Aichi Target 9

    Riccardo, S; Genovesi, P; Booy, O; Essl, F; Jeschke, J; Hulme, PE; McGeoch, M; Pagad, Shyama; Roy, HE; Saul, W-C; Wilson, JR (2016)

    Report
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Data fitness for use in research on alien and invasive species

    McGeoch, M; Groom, QJ; Pagad, Shyama; Petrosyan, V; Wilson, J; Ruiz, G (2016)

    Report
    The University of Auckland Library

    The discovery, access and appropriate use of primary biodiversity data are critical for alien and invasive species (A&IS) research at continental, regional, country and subnational scales. Sustainable, reliable, timely, and accessible data on A&IS is essential to the long-term management of this key threat to biodiversity, including the ability of countries to meet the Honolulu Challenge and to achieve Aichi Target 9 of the CBD Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020. GBIF provides a range of essential information services for A&IS researchers, including but not limited to taxonomic and occurrence information. After broad consultation with the research and A&IS community, a suite of recommendations were identified under five broad topic areas: 1) Strategic approaches, 2) Improving existing data, 3) Expanding information content, 4) Functionality, and 5) Communication and engagement. Several recommendations are relevant for other data users, but the availability, quality and timeliness of these data are especially critical for A&IS because of the real-world consequences resulting from the negative impacts of biological invasions. Alien species occurrence includes taxonomically verified species presence records or absence information at a locality with a geographic coordinate, or in a prescribed area, such as a management or geopolitical unit or site (Latombe et al. 2016). Alien species occurrence information is the single most important variable necessary to support research, monitoring and management of A&IS.

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  • Probability of Error Expressions for Communications in Wireless Sensor Networks over Frequency-selective Channels

    Tian, Jianjie (2016-08-10)

    Report
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Formulating Graph Covering Problems for Adiabatic Quatumn Computers

    Dinneen, MJ; Hua, R (2016)

    Report
    The University of Auckland Library

    We provide efficient quadratic unconstrained binary optimization (QUBO) formulations for the Dominating Set and Edge Cover combinatorial problems suitable for adiabatic quantum computers, which are viewed as a real-world enhanced model of simulated annealing (e.g. a type of genetic algorithm with quantum tunneling). The number of qubits (dimension of QUBO matrices) required to solve these set cover problems are O(n+n lg n) and O(m+n lg n) respectively, where n is the number of vertices and m is the number of edges. We also extend our formulations for the Minimum Vertex-Weighted Dominating Set problem and Minimum Edge-Weighted Edge Cover problem. Experimental results for the Dominating Set and Edge Cover problems using a D-Wave Systems quantum computer with 1098 active qubit-coupled processors are also provided for a selection of known common graphs.

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  • Incompleteness, Undecidability and Automated Proofs

    Calude, CS; Thompson, D (2016)

    Report
    The University of Auckland Library

    Incompleteness and undecidability have been used for many years as arguments against automatising the practice of mathematics. The advent of powerful computers and proof-assistants – programs that assist the development of formal proofs by human-machine collaboration – has revived the interest in formal proofs and diminished considerably the value of these arguments. In this paper we discuss some challenges proof-assistants face in handling undecidable problems – the very results cited above – using for illustrations the generic proof-assistant Isabelle.

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  • QUBO Formulations for the Graph Isomorphism Problem and Related Problems

    Calude, CS; Dinneen, MJ; Hua, R (2016)

    Report
    The University of Auckland Library

    We present and compare various methods to construct efficient QUBO formulations for the Graph Isomorphism Problem - one of a very few problems in NP that is neither known to be solvable in polynomial time nor NP-complete - and two related Subgraph Isomorphism Problems that are NP-hard. Experimental results on two QUBO formulations of the Graph Isomorphism Problem suggest that our direct formulation is more practical than the others with respect to running on the D-Wave architecture.

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  • Exact Constructive and Computable Dimensions

    Staiger, L (2016)

    Report
    The University of Auckland Library

    In this paper we derive several results which generalise the constructive dimension of (sets of) infinite strings to the case of exact dimension. We start with proving a martingale characterisation of exact Hausdorff dimension. Then using semi-computable super-martingales we introduce the notion of exact constructive dimension of (sets of) infinite strings. This allows us to derive several bounds on the complexity functions of infinite strings, that is, functions assigning to every finite prefix its Kolmogorov complexity. In particular, it is shown that the exactHausdorff dimension of a set of infinite strings lower bounds the maximumcomplexity function of strings in this set. Furthermore,we showa result bounding the exact Hausdorff dimension of a set of strings having a certain computable complexity function as upper bound.

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  • Graph Minor Embeddings for D-Wave Computer Architecture

    Yang, Z; Dinneen, MJ (2016)

    Report
    The University of Auckland Library

    The D-Wave system architecture is designed to deal with quantum annealing to solve computational problems. To run or solve a problem by the D-Wave hardware, we need to rst transform the problem into an Ising or Quadratic Unconstrained Binary Optimization (QUBO) instance, then embed Hamiltonians (logical qubit relationships) onto the actual D-Wave hardware which is currently based on Chimera graphs (physical qubit couplings). In order to have better performance of D-Wave's quantum annealing, an efficient algorithm to nd good embeddings needs to be obtained. In this paper, we present some heuristic algorithms for minor embedding an arbitrary guest graph onto a host Chimera graph. Our implementations show these new algorithms are practical for sparse graphs with hundreds of vertices. In general, for a given minor embedding, we tried to minimize the maximum number physical qubits representing by any logical qubit and/or the total number of physical qubits used.

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  • Bounds on the Kolmogorov complexity function for infinite words (Rev1)

    Staiger, L (2016)

    Report
    The University of Auckland Library

    The Kolmogorov complexity function of an infinite word ξ maps a natural number to the complexity...

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  • SQL Schema Design: Foundations, Normal Forms, and Normalization

    Kohler, H; Link, S (2016)

    Report
    The University of Auckland Library

    Normalization helps us nd a database schema at design time that can process the most frequent updates e ciently at run time. Unfortunately, relational normalization only works for idealized database instances in which duplicates and null markers are not present. On one hand, these features occur frequently in real-world data compliant with the industry standard SQL, and especially in modern application domains. On the other hand, the features impose challenges that have made it impossible so far to extend the existing forty year old normalization framework to SQL. We introduce a new class of functional dependencies and show that they provide the right notion for SQL schema design. Axiomatic and linear-time algorithmic characterizations of the associated implication problem are established. These foundations enable us to propose a Boyce-Codd normal form for SQL. Indeed, we justify the normal form by showing that it permits precisely those SQL instances which are free from data redundancy. Unlike the relational case, there are SQL schemata that cannot be converted into Boyce-Codd normal form. Nevertheless, for an expressive sub-class of our functional dependencies we establish a normalization algorithm that always produces a schema in Value-Redundancy free normal form. This normal form permits precisely those instances which are free from any redundant data value occurrences other than the null marker. Experiments show that our functional dependencies occur frequently in real-world data and that they are e ective in eliminating redundant values from these data sets without loss of information.

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  • Shift-Invariant Topologies for the Cantor Space X^omega

    Hoffman, S; Schwarz, S; Staiger, L (2016)

    Report
    The University of Auckland Library

    The space of one-sided infinite words plays a crucial rôle in several parts of Theoretical Computer Science. Usually, it is convenient to regard this space as a metric space, the CANTOR space. It turned out that for several purposes topologies other than the one of the CANTOR space are useful, e.g. for studying fragments of first-order logic over infinite words or for a topological characterisation of random infinite words. It is shown that these topologies refine the topology of the CANTOR space. Moreover, from common features of these topologies we extract properties which characterise a large class of topologies. It turns out that, for this general class of topologies, the corresponding closure and interior operators respect the shift operations and also, to some extent, the definability of sets of infinite words by finite automata.

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  • A Computational Mathematics View of Space, Time and Complexity

    Bailey, DH; Borwein, JM (2016)

    Report
    The University of Auckland Library

    Modern computational mathematics requires a philosophical perspective largely at odds with that of traditional mathematics, since current computational mathematics (as distinct from computer science) is by its very nature is discrete, not continuous, and tied to the real world in ways that the more theoretical branches of mathematics (and computer science) often are not. Indeed, computational mathematics provides a means to escape the trap feared by John von Neumann when he wrote, [T]here is a grave danger that the subject [of mathematics] will develop along the line of least resistance, that the stream so far from its source [in empirical reality] will separate into a multitude of insignificant branches, and that the discipline will become a disorganized mass of details and complexities. But even a computational approach to mathematics has limits, not the least of which are the uncertainties of errors in hardware, software and algorithms that inevitably are part-and-parcel with computation, although there are ways to limit these uncertainties. In our chapter, bulwarked by concrete examples, we will try to situate past, present and future mathematical views of space, time, infinity and certainty within a computational context in which, for example, error due to quantum effects begins to compete with traditional sources of logical and numerical inaccuracy. We shall also argue that traditional taxonomies of complexity and completeness are not only outmoded but actually destructive of progress.

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  • Deciding Parity Games in Quasipolynomial Time

    Calude, CS; Jain, S; Khoussainov, B; Li, W; Stephan, F (2016)

    Report
    The University of Auckland Library

    It is shown that the parity game can be solved in quasipolynomial time. The parameterised parity game (with n nodes and m distinct values) is proven to be in the class of fixed parameter tractable (FPT) problems (when parameterised over m).

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  • Automating R Demonstration Videos

    Murrell, Paul (2016)

    Report
    The University of Auckland Library

    This document describes a proof-of-concept for producing R demonstration videos in a fully-automated manner. The ???script??? for the video consists of a text file containing code chunks paired with text commentary. The video is produced by running the code while recording a screen capture, using text-to-speech software to record audio of the commentary, then combining video and audio with appropriate timings and pauses.

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  • Leadership through peer mediation. Assessing programme impact in eight Auckland secondary schools

    Connor, Diana; Burford, L; Buccahan, L (2016-12-01)

    Report
    The University of Auckland Library

    This report presents the findings of preliminary research into the impact in eight Auckland secondary schools of the Leadership through Peer Mediation (LtPM) programme, a core programme of the Foundation for Peace Studies Aotearoa/New Zealand (???the Peace Foundation???). A core aim of the LtPM programme is to empower students as ???ambassadors of social justice.??? The programme trains students in the mediation processes and leadership skills needed to assist peers to resolve personal conflicts in a peaceful manner. The training covers issues such as personal responsibility, rapport building, and active, empathetic communication. This research report offers a preliminary assessment of the impact of LtPM on school cultures and student well-being.

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  • Review of the NZ Transport Agency treatment selection algorithm

    Tapper, MSP; Henning, Theunis; Foulgner, S; Hoggard, H (2016-09-30)

    Report
    The University of Auckland Library

    The objective of this research, carried out between 2012 and 2015, was to improve the treatment selection algorithm (TSA). The TSA is used to forecast the timing and treatment type of works required to maintain roads in good condition for the least whole-of-life cost in the short to medium term. The output was a candidate list of sites intended for validation in the field combined with recommended drainage improvements and funding estimates. Since the TSA was developed, the long-term pavement performance monitoring sites have yielded much practical information; pavement and surface condition measurement techniques and parameters have developed; and economic analysis parameters have changed. The algorithm, used to guide future surface and pavement works, needs to be updated to reflect current knowledge and recent experience. Recommended improvements include the consideration of thin asphaltic surfacings and maintenance cost data. The vehicle operating cost model and benefit-cost ratio funding mechanisms have been superseded and a new present value model is recommended. This incorporates new data sources now available such as falling weight deflectometer and high-speed data capture.

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  • Peacebuilding, education and advocacy in conflict-affected contexts programme: UNICEF programme report 2012-2016

    Shah, Ritesh; Maber, E; Lopes Cardozo, MTA; Paterson, R (2016-06)

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    The University of Auckland Library

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  • The role of education in peacebuilding country report: Myanmar executive summary

    Higgins, S; Maber, E; Lopes Cardozo, MTA; Shah, Ritesh (2016-02)

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    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Trends in resourcing and employment practice of Canterbury construction organisations

    Chang, Yan; Wilkinson, Suzanne; Seville, E; Brunsdon, D (2016-02-29)

    Report
    The University of Auckland Library

    Five years on since the first major earthquake struck the Canterbury region, the reconstruction is well advanced. Christchurch is a city in transition. This report considers trends in resourcing and employment practice of Canterbury construction organisations in response to the projected market changes (2015-2016). The report draws on the interviews with 18 personnel from 16 construction organisations and recovery agencies in October 2015. It provides a summary of perceived changes in the construction market in Canterbury, evidence of what steps construction businesses have been taking, how they have prepared for likely changes in the reconstruction sector, as well as the perceived alignment of public policies with the industry response.

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  • Capacity and capability development of Canterbury subcontracting businesses: Features, motivating factors and obstacles

    Chang, Yan; Wilkinson, Suzanne; Seville, E; Brunsdon, D (2016-02)

    Report
    The University of Auckland Library

    This report provides an understanding of the nature of Canterbury subcontracting businesses operating in the space of earthquake reconstruction in Christchurch. It offers an in-depth look at the factors that influence the development of their capacity and capability to withstand the impact of volatile economic cycles, including the 2008 global financial crisis and the subsequent 2010/11 Canterbury earthquakes. There have been significant changes to the business models of the 13 subcontracting businesses studied since the earthquakes. These changes can be seen in the ways the case study subcontractors have adapted to cope with the changing demands that the rebuild posed. Apart from the magnitude of reconstruction works and new developments that directly affect the capacity of subcontracting businesses in Canterbury, case studies found that subcontractors??? capacity and capability to meet the demand varies and is influenced by the: subcontractors??? own unique characteristics, which are often shaped by changing circumstances in a dynamic and uncertain recovery process; and internal factors in relation to the company???s goal and employees??? needs

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