4,217 results for Report

  • A review of the impacts from invasion by the introduced kelp Undaria pinnatifida

    James, Kate (2016-12)

    Report
    The University of Auckland Library

    Invasive species are those which have evolved in one location and are introduced, often by human activities, to another location where they successfully establish, spread and cause harm to the receiving Environment. Invasive species pose one of the foremost threats to marine ecosystems. An increasing number of marine ecosystems, primarily near shorelines, are being altered or even destroyed by invasive species. Undaria pinnatifida is a highly successful invasive kelp species. It is regarded as one of the worst invasive species in the world. Undaria is native to the northwest Pacific and is now invasive to more than fourteen countries around the globe. Undaria has a set of attributes common to highly invasive species; it is easily spread and transported, can colonise a wide range of substrata, has a broad ecological niche and a typically weedy life history. Under suitable conditions Undaria can spread rapidly and form dense monospecific stands, with lifecycle and growth strategies varying from winter annual to year round dependant on local temperature regimes. Undaria can substantially alter natural habitats and change community structure and trophic interactions. Undaria invasion often represents an addition to canopy cover at invaded sites, or invades sites naturally devoid of native canopy-forming species, where it can create a completely novel biogenic habitat. Undaria invasion can significantly increase local primary productivity as the high biomass turnover associated with the short life span of Undaria sporophytes increases carbon export to the surrounding ecosystem. Where Undaria forms dense stands it can reduce the presence and diversity of smaller understory algal species and can in certain circumstances out-compete some canopy-forming species. Undaria invasion increases food and habitat availability for some species, including epibiotic communities. The epibionts associated with Undaria can be different and less diverse than those associated with native algal species and this has the potential to significantly affect the flux of materials to higher trophic levels. Macrofaunal assemblages found in association with Undaria habitat can also be different from those associated with un-invaded sites. Undaria invasion can result in an increase in the abundance of grazers, including gastropods, urchins and crabs, as well as fish. Such changes can further affect local food chains by increasing the abundance of food for predators. The winter annual growth cycle of Undaria at many sites means carbon inputs and interactions with higher trophic levels will be temporally variable. An increase in fauna associated with Undaria habitat during its growth season could result in a lack of food or habitat for increased numbers of associated fauna when Undaria dies off during summer. This may in turn lead to effects from grazing pressure on native algal species post Undaria season. Whilst there is evidence to illustrate how Undaria causes changes to community structure and function, quantifying ecological impacts can be difficult where there is a lack of baseline ecological data. Furthermore, separating changes caused by Undaria invasion from natural variation, over space and time, is a challenging task. In order to more effectively quantify impacts from Undaria invasion more manipulative experiments, including those which assess trophic interactions, are needed. However, the effects currently reported from surveys and small scale experiments illustrate how Undaria invasion can have significant ecological impacts. In addition, responses of Undaria to climate change, and the interactions of climate change with other stressors, will further alter ecological impacts from Undaria. The presence and impacts from Undaria invasion undermine efforts to conserve biodiversity and representative native ecosystems in particular. Efforts should remain in place to protect important high value areas, such as marine protected areas, from Undaria invasion.

    View record details
  • Redistributive policy and endogenous TFP disparity across countries with a special focus on the US, Japan, and Australia

    Bandyopadhyay, Debasis; King, IP; Tang, X (2013-12-16)

    Report
    The University of Auckland Library

    The traditional emphasis on breaking down output growth according to growth in inputs and growth in TFP is misplaced. More appropriately, we should break it down according to changes in "efficiency" and "technology". These two are equilibrium concepts, rather than purely technical properties of production functions. The influence of redistributive taxation (on growth) is nonlinear and depends crucially on the current state of the economy. How an economy responds to changes in the average marginal tax rate of income reveals its efficiency state. We establish the above three key results in a neoclassical, dynamic general equilibrium model in which the institutional and technological factors, as well as redistributive policy, endogenously determine the total factor productivity (TFP) of a country. Economists point towards cross-country differences in TFP to explain wide differences in income per capita across countries. However, econometric exercise proves to be challenging in the absences of a theoretical model which could map institutional and policy parameters into TFP and accumulated inputs as an equilibrium outcome. In this paper, we take up this challenge. The model allows us to break down TFP into two key components: "technology" - which identifies the production possibility frontier and "efficiency" - which determines the location of the economy inside that frontier. We calibrate that model to three separate economies: the US, Japan, and Australia. The numerical analysis of the data from those three calibrated economies highlight that TFP differences play a significant role in explaining the differences in output per capita across U.S., Japan, and Australia. We then conduct simulation experiments based on random selections of a set of parameters with suitably specified distributions to match the per capita income distribution among the countries around the world and generate data for per capita output and its various components. We do a variance decomposition of analysis of that simulated data to support our key findings.

    View record details
  • Public debt with valued fiat currency in a model of economic growth

    Bandyopadhyay, Debasis (2015-02-21)

    Report
    The University of Auckland Library

    The paper incorporates Tobin's portfolio balance theory into an overlapping generations model of growth with endogenously valued money in which fiscal policy and/or monetary policy can change the steady state level of the capital stock. The optimal inflation rate that maximizes the steady-state capital stock is a function of the nominal interest rate and the income tax rate. For example, when the nominal interest rate equals 6%, government balances its budget and sets the average income tax rate to be 20%, then the optimal inflation rate for the model economy is about 3.39%. The model can be used to demonstrate how open market intervention could hinder economic growth when the targeted inflation rate is not equal to the optimal inflation rate. In the model, money is neutral but not super neutral. In contrast, with most models that explain real effects of inflation, anticipated changes in the inflation rate have a real effect in this model. This occurs because money and nominal government debt enter the economy not as a helicopter drop but as seigniorage and the Ricardian Equivalence does not hold.

    View record details
  • Linking cross-country disparity in the long run growth rates to the initial disparity in the human capital distribution

    Bandyopadhyay, Debasis (2016-12-20)

    Report
    The University of Auckland Library

    This paper aims to provide a theoretical explanation for understanding the cross-country disparity of long-run economic growth rates based on the diversity in the initial conditions. In particular, it argues that the disparity in the inequality of human capital and income, as well as the industry structure of the economy prior to the emergence of endogenous growth, plays an important role in determining its long-run growth rate. The initial distribution of human capital and the share of agriculture characterize the initial state of the economy. I present a model of endogenous growth that generates cross-country diversity of long-run growth rates of per capita income as functions of path dependent history of human capital distribution. The model???s predicted growth rate explains up to fifty-three percent of the observed variation in growth rates across countries. The results of the econometric estimation of the equilibrium restriction of the model on the data answer an important question regarding why two countries with the same average stock of human capital may have different total factor productivity (TFP). The results support the hypothesis that the diversity in the relative proportion of innovators due to differences in the historical distribution of human capital and the redistributive tax regimes induce significant heterogeneity in the level of TFP as well as its growth rates across countries.

    View record details
  • Endogenous emigration of skilled labour

    Bandyopadhyay, Debasis (2016-05-14)

    Report
    The University of Auckland Library

    There is an increasing trend in the pattern of world migration of educated and skilled individuals leaving developing countries for developed ones. This has created much concern about a so-called ???brain drain???. As the name suggests, the brain drain was believed by early commentators to be unequivocally harmful to those countries which suffered from it. More recent literature does not directly refute this belief but puts it under closer scrutiny, and finds the possibility of many different mechanisms through which the negative effects of the brain drain may be mitigated. This paper aims to illuminate by surveying the literature on the brain drain. It does so by exploring the brain drain in the current context of globalisation and by making comparisons to previous periods of globalisation, by examining the theoretical analyses of migration and the brain drain, by exploring an economic model of the brain drain, and by analysing the particular case of New Zealand, a developed country with a high rate of skilled and educated emigration.

    View record details
  • A migration based theory of the exchange rate and the New Zealand???s experience

    Bandyopadhyay, Debasis; Binning, A (2016-08-30)

    Report
    The University of Auckland Library

    Conventional exchange rate theory has proven unreliable in its attempts to explain the real exchange rate. In the March 2003 Reserve Bank Monetary Policy Statement two graphs appeared, one of total net migration and the other the nominal TWI exchange rate. Closer inspection revealed they were correlated. This paper aims to answer the question: can migration be used to predict the exchange rate? The hypothesis tested in this paper is that the heterogeneity in the market shares of aggregate demand and labor supply between the migrants and the native-born population constitute important determinants of the real exchange rate. In particular, the model provides an analytically tractable equation consistent with a general equilibrium theory of the exchange rate determination as a function of migration. It turns out that migration data is able to partially explain the movements in the real exchange rate. The correctly specified general equilibrium performs well in and out of the sample and gives valuable insight into the determination of the real exchange rate for New Zealand.

    View record details
  • Endogenous growth without patents

    Bandyopadhyay, Debasis; Binning, A (2016-01-30)

    Report
    The University of Auckland Library

    This paper constructs an analytically tractable model of endogenous innovation with a special focus on the effects of barriers to entry, namely patents. Conventional models of endogenous growth rely on the existence and enforcement of intellectual property rights with patents. Those legal rights are seen as necessary evils, required to encourage innovation by ensuring successful innovators are rewarded with monopoly rents. This paper takes a different approach. By integrating Aghion, Harris, and Vickers (1997) and the Boldrin and Levine (2003) framework into a conventional vintage capital growth model such as Greenwood, et al (1997), the paper characterizes economic conditions under which patents may decrease the growth rate. The model is calibrated to the US economy to match its long run time series of GDP per hour. Simulations of that calibrated model provide important insights regarding growth-promoting policies. The model also provides an explicit numerical algorithm to measure cross-country differences in total factor productivity due to barriers to technology adoption.

    View record details
  • The Influence of Urban Forms on Transit Behaviour in the Auckland Region

    Sheng, Mingyue; Sharp, Basil (2017-01)

    Report
    The University of Auckland Library

    As well documented in the literature, urban form plays an essential role in determining transit ridership. However, among these studies, the majority of empirical work has not considered space as a relevant factor. Instead, most of the findings are based on a strong assumption that there is no spatial effect across the research area. This general negligence of spatial effects will, in turn, produce biased estimators if substantial geographical patterns exist. Given the observational heterogeneous distribution of transit patterns in the Auckland region, it is exceedingly doubtful whether the assumption of no spatial interdependence is valid. Based on cross-sectional data, mainly extracted from the New Zealand (NZ) 2006 census with additional geographical information compiled by ArcMap for the Auckland region, this paper contributes to the existing literature by offering insight into the spatial structure of the current public transport sector. The use of a spatial Durbin model provides a better understanding of the urban form factors that influence bus mode share by decomposing the total effect of one explanatory variable into direct and indirect effects. The results show that the total effects are comprised mostly of spatial spill-over impacts. In addition to urban form variables, several other dimensions of potential bus mode share predictors are considered, including transit supply quality, accessibility to other modes of public transport, plus variables that describes household characteristics.

    View record details
  • Aggregate road passenger travel demand in New Zealand

    Sheng, Mingyue; Sharp, Basil (2017-03)

    Report
    The University of Auckland Library

    Road passenger transportation, which includes both private vehicles and public transport, is regarded a vital link that connects people and economic activities across New Zealand (NZ).1 Although a wealth of past literature has examined the demand for private and public transport both individually and jointly worldwide, little evidence was found analysing the demand for different road passenger transport choices as a system of equations. Given the fact that road passenger transport modes are considered substitutes to one another, there is a strong possibility that an interrelationship exists between the travel demand functions, primarily due to the correlation between their disturbances, a research gap that was thus discussed and addressed in this study. This paper uses the seemingly unrelated regression (SUR) method to develop an aggregate road passenger travel demand model. The Breusch-Pagan test of independence confirms the existence of correlated error terms in the three demand equations. Empirical results from the SUR model delivers various policy implications in terms of achieving a reduction in the demand for both petrol and diesel cars, and also promoting the use of public transport.

    View record details
  • Spatial distribution and seasonal variation in Undaria pinnatifida populations around the Coromandel Peninsula

    James, Kate; Shears, NT (2013)

    Report
    The University of Auckland Library

    Undaria pinnatifida is a large laminarian kelp. Undaria is an annual with several different life stages. It was introduced to New Zealand waters in the 1980s by Asian fishing vessels. It is known to have direct negative impacts on indigenous biota and it can change the entire structure of marine ecosystems. Since its detection in Wellington in 1987, Undaria has spread rapidly around New Zealand coasts and is now widespread around most of New Zealand???s eastern and southern coastlines from Auckland to Bluff. Vessel hulls and aquaculture equipment are known to be the main dispersal pathways. Quantitative data on the extent and nature of Undaria populations in the wider Hauraki Gulf including the Coromandel area are currently lacking. The potential exists for this highly invasive species to spread to regions regarded as having high conservation values such as marine reserves and Hauraki Gulf islands. Data on the distribution and biology of Undaria in the Hauraki Gulf is necessary to determine the risks of future spread, the potential impact on environmental values and on marine farming, and in general to inform management decisions regarding this invasive species. The present study has two main objectives: Investigate the spatial distribution of Undaria populations and levels of infestation on mussel farms and adjacent coastal sites around the Coromandel Peninsula. Investigate seasonal variation in the structure and biology of Undaria populations at sites around the Coromandel Peninsula and at Westhaven Marina in the Waitemata Harbour. Sites at Coromandel and Westhaven were monitored from June 2011 to July 2012.

    View record details
  • Koe bale o Masiu: The prize of Masiu (AMNH 80.0/9203)

    Lythberg, Billie (2013-07-28)

    Report
    The University of Auckland Library

    View record details
  • Health, Independence and Caregiving in Advanced Age: Findings from LiLACS NZ

    Kerse, Ngaire; Lapsley, Hilary; Moyes, Simon; Mules, R; Edlin R (2016-12-15)

    Report
    The University of Auckland Library

    View record details
  • Tuple Space for Mashups

    Lutteroth, Christof; Tian, Sheng; Weber, Gerald (2011)

    Report
    The University of Auckland Library

    Inter-widget communication is essential for enterprise mashup applications. To implement it, current mashups use the publish/subscribe pattern. However, for mashup scenarios with many interactions between widgets, this pattern requires a lot of manual wiring between the widgets in existing mashup platforms. In this paper, we propose a new event model, UWEM, which is an extension of Linda and Tuple Space. UWEM separates event publishers and subscribers in space, time and reference. It provides a more flexible and effective interaction pattern among widgets. It makes it easier for users to build mashups, and also delivers a plug and play experience of building mashup application for users. We have implemented UWEM in a popular enterprise mashup framework.

    View record details
  • X-HYBRIDJOIN for Near-real-time Data Warehousing

    Naeem, M Asif; Dobbie, Gillian; Weber, Gerald (2010-08)

    Report
    The University of Auckland Library

    View record details
  • The impact of effective facilitation on teaching and learning in the arts: Discipline-based case studies in the Auckland/Northland region 2005: Final report

    Thwaites, Trevor; Ferens, Diana; Lines, David (2007)

    Report
    The University of Auckland Library

    Multi-method research investigated the effectiveness of professional development facilitation processes and structures in the arts at national/regional levels and the impact on teachers' knowledge and student achievement in Auckland/Northland.

    View record details
  • Thinking Outside the Investment Square: The Case for Reappraisal of New Zealand Investments

    Starr Jr, RG; Douglas, T.C. (2008)

    Report
    The University of Auckland Library

    Summary: We propose marketing direct investment in New Zealand as an effective and novel way for global investors to improve the diversification of their portfolios. This approach can provide a new tool for attracting direct investment into New Zealand, and enable us to find significant capital for long-term development projects.

    View record details
  • Referen??ite

    Carrie, Douglas (2008)

    Report
    The University of Auckland Library

    Referen??ite is The University of Auckland's official academic referencing resource. Its main purpose is to encourage students to correctly reference the sources they use in written work. To do this Referen??ite: Promotes the meaningfulness of referencing practice: it is not mere institutional compliance - the values at the core of the practice are shared across cultures; Provides tools and information to make the correct referencing of sources significantly easier - to virtually eliminate any excuse that it is too difficult or confusing; Provides 24/7 access to referencing information delivered in an engaging, efficient and student-centred format via a single simple url (www.cite.auckland.ac.nz); through the site's own content and also by acting as a central 'hub' for excellent online referencing resources. We welcome your views and comments via the 'send feedback' link at the bottom of the page. We also invite you to place a link to this resource on your own website. Referen??ite was created by Jenny Marshall (Online Resource Coordinator for the Student Learning Centre) from an original idea conceived by Emmanuel Manalo (Head of the Student Learning Centre). Referen??ite was launched early in 2007 and in December that year received the inaugural 'Award for Outstanding Academic Integrity Resource' at the Asia-Pacific Conference on Academic Integrity. Subsequently Referen??ite was adopted as The University of Auckland's main referencing resource. At this point the website was further developed by a team comprising: Doug Carrie, Tony Chung, Craig Housley, Emmanuel Manalo, Jenny Marshall, Lynne Mitchell, and Megan Sutton. The website team also acknowledges the invaluable assistance of: Jenny Buxton, Fiona Gregory, Andrew Lavery, Chris Peck, Louis Ranjard, Sophie Reissner-Roubicek, Victoria Trembath, Glenis Wong-Toi, and Sarah Wright.

    View record details
  • He Whakaaro Here Whakaumu M?? Aotearoa: The Report of Matike Mai Aotearoa - The Independent Working Group on Constitutional Transformation

    Mutu, Margaret; Jackson, M (2016-02-05)

    Report
    The University of Auckland Library

    View record details
  • Purple Peaks Curry Reserve pest animal management plan

    McFarlane, Lynette; Ross, James G.

    Report
    Lincoln University

    The purpose of this report is to create a pest animal management plan for Purple Peaks Curry Reserve. The work was commissioned by NZ Native Forest Restoration Trust in June 2017, and the plan was written by Lyne McFarlane and Dr James Ross of Lincoln University.

    View record details
  • Characterisation and length-based assessment model for scampi (Metanephrops challengeri) in the Bay of Plenty (SCI 1) and Hawke Bay/Wairarapa (SCI 2)

    Tuck, Ian (2014)

    Report
    The University of Auckland Library

    Assessments of SCI 1 and SCI 2 scampi stocks have been updated, and assessments for both were accepted. For SCI 1, SSB remains stable at around 70% SSB0. Fishing intensity has consistently been below F 40% Bo. For SCI 2, SSB has increased recently, and is around 65% SSBo. Fishing intensity peaked in 2002 but has declined in recent years, while SSB/SSBo has increased. For both stocks, future catches between 100 and 140 tonnes (to 2018) are not predicted to reduce the SSB below 40% SSBo.

    View record details