7,551 results for Report

  • Climate Change 2014 - Synthesis Report

    Sims, REH

    Report
    Massey University

    An overview report of the Contributions of Working groups 1,2 and 3 to the 5th Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)

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  • The wider voice: Wanganui community perspectives on adult literacy and employment 2005-2006

    Comrie, M; Tilley, E; Neilson, D; Murray, N; Sligo, F; Vaccarino, F

    Report
    Massey University

    false

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  • MY FRIENDS Youth final evaluation report

    MacDonald, J; Bourke, R; Berg, M; Burgon, J

    Report
    Massey University

    false

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  • Kia Piki te Ora Suicide Prevention Programme Evaluation Final Report

    Andrews, CA; Manu, H

    Report
    Massey University

    Suicide and suicidal behaviour continue to be a major public health issue in New Zealand. Each year more than 500 New Zealanders take their lives and there are over 2500 admissions to hospital for intentional self-harm. The latest statistics in 2012 show that almost one in five completed suicides were Māori suicides and the Māori youth suicide rates were 2.8 times higher than non-Māori youth. Kia Piki te Ora Māori suicide prevention service (Kia Piki te Ora), operating in nine DHB regions is one element of the social sector’s work towards longer-term goals of reduced suicides, and harm associated with suicidal behaviour in Māori communities. This recent evaluation report shows that generally stakeholders felt that Kia Piki te Ora’s contribution to Māori suicide prevention worked well when providers engaged with the community. However, the widespread of activities undertaken by the nine providers meant that in some instances stakeholders were unclear on the core role and responsibilities of Kia Piki te Ora.

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  • Energy-smart food for people and climate

    Sims, RE

    Report
    Massey University

    false

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  • Developing Valid and Reliable Rubrics for Writing Assessment: Research and Practice

    Comer, KV

    Report
    Massey University

    false

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  • Technical report two: Analysis of curriculum documents.

    Ballantyne, N; Beddoe, L; Hay, K; Maidment, J; Ngan, L; Walker, S

    Report
    Massey University

    false

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  • The sustainable delivery of sexual violence prevention education in schools

    Julich, SJ; Oak, E; Terrell, J; Good, G

    Report
    Massey University

    Sexual violence is a crime that cannot be ignored: it causes our communities significant consequences including heavy economic costs, and evidence of its effects can be seen in our criminal justice system, public health system, Accident Compensation Corporation (ACC), and education system, particularly in our schools. Many agencies throughout New Zealand work to end sexual violence. Auckland-based Rape Prevention Education: Whakatu Mauri (RPE) is one such agency, and is committed to preventing sexual violence by providing a range of programmes and initiatives, information, education, and advocacy to a broad range of audiences. Up until early 2014 RPE employed one or two full-time positions dedicated to co-ordinating and training a large pool (up to 15) of educators on casual contracts to deliver their main school-based programmes, BodySafe – approximately 450 modules per year, delivered to some 20 high schools. Each year several of the contract educators, many of whom were tertiary students, found secure full time employment elsewhere. To retain sufficient contract educators to deliver its BodySafe contract meant that RPE had to recruit, induct and train new educators two to three times every year. This model was expensive, resource intense, and ultimately untenable. The Executive Director and core staff at RPE wanted to develop a more efficient and stable model of delivery that fitted its scarce resources. To enable RPE to know what the most efficient model was nationally and internationally, with Ministry of Justice funding, RPE commissioned Massey University to undertake this report reviewing national and international research on sexual violence prevention education (SVPE). [Background from Executive Summary.]

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  • Smaller scale New Zealand dairy farmers: long term plans and key challenges

    Westbrooke, Victoria; Nuthall, Peter; Phillips, Tom

    Report
    Massey University

    Farmer wellbeing has been defined as “a dynamic process that gives people a sense of how their lives are evolving” (Nimpagariste & Culver, 2010). In order to support and enhance the wellbeing of farmers in New Zealand, the farmers’ goals, future plans and challenges to their plans all need to be understood. A particular group of interest is smaller scale dairy farmers. The average size of dairy farms in developed agricultural nations is increasing and New Zealand is no different. A high proportion (62%) of NZ dairy herds are smaller scale, milking less than 400 cows at peak. Their wellbeing, now and in the future, is important to the New Zealand dairy industry as a whole. Consequently, the aim of this study is to develop an understanding of smaller-scale dairy farmers’ future goals, plans and challenges so that recommendations can be made to enhance and support their wellbeing in the future. Farms who peak milked less than 400 cows were surveyed via telephone. A total of 346 surveys were completed, in Taranaki (n=103), the Waikato (n=144) and Northland (n=99). The majority of respondents’ were owner-operators (75%), male (67%), born and bred in a rural area (79%), and between 40 and 60 years old (57%). Overall, the mean farm size was 97ha, with 240 cows producing 86,789kgMS with 0.83 of a full time employee. Respondents’ had high (67%) equity levels in their businesses and a third (35%) had non-farming investments. Farmers’ most likely future investments were related to their current farming business, that is reducing debt to very low levels and increasing production by more than 10%. Based on farmers future plans and challenges reported and discussed in this study, it is clear the smaller scale dairy farmers would like knowledge and assistance in five key areas; succession, regulation and compliance, staff, technology and cash-flow/profitability. This report concludes with suggestions for each of these areas, which has the potential to maintain or increase the wellbeing of smaller scale dairy farmers in New Zealand. [Executive summary]

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  • Te Ao Hurihuri population: Past, present & future

    Kukutai, Tahu; Rarere, Moana (2014-07)

    Report
    University of Waikato

    The NIDEA Te Ao Hurihuri series uses data from the New Zealand Census of Population and Dwellings to examine key aspects of Maori population change.

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  • Western Bay of Plenty District: Demographic Profile 1986 - 2031

    Jackson, Natalie; Rarere, Moana (2014-05)

    Report
    University of Waikato

    This report outlines the demographic changes that have occurred in Western Bay of Plenty District, as well as what trends are expected in the future.

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  • Selected Trade Agreements and Implications for U.S. Agriculture

    Wainio, John; Gehlhar, Mark J.; Dyck, John H. (Apr-2011)

    Report
    AgEcon Search

    Since 2001, the United States has concluded negotiations with 13 countries, resulting
    in 8 trade agreements (TAs). Three additional agreements have been negotiated but not yet ratified by Congress, as of March 2011. Other countries have become increasingly active in negotiating their own trade pacts. This proliferation of TAs between key U.S. trading partners and competitors may have raised concerns among U.S. exporters, whose share in established markets could be eroded by such deals. In this study, ERS examines how recently concluded TAs between ASEAN (Southeast Asia) countries and China and Australia/New Zealand, as well as pending TAs between the United States and Korea, Colombia, and Panama, will likely affect U.S. agricultural trade. Model results suggest that TAs between ASEAN countries and China and ASEAN countries and Australia/New Zealand would result in moderate losses to U.S. agricultural exports of about $350
    million to those countries, but losses would be partially offset by gains in other markets. U.S. agricultural exports to Korea would expand by an estimated $1.9 billion per year if the U.S. TA with Korea were implemented. The U.S.-Colombia TA would result in an estimated $370 million in additional U.S. exports per year. U.S. exports would realize smaller gains of about $50 million per year under the pact with Panama. Empirical results confirm theoretical findings that trade created under TAs exceeds trade diverted, but that
    results depend on the specific circumstances of each agreement.

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  • Linking the Australian Emissions Trading Scheme

    Jotzo, Frank; Betz, Regina (Feb-2009)

    Report
    AgEcon Search

    A detailed proposal for an economy-wide emissions trading scheme in Australia was tabled by the government in December 2008 with a proposed start date for mid-2010. The government proposes unilateral linking, with no initial bilateral linkages, through the clean development mechanism and joint implementation. The proposal has resulted in serious concern about significant permit price increases and price capping, leading to a ban on permit sales.

    This research paper evaluates the proposed Australian scheme in relation to international emissions trading and linkages. Different scenarios for the Australian permit price under unilateral linking are considered. Options for bilateral linking with the European Union and New Zealand schemes are also evaluated, including access to ‘hot air’ units.

    The research paper argues that Australia needs to dismantle linking obstacles, such as the price cap, and move towards suitable bilateral linking schemes.

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  • A Pilot Study of Halal Goat-Meat Consumption in Atlanta, Georgia

    Ibrahim, Mohammed; Liu, Xuanli; Nelson, Mack C. (Feb-2008)

    Report
    AgEcon Search

    Atlanta is a relatively large market for goat meat.
    As in most metropolitan areas around the U.S.,
    goat-meat consumption has grown steadily in Atlanta
    over the past decade (Northwest Cooperative
    Development Center 2005; Nettles and Bukenya
    2004). This growth is attributed to the influx of
    immigrants from goat-meat-eating countries into
    the U.S. over the same period (Gipson 1999). The
    increase in demand for goat meat has made the U.S.
    a net importer of competitively priced goat meat
    from Australia and New Zealand into major U.S
    cities such as Atlanta (USDA-FAS 2006). The fact
    that goat-meat imports from Australia have steadily
    increased over the years makes markets such as Atlanta
    of particular interest to both Georgia goat-meat
    suppliers and meat-goat producers. The goat-meat
    market, however, is highly segmented (Nelson et al.
    2004; Mclean-Meyinsse 2003). Recognition of the
    diversity among Atlanta goat-meat consumers raises
    interest in identifying preferences of particular segments.
    One such segment is the Muslim consumer.
    However, very limited information is available to
    help assess the preferences of Muslim consumers
    in the Atlanta goat-meat market.
    This study focuses on the Muslim segment of actual
    goat-meat consumers in the metro Atlanta area.
    Contrary to earlier assertions, we hypothesize that
    Muslims eat goat-meat for cultural reasons and not
    for religious reasons. Furthermore, we assert that
    Muslims are not a single homogenous niche group
    and should not be treated as such in marketing. Thus
    this study examines goat-meat consumption patterns
    among Muslims in metropolitan Atlanta. Insights
    gained in this study benefit meat-goat producers
    and consumers in Georgia.

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  • Strategic Planning - Niche Marketing in the Agriculture Industry

    Cuthbert, Ronald (2008)

    Report
    AgEcon Search

    The purpose of the research is to improve our understanding of the adaptation process in agriculture at the farm level and the influence through the value chain. The research identified critical managerial decision areas in the strategic planning process of blackcurrant growers in Alberta and the South Island of New Zealand. The work was a comparative study of growers that attempted to determine the correspondence between the results of case study observations and a set of theoretical propositions that were developed from a review of the relevant literature. Results indicate that growers understand their own firm’s core competencies, plan strategically and contingently to maintain flexibility and retain niche advantages.

    Data gathered on the blackcurrant sectors in Canada and New Zealand provided the contextual basis for the selection and analysis of the grower case studies. The sector analysis reached across the value chain. Among the findings reported was the interesting observation that although niche marketing is an accepted strategy in the marketing literature as a means to adaptive change, and although the flexibility inherent in this approach is critical to the success of traditionally resource-starved small firms, it is not clear that the firms reported on in this study engaged in niche marketing as a planned strategy but rather came upon the opportunity through serendipity. In terms of country comparison, results indicate that there may be some specific factors that contribute to the success of the blackcurrant industry in New Zealand. Closer examination of these factors may be beneficial to assisting the Canadian sector.

    Keywords: Niche marketing, strategic planning, adaptation flexibility
    JEL Codes: D81, L1, M31, O13, Q13

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  • New Zealand Agriculture Policy Review

    Gilmour, Brad; Gurung, Rajendra Kumar (Oct-2007)

    Report
    AgEcon Search

    In 1984, New Zealand introduced important policy reforms in order to address major macroeconomic and fiscal imbalances. New Zealand's support to agricultural producers rapidly decreased from 30 percent of the value of production to about 2 percent, and has remained the lowest among OECD economies since that time.

    After a difficult transition, the removal of subsidies resulted in a more diversified and competitive rural economy in New Zealand; total factor productivity growth has been roughly 2.5 percent annually since 1984, compared to roughly 1.5 percent in the prereform period.

    This Policy Review focuses on agricultural policy today and how New Zealand is supporting the agricultural sector now without resorting to subsidies. It describes the policy New Zealand uses to support farmers dealing with adverse events such as climatic disasters. It also describes New Zealand's strategy for promoting competiveness in world markets.

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  • ISSUES IN REFORMING TARIFF-RATE IMPORT QUOTAS IN THE AGREEMENT ON AGRICULTURE IN THE WTO

    de Gorter, Harry; Abbott, Philip C.; Barichello, Richard R.; Boughner, Devry S.; Bureau, Jean-Christophe; Choi, Jung-Sup; Coleman, Jonathan R.; Herrmann, Roland; Kramb, Marc Christopher; Sheldon, Ian M.; Liapis, Peter S.; MacLaren, Donald; Moennich, Christina; Morse, B. Adair; Skully, David W.; Sumner, Daniel A.; Tangermann, Stefan (2001)

    Report
    AgEcon Search

    Contents: The Economics of Tariff Rate Quotas and the Effects of Trade Liberalization; TRQs and GATT Rules; An Overview of Tariffs, Quotas and Imports Worldwide; TRQs in the European Union; U.S. TRQs for Sugar, Tobacco and Peanuts; Dairy TRQs in the United States; Tariff Rate Quota Implementation and Administration by Developing Countries; Management of Tariff Rate Quotas in Korea and Japan; Tariff Rate Quota Administration in Canadian Agriculture; The Case of Australia and New Zealand Facing TRQs; The 1999 WTO Panel Report on the EU's Common Market Organization for Bananas; Assessment

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  • IMPLEMENTATION OF THE URUGUAY ROUND AGREEMENT ON AGRICULTURE AND ISSUES FOR THE NEXT ROUND OF AGRICULTURAL NEGOTIATIONS

    Tangermann, Stefan; Honma, Masayoshi; Josling, Timothy E.; Lee, Jaeok; MacLaren, Donald; McClatchy, Don; Miner, William M.; Pursell, Garry; Sumner, Daniel A.; Valdes, Alberto (1997)

    Report
    AgEcon Search

    Contact for this paper: Stefan Tangermann, Institute of Agricultural Economics, University of Gottingen, Gottingen, Germany.

    Among the many new achievements made in the Uruguay Round of GATT negotiations, the ambitious and wide-ranging Agreement on Agriculture (The Agreement) was a significant departure from the way agriculture had traditionally been treated in the international trading order. Completely new rules and commitments were established in the areas of market access, export competition and domestic support. While it was generally agreed that the nature of these new WTO provisions for agriculture pointed in an appropriate direction and held promise for the longer run process of reforming the multilateral trading regime for agriculture, it was also clear that the quantitative parameters agreed for the current implementation period of the Agreement were not yet very demanding in most cases. Moreover, right from the start observers and analysts agreed that the actual impact of the new disciplines for agricultural policies and trade agreed at Marrakesh in 1994 would very much depend on the way in which they were going to be implemented in practice.
    Would the new commitments countries had accepted require or induce changes in their policies? Was access to markets really going to be improved? Were the new elements of managed trade, resulting from the host of new tariff rate quotas, going to have negative impacts on trading relations? Would the new constraints on export subsidization turn out to be binding? Could the new provisions on domestic support, and in particular existence of the "green box" be expected to influence national decision making on the instrumentation of agricultural policies? Would countries try to find loopholes in the Agreement which might allow them to escape the constraining effects of some of the new disciplines? Did one have to expect that the frequency of trade disputes in agriculture might further increase? And would the new WTO rules for dispute settlement be able to deal with such trade frictions more successfully? Was the newly established WTO Committee on Agriculture going to be a useful forum for settling any disagreements at an early stage, and for making sure that the reform process in agriculture was kept on track?
    The current six-year implementation period under the Agreement (lasting until the year 2000, with four more years for developing countries to implement their reduction commitments) is now approaching its mid-term. It is still too early for a final assessment of how effective the Agreement has been. However, interesting and important insights can already been gained from the way governments have so far implemented the new rules and commitments. An assessment of the experience made in the first half of the implementation period should be useful for the remainder of the implementation process. Moreover, the time is ripe for a stock-taking as governments begin to prepare for the next round of agricultural negotiations, on the "continuation of the reform process", scheduled under the Agreement to be initiated in 1999. Such a mid-term assessment of how the Agreement is being implemented, and of the resulting issues for the next round of negotiations, is exactly what the present paper tries to achieve.
    The main part of the paper consists of chapters 2 to 9, looking into the way the Agreement is being implemented by major countries and country groups (USA, European Union, Canada, Australia and New Zealand, Japan, Korea, South Asia, Latin America). Chapter 10 provides a brief overview of that country experience and reviews developments in Geneva, in the Committee on Agriculture and in the settlement of agricultural disputes. On the basis of all that analysis, chapter 11 then discusses issues for the next round of agricultural negotiations. Chapter 12, finally, draws conclusions regarding the future of agricultural trade liberalization.

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  • Economic Evaluation of Agricultural Research in Australia and New Zealand - A workshop held in conjunction with the 40th annual conference of the Australian Agricultural and Resource Economics Society 11-16 February 1996, Melbourne, Australia

    Brennan, John P.; Davis, Jeffrey S. (1996)

    Report
    AgEcon Search

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  • THE URUGUAY ROUND AGREEMENT ON AGRICULTURE: AN EVALUATION

    Josling, Timothy E.; Honma, Masayoshi; Lee, Jaeok; MacLaren, Donald; Miner, William M.; Sumner, Daniel A.; Tangermann, Stefan; Valdes, Alberto (1994)

    Report
    AgEcon Search

    Contact for this paper: Laura Bipes/University of Minnesota/Department of Applied Economics/ 1994 Buford Avenue./ St. Paul, MN 55108 USA.

    From the start, agriculture played a central role in the Uruguay Round of GATT trade negotiations. The Punta del Este Declaration called for a solution to the problems facing agricultural trade through modified trade rules and an agreement to lower protection levels. It was recognized that such an improvement implied negotiations on the national farm policies as well as just trade policies. The time that it took to reach agreement reflected the political sensitivity and technical complexity of this task.

    The Agreement embodied in the Final Act of the Uruguay Round breaks new ground for agriculture, and takes a big step towards placing this sector of world trade under rules more consistent with those in operation in other areas. However, the degree of liberalization of markets is modest, and much remains to be done in future rounds of negotiations.

    The most far-reaching element in the Agreement is a change in the rules regarding market access. With very few exceptions, all participating countries have agreed to convert all existing non-tariff barriers (along with unbound tariffs) into bound duties and not to introduce new non-tariff measures. Negotiations agreed to reduce these new bound tariffs, as well as tariffs already bound earlier, according to Schedules included as a part of the Agreement.

    "Tariffication" will impose changes in import policies for a number of countries. Canada will replace import quotas for dairy and poultry products with tariffs, initially at a high level. The European Union will replace its variable levy with tariffs, though a maximum duty-paid price for cereals has been negotiated which puts a limit on the tariff charged. Latin American countries have generally engaged in tariffication in recent years in advance of the Uruguay Round Agreement: for these, and other countries their tariffs will now be bound. The US will forgo the use of Section 22 import quotas and the negotiation of voluntary export restraint agreements with beef suppliers, but the impact on these markets is likely to be small. Japan and Korea have been allowed to delay tariffication in the case of rice for the next few years.

    The Agreement provides in cases of tariffication for "minimum access opportunities", to guard against the impact of high initial tariff rates. This will open up reduced-tariff quotas for a number of products including beef, cereals and fruits and vegetables. The quotas will be expanded to about 5 percent of consumption over the 6 year period. Japan and Korea have agreed to a greater expansion of market access for rice in compensation for the delay in introducing tariffs.

    The ability of countries to control export subsidies in agricultural markets was one of the main issues under discussion in the negotiation. Under the Agreement, countries accept commitments on reducing expenditure on export subsidies as well on the quantity of subsidized exports. This will limit export subsidies by the EU and other countries, for such products as wheat, dairy products and beef, and should lead to firmer world market prices in these commodities. These quantities are also expressed in the Schedules which form part of the Agreement. Countries have also agreed not to apply export subsidies to commodities not subsidized in the base period.

    The Agreement also sets rules and commitments for domestic support policies. It defines a set of policies which are deemed to be less trade-distorting than others, and allocates them to a "green box" which is broadly immune to challenge. Other policies not sheltered in this way are subject to reduction through a limit on the total support given by domestic subsidies and administered prices. It was decided that neither the U.S. deficiency payments (under current legislation) nor the new hectarage compensation payments under the reformed Common Agricultural Policy of the EU need to be reduced. It was also agreed that subsidies that conform to the new rules are sheltered from international challenge under the GATT.

    Developing Countries generally face less stringent commitments, having 10 years rather than six to make the changes, and having to meet only two-thirds of the reduction targets. In addition, development policies are included broadly in the "green box".

    Along with the provisions on domestic and trade policies in the Agreement, participants also concluded an Agreement on Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (SPS Agreement). The goal was to make it easier to distinguish between genuine health and safety issues and disguised protection. The right of countries to set their own safety and health standards is reaffirmed, but with the provision that such standards should be based on scientific justification and that use be made of international standards where possible.

    The extent to which the Agreement will lead to greater market access, curb export subsidies and modify domestic policies in the next few years can only be determined from a detailed inspection of the Schedule of commitments made by the individual countries. Paradoxically, the immediate impact on national policies is likely in most cases to be small. Many countries have been engaged in a process of reducing government support to agriculture, and making such support more closely targetted to needs, in advance of the outcome of the Round. Policy reforms in the EU, Canada, Sweden, Australia and New Zealand, along with much of Latin America, have been strongly influenced by the negotiations in the Uruguay Round. The Agreement thus takes on the task of supporting and locking-in such reforms, and encouraging them in other countries.

    In some aspects the Agreement falls short of expectations (or at least initial demands). It does not constitute a major move toward free trade in agricultural products: the cost of changing the rules has been to give up some degree of liberalization. The tariffs which countries will impose in place of non-tariff barriers are in many cases so high that trade will be restricted to the agreed access quantities. Export subsidy programs will continue though at a reduced level. The major pressure to reinstrument farm policies will continue to be from domestic budget constraints. It will take further rounds of negotiations to reduce protection in agricultural markets to a level comparable to that for most manufactured products. However, with the rule changes and the new types of country commitments agreed, a much more promising basis bas been created for future negotiations.

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