4,461 results for Report

  • Animal biopharming in New Zealand: drivers, scenarios and practical implications

    Goven, J.; Shamy, D.; Heinemann, J. A.; Hunt, Lesley M.

    Report
    Lincoln University

    The research presented here is premised on the assumption that in order to evaluate the risks and benefits, the desirability and ethics of a technology, we must know how it is likely to interact with its context. The research aims to identify the contexts relevant to the implementation of biopharming in New Zealand and to investigate whether and how the associated risks can be managed. It does this by eliciting relevant knowledge from people with experience and expertise in the identified contexts. Animal biopharming is defined here as the farming of transgenic animals genetically modified to produce pharmaceutical compounds for use in humans. Plant biopharming is also under development. Biopharming is one of several methods that can be used to produce the class of drugs known as biopharmaceuticals. Animal biopharming research and development have focused primarily on dairy species. The major drivers internationally for the development of animal biopharming are its potential to lower the costs of drug production, the greater ease of upscaling and downscaling production, an anticipated shortage of manufacturing capacity using other production methods, the potential to address some of the limitations of other production methods, and the desire to strengthen or evade patent restrictions. In New Zealand, major drivers include New Zealand’s animal-health status, the strength of its dairy research and farm management, and a desire to use biopharming as a tool to move the economy away from commodity production and to enhance economic competitiveness. Biopharming research and development in New Zealand is currently focused on dairy cows. Significant uncertainties remain regarding the potential benefits and hazards of biopharming. These include: cost-effectiveness in relation to competing platforms, unresolved technical problems, patent and regulatory issues, potential risks to human health, issues of gene spread, and animal-welfare concerns. Factors to be considered when assessing the prospects, including the risks and benefits, of biopharming in New Zealand should include the nature of the biopharming enterprise (e.g., animals used, activities encompassed, and operational and ownership structure) as well as the risk management measures likely to be applied. Four scenarios have been developed for assessment based on these factors. Factors relevant to risk assessment and management of biopharming emerging from the research encompass implications of the farm context for risk management as well as impacts of risk management on farm practice. The former include: impact of ownership structure, social and economic influences on implementation of controls, labour market, and the role of human error. The latter include: grazing practices, disposal of carcasses and waste, farm location, movements on and off the farm, and future land use. Application of the research findings to the scenarios suggests that there are substantial obstacles in the way of animal biopharming being taken up by dairy farmers in New Zealand. Specialist integrated biopharm operations may not face the same obstacles, but may also not offer the prospective benefits that have driven research on biopharming in New Zealand. Application of the findings to risk assessment and risk management points to a need to include a wider range of knowledge in risk-assessment processes and to consider a wider range of factors in assessing risks and benefits and in developing risk management protocols.

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  • Can building and construction sector innovation be improved? : a review of innovation centres and their implications for New Zealand

    Fairweather, John R.

    Report
    Lincoln University

    The objectives of this research are to report on the role of innovation centres in the building and construction sectors in different countries, describe their structure and function, and compare the governance of building and construction innovation in New Zealand to what is happening overseas. The findings indicate there are four main functions of innovation centres, with only the first being well accomplished in New Zealand. The functions are: Commercialise R&D, Help inventors, Promote innovation, Do research. There is scope for a dedicated New Zealand innovation centre to provide all of these functions.

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  • New Zealand farm structure change and intensification

    Mulet Marquis, S.; Fairweather, John R.

    Report
    Lincoln University

    This report presents information about the numbers of farms in New Zealand. The different sources providing such data report very different figures and trends over time, but they all seem to indicate an overall trend of decrease in total farm numbers over the last decades, which appears to be due mainly to a decrease in the numbers of grazing and fattening farms and in the number of arable farms. The distribution of farms by size range over time shows an increase in the proportion of both the smallest and the largest ones, at the expense of the midsized categories. However, different trends can be observed depending on the farm type. The report then explores the change in livestock numbers over time. Thus, during the last 20 years, the main trends consist in an overall decrease in sheep and beef numbers, while dairy and deer numbers increased. To conclude, the report deals with the question of intensification in New Zealand farming systems. It underlines the increase in numbers of cows per hectare and production per cow in the dairy sector, and the increase in lambing rates and carcase weights in the sheep and beef sector. These changes can be linked to the increasing expenditure in agricultural research and development as well as the increasing use of services such as herd testing. Also reported is the growing use of fertilisers in New Zealand agriculture.

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  • The socio-economic status of the South Island high country

    Greer, Glen

    Report
    Lincoln University

    During 2007 the AERU at Lincoln University was commissioned by MAF Policy to investigate aspects of the socio-economic status of the South Island high country. The research involved analysis of secondary data on farm viability, personal interviews of 36 high country farmers, analysis of census data, and discussion with farmers and community representatives about change in high country communities. The farmer and stakeholder interviews found that a number of towns, townships and localities in or near the high country are experiencing significant social change as a result of lifestyle, vineyard and commuter developments. While this trend is sustaining the total population levels, many of the new residents have limited contact and empathy with pastoral farming. The extent of high country farmers’ participation in these new community structures varies considerably and they participate as individuals, not as a major community group.

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  • Farmer views on the use of genetic engineering in agriculture

    Fairweather, John R.; Maslin, Crystal L.; Gossman, P.; Campbell, H.

    Report
    Lincoln University

    The objective of the research reported here was to determine farmers’ views about genetic engineering, including their intentions to use genetically modified organisms (GMOs), and their views about GMOs, environment attitudes and sustainability. The results of the survey continue the ongoing surveys of farmer opinion that have been a longstanding feature of research conducted by the AERU. The current topic is of considerable importance to the current debate about genetic engineering. Promoters of genetic engineering point out the advantages to New Zealand in adopting this technology and detractors argue against its use pointing out there are many disadvantages. What is often not considered in this debate is the viewpoint of farmers who may or may not adopt the products of genetic engineering (GMOs). It is vital that farmer viewpoints are considered since their reaction to the new technology will drive what will actually happen on the ground. This report presents responses to a carefully prepared questionnaire and gives both an overview of farmers’ responses as a whole and then analyses these responses in terms of intention to use either GMOs, organic methods or conventional methods of production. The results will be of interest to farmers, policy makers and those concerned about the use, or lack of use, of GMOs.

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  • Understanding kiwifruit management using causal mapping

    Fairweather, John R.; Hunt, Lesley M.; Rosin, C.; Campbell, H.; Benge, J.; Watts, Michael J.

    Report
    Lincoln University

    Causal mapping was used to document how the 36 participating kiwifruit orchardists described and explained the management of their orchards. This approach asks the participants to identify the factors which are important to the management and performance of their orchards and to link these on a map. An aggregated or group map was produced from each of the individual orchardist maps. Data from the group map were used to characterise the overall orchard system as well as each of the three management systems being studied. A predominant finding is the degree of similarity in the maps of growers from across all three panels. Despite these overall findings, there were still differences operating between the three panels of growers. The overall group map reflects a production orientation and that the kiwifruit system is perceived as more of a management system rather than an environmental one. Organic orchardists produced a group map having the most distinctive qualities but they also shared a small number of distinctive characteristics with Gold orchardists. Both used more connections and more double arrows compared to Green. We conclude that the evidence supports the claim that at the aggregate level of the 36 kiwifruit orchardists the orchard system is not overly complex but at the level of each individual orchardist it is complex. Further, orchardists do not show a high level of holistic thinking about their orchard.

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  • Good industry-good investments: a report to MAF Policy

    Greer, Glen; Tony, Z.; Associates

    Report
    Lincoln University

    The Commodity Levy process for land-based industries is administered by the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry (MAF). As well as fulfilling the Ministry’s formal role in the Commodity Levy process, MAF staff assists industries to develop proposals that will comply with the Commodity Levies Act (1990). To facilitate this role MAF has commissioned a study, to be carried out during 2009 that would: i. Provide a framework for understanding the issues that are important in evaluating the impacts of industry-good investments; ii. Identify the types of industry-good investments regarded by levy-payers and representatives of levy-funded organisations as generating the greatest benefits for their industries; iii. Identify any changes to the CLA process that would enable more cost-effective implementation of the CLA framework.

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  • New Zealand farmer and grower attitude and opinion survey : analysis by sector and management system

    Fairweather, John R.; Hunt, Lesley M.; Cook, Andrew J.; Rosin, C.; Campbell, H.

    Report
    Lincoln University

    The core of the ARGOS research design is a longitudinal panel study. Panels of 12 farms were selected to represent conventional, integrated and organic management for the sheep/beef sector, Kiwigreen, gold and organic management for the kiwifruit sector, and conventional and organic management for the dairy sector. The research involves gathering data on these farms in order to assess the nature of production from environmental, economic and social points of view and the design rests on testing the null hypothesis that there is no difference between management systems. Farms in the panels were generally typical of their sectors in terms of obvious characteristics such as size, level of production etc. Farms from a range of geographies and with different levels of intensity of production were chosen in order to achieve results that would be applicable to a broad range of farms.

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  • The socio-technical networks of technology users' innovation in New Zealand: a fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis

    Lambert, Simon J.; Fairweather, John R.

    Report
    Lincoln University

    Technological innovation by the actual users of technologies is receiving more attention, and deservedly so, as these users combine their passions and expertise into improving the technologies which they employ in their personal and professional lives. This report documents technology users’ innovation (TUI) as an important source of inventions which can become successful commercial innovations. Using a range of TUI case studies in the farming, building and energy sectors, we utilise fuzzy-set Qualitative Comparative Analysis (fsQCA) to describe configurations of participation in various network configurations that result in innovation success and failure. Data are drawn from extended interviews with over 55 inventors and innovators, leading to 43 final case studies set against a broader analysis of New Zealand’s innovation policies and practice. The method led to the identification of five key elements within the socio-technical networks of innovation: financial capital, government support, intellectual property (IP), manufacturing, and other business activities. Results show the key configurations to innovation success involve inventors who were: • Well financed, not undertaking significant manufacturing, holding relevant IP; or, • Well financed, engaged in other businesses, again with relevant IP. The most common configurations leading to innovation failure were: • Poorly financed, lacking government support, not engaged in other business activities, and lacking IP; or, • Well financed, lacking government support, engaged in other businesses, undertaking significant manufacturing, and lacking IP. The results were used to develop a model of TUI which shows how innovation is the product of both individual inventive ability and the ability to selectively participate in the relevant socio-technical networks within which the invention evolves into an innovation. A significant resource on which these innovators draw is best understood as social capital, comprising family farm(s) and firm(s), family members, and peers. The model highlights the potential complexity of the TUI networks and shows how successful innovation requires the release of an often intensely personal technology and through the proactive management of the key factors. The results also indicate that New Zealand’s innovation governance could be improved by policy which better supports TUI, specifically by increasing and facilitating the availability of financial capital and IP protection, expanding and supporting international collaboration (especially in offshore manufacturing), and addressing ethics and trust in business. Wider societal issues also constrain innovation in New Zealand. These issues would be mitigated by an increase in the technological literacy of New Zealand society as well as a wider and deeper appreciation of the necessity and difficulty of innovation, and the personal and economic rewards when it succeeds. While much of the success of local TUI stems from the character of New Zealanders, their knowledge and their passions, that success would be enhanced by improving the connectivity of the New Zealand innovation system as a whole, and the connectivity of this system globally.

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  • Emerging tourism planning processes and practices in New Zealand : a local and regional perspective

    Jones, T.; Shone, Michael C.; Memon, Pyar A.

    Report
    Lincoln University

    The research reported in this study was undertaken in the context of the New Zealand Tourism Strategy 2010 (released in 2001) and the anticipated amendments to the Local Government Act 1974 (amended in December 2002). The key objective of this study was to document existing and emerging tourism policies and practices within the local government sector in New Zealand. Within the core themes of tourism enablement and management, the issues of inter, and intra, organisational relationships were addressed by this research. The findings from this study provide an assessment of current practices and review future options for more integrated regional planning and management of New Zealand tourism.

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  • Using quantitative analytical techniques when researching real estate – applied example

    Garner, Gary

    Report
    Lincoln University

    The acquisition of live data through case study analysis and subsequent application of econometric modelling techniques can often prove effective in the pursuit to explain trends in real estate values, despite characteristically limited availability of data sets (observations) especially in the case of larger property developments. Both linear and non-linear (polynomial and other forms) regression analysis techniques are typically utilised for this purpose. Such regression models describe and evaluate the relationship between a dependant variable , and other variables (independent variables).

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  • Super City? State of Auckland report

    Neill, CM; Crothers, C; McGregor, J; Hanna, K; Fletcher, M; Wilson, D (2013-12-12)

    Report
    Auckland University of Technology

    Auckland is New Zealand’s bold experiment in local government. Is the Super City a success, a disappointment or something in between? The local government elections in 2013 provide an opportunity to assess the state of Auckland. How is New Zealand’s largest city measuring up three years on from the unique governance reforms that created it? This report examines various areas of living in Auckland; its people and communities, democratic participation, the economy, the state of the built and natural environment, transport and other infrastructure, public services, confidence in Auckland’s regional and local governance and value for money. It aims to help citizens make informed decisions when they vote in the 2013 local government elections. It also allows them to be involved in a continuing research project that assesses the city they live in.

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  • Strengthening engagements between schools and the science community

    Gilbert, J; Bolstad, R; Bull, A; Carson, S; MacIntyre, W; Spiller, L (2013-12-05)

    Report
    Auckland University of Technology

    This research aimed to generate evidence-based recommendations for strengthening partnerships between schools and the science community to support students’ science learning and engagement. It was underpinned by a future-oriented perspective, framed by larger questions about the purpose of science education in the context of a rapidly changing 21st-century world. The report digs beneath assumptions about why learners’ and teachers’ engagement with the science community is considered important, and examines what kinds of approaches and supports might sustain future-oriented science education for New Zealand learners.

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  • The Internet in New Zealand 2013

    Gibson, A; Miller, M; Smith, P; Bell, A; Crothers, C (2013-12-16)

    Report
    Auckland University of Technology

    Executive Summary The fourth survey of the World Internet Project New Zealand (WIPNZ) was conducted between late July and early September 2013. For the first time, the sample in 2013 used both telephone and internet surveys. This report presents an analysis of the usage of and attitudes to the internet of the resulting sample of 2006 New Zealanders. As internet use approaches saturation in New Zealand, our focus turns from ‘how many people use the internet?’ to ‘how do people use the internet?’ and ‘why do some not use the internet at all?’ To answer these questions, the sample has been divided into five categories: never-users (5% of sample), ex-users (3%), low level users (14%), first generation users (40%) and next generation users (38%). Usage For a large number of people the internet is used daily. Four out of five spend an hour or more online at home every day. Almost everyone under 40 is online, so that only 1% of our under-40 sample are non-users. Accessing the internet ‘on the go’ is prevalent. Seven out of ten users access the internet from a hand-held mobile device such as a smartphone or an iPad. Almost half of the internet users surveyed (48%) said that they had accessed the internet through a tablet, while an even higher proportion (68%) connected through their mobile phone in the past year. Activities Most internet users say they surf or browse the web (96%) or visit social networking sites (81%). 34% of internet users report that they use the cloud, 41% purchase apps and almost two thirds (65%) download free apps. Most users check their email daily (89%). Just over 60% of men aged 30–44 said they have looked at sites with sexual content. Māori and Pasifika internet users, especially those in lower income households, take the lead in subscriptions to music streaming services like Spotify. More than one in five Māori (21%) and Pasifika (23%) users in households with annual incomes of less than $50,000 have paid for a subscription to a music streaming service in the past year. The internet is used as a tool for consumer decision making, with 94% of users looking for information about products online – more than half of users do this at least weekly. For 85% of users, this kind of online research includes comparing prices. Almost half of our users (47%) have logged in to secure areas on Government or Council websites, and 51% have paid taxes, fines or licences online in the past year. Comparing the importance of media Comparing the importance of various forms of media as information sources, 81% of all our respondents rated the internet (including online media such as streamed radio) as important or very important. This was very much higher than the proportion who rated offline media as important: television (47%), radio (37%) and newspapers (37%). One of the most dramatic differences according to age group is the importance of the internet as a source of entertainment and leisure. While watching (offline) television is an important leisure activity for people across all ages, using the internet as a form of entertainment is a young-person phenomenon: 80% of respondents aged 16–29 rate it as important or very important. This 2013 survey has a different sample structure than previous years in order to include New Zealanders without a landline. The questionnaire has also undergone substantial updating to keep pace with changing digital technologies. For these reasons, the present report focuses solely on the findings for 2013, and longitudinal analyses will be presented in a subsequent report next year.

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  • Comment on: Cross-border portfolios: assets, liabilities and wealth transfers

    Berka, Martin (2015-10)

    Report
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • National Health Emergency Plan: A framework for the health and disability sector

    Johal, SS; MacDonald, C; Mitchell, J (2015-10-15)

    Report
    Massey University

    This edition of the National Health Emergency Plan has been revised and updated to reflect current thinking on the health aspects of emergency management in New Zealand and internationally. It reflects the sophistication of a second-generation, risk-based plan developed by emergency management specialists under the leadership of the Joint Centre for Disaster Research in partnership with the Ministry of Health. The plan was developed in consultation with local and international specialists in the field of emergency management, emergency managers and planners in the health and disability sector, and other key stakeholders. A collaborative, consultative approach has been taken throughout the development of the plan, including holding workshops with health emergency management stakeholders across the nation. Constant contact has been maintained with the concurrent review of the National Civil Defence Emergency Management Plan Order 2015 (National CDEM Plan) to ensure consistency between the two plans. In acknowledgement of the importance of evidence-based policy and practice, an extensive international literature review formed the basis for much of the plan’s content. To maintain its alignment with the National CDEM Plan, the National Health Emergency Plan will be reviewed by the Ministry of Health within five years of its adoption. The plan will also be reviewed and updated as required following any new developments or substantial changes to the operations or organisation of New Zealand health and disability services, as a result of lessons from a significant emergency affecting the health of communities or the health and disability sector itself, if new hazards and risks are identified, or by direction of the Minister of Health or Director-General of Health. Annexes at the back of the plan are intended to provide a short document format that can be rapidly updated with new or revised guidance on specific issues as they are identified. The Ministry of Health welcomes submissions of good practice that can be incorporated into future editions.

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  • Enhancing financial and economic yield in tourism: yield associated with different tourist types

    Becken, Susanne; Lennox, J.; Fitt, Helen M.; Butcher, G.

    Report
    Lincoln University

    The programme “Enhancing Financial and Economic Yield in Tourism” has completed a range of investigations into various dimensions of private sector yield of tourism businesses, as well as public sector yield of tourism at local and national levels. Results from the earlier studies raised the question whether different types of tourists would differ with respect to their yield generated in the private sector and their costs posed to the public sector. Yield in this report is understood as net benefit – financial, economic, environmental or social. For the private sector yield, the measures of Value Added, Free Financial Cash Flow and Economic Value Added will be used, and for public sector yield the ratios between costs and revenue will be derived as a yield measure. The research objectives were to: 1. Understand tourist activity patterns in relation to impacts on the private and public sectors; 2. Derive yields for different types of visitors; and 3. Assess visitor satisfaction as one aspect of (social) yield.

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  • Managerial factors in primary production: data from a sample of New Zealand farmers with an emphasis on experience as a factor in success

    Nuthall, Peter L.

    Report
    Lincoln University

    This report presents the data collected from a postal survey of a wide ranging sample of all types of New Zealand farmers. The survey schedule was designed to collect information enabling models to be developed explaining the variables giving rise to a farmer’s managerial ability, and to determine and explore farmers’ Locus of Control and its relationship to a farmer’s managerial ability. The detailed results of these studies have been published elsewhere (see the reference list), but these research articles do not present the full details of the data collected. This report was prepared to ensure these details are available for researchers who choose to further explore these and other issues. The survey was conducted in late 2006 and achieved a very satisfactory 41 per cent response rate from the stratified sample of 2300 farmers. The data collected included both farm and, especially, farmer data covering both personal information (age, education and the like) and farm management and skill information. Question sets to discover the farmer’s management style (personality), locus of control, objectives, self rated intelligence, managerial ability, cash surplus, asset value changes, physical output, experience both as a young person, and as a farmer, and information on a farmer’s forebears were all included. The data was analysed in various ways including producing distributions by farm type and other categories. Factor analyses were also carried out to isolate some of the basic factors explaining farmers’ personal features (objectives, managerial style….). The results, and the important conclusions, are all presented. Various regression equations were explored in explaining managerial ability. It was clear that experience was an important contributor to ability, particularly a farmer’s early life experiences. Aspects of a farmer’s managerial style (personality) also proved to be important as well as aspects of the farmer’s objectives. These results are important for directing efforts to improve the general level of ability in the nation’s farm managers. Improvement of, say, 5 per cent would have a marked impact on the efficiency of resource use and the nation’s wealth.

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  • Impacts of oil prices on New Zealand tourism : an economic framework

    Becken, Susanne; Nguyen, M.; Schiff, A.

    Report
    Lincoln University

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  • Further sensitivity analysis of simple evolving connectionist systems applied to the Lincoln aphid data set

    Watts, Michael J.; Worner, Susan P.

    Report
    Lincoln University

    This report presents two further experiments over the Aphid data set. The first is a more detailed investigation of the sensitivity of Simple Evolving Connectionist System (SECoS) networks to the exclusion of various combinations of inputs. This is in contrast to the previous work, where only the effect of excluding single variables was investigated. The second experiment investigates a hypothesis that attempts to explain the results found in the first experiment.

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