477 results for Scholarly text, 2011

  • Skills and people capability in the future state: Needs, barriers and opportunities

    Plimmer, G (2011)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    The initial paper in the Future State Project (IPS Working paper 10/08) describes several powerful new trends beginning to impact on public sector management including limited funding, rising public expectations, and more complex problems. But what are the implications of these trends on human resource management (HRM) within the New Zealand public sector? What ideas are emerging within the HRM literature, and how do these relate to the perspectives of practitioners – human resource managers, CEOs and senior executives, and staff – in New Zealand’s public sector organisations? The formal system in New Zealand, focused on improvement of pre-specified and auditable outputs monitored through detailed agency performance plans, may no longer be sufficient for the public sector environment of the future. Instead, new individual and collective capabilities may be needed. Current state servants have been selected, developed and rewarded in an environment which has emphasised stability, control, linear accountability and outputs. In contrast, we will argue that the emerging environment requires adaptability and the ability to work across public, private and non-profit public sector boundaries, locally and internationally. Bottom line accountability for the efficient operations of a tightly defined functional task is fundamentally different from the messiness of managing public sector responses to shifting social and economic challenges which have no easily defined finish lines. We begin this paper with an overview of the current state of skills and people capability in the New Zealand public sector, including employee commitment and engagement, and the impact of the new wave of reforms over the last decade. We then identify several emerging ideas about the future of public sector HRM, including the need to develop better leaders, encourage innovation and collaboration, and take a longer term, more intense effort in capability development. These ideas were explored with practitioners in a series of focus groups in April and May 2011. In this paper, we discuss the results of the focus groups, in which we found general agreement with many of the ideas tabled for discussion but some key differences in perspective between human resource managers, CEOs and senior executives, and staff. We conclude this paper with a discussion of the future of public sector HRM in New Zealand.

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  • Legendary Obscurity: the Working Life of Malcolm Ross

    Plummer, Matthew Robert (2011)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Malcolm Ross (1948-2003) was a sculptor, painter, photographer, cartoonist and historian who operated at one remove from the art world for the entirety of his career. As a consequence, almost no analysis, criticism or writing on his work exists, and his place within this country's history of art has subsequently been overlooked. This thesis seeks to give art historical and analytical attention to Ross's oeuvre, arguing for his status as one of New Zealand's key conceptual practitioners. It traces the thematic threads which recur throughout his work and argues that the diverse range of artistic and historic investigations he undertook are ultimately unified within his archive at the E.H. McCormick Research Library, Auckland Art Gallery Toi O Tamaki.

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  • Staging the Past: The Period Room in New Zealand

    Stephenson, Kimberley Jane (2011)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Before 1940, few of the nation’s museums actively collected or displayed artefacts associated with the history of European settlement in New Zealand. Over the following three decades, an interest in ‘colonial history’ blossomed and collections grew rapidly. Faced with the challenge of displaying material associated with the homes of early settlers, museums adopted the period room as a strategy of display. The period room subsequently remained popular with museum professionals until the 1980s, when the type of history that it had traditionally been used to represent was increasingly brought into question. Filling a gap in the literature that surrounds museums and their practices in New Zealand, this thesis attempts to chart the meteoric rise and fall of the period room in New Zealand. Taking the two period rooms that were created for the New Zealand Centennial Exhibition in 1939 as its starting point, the thesis begins by considering the role that the centennials, jubilees and other milestones celebrated around New Zealand in the 1940s and 1950s played in the development of period rooms in this country, unpacking the factors that fuelled the popularity of this display mode among exhibition organisers and museum professionals. The thesis then charts the history of the period room in the context of three metropolitan museums – the Otago Early Settlers Museum, the Canterbury Museum, and the Dominion Museum – looking at the physical changes that were made to these displays over time, the attitudes that informed these changes, and the role that period rooms play in these institutions today.

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  • Factors influencing book selection decisions by academic librarians in an Arabic Islamic context

    Flanigan, Niall Gerard (2011)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    There are many factors to be taken into account when making selection decisions in an academic library including curriculum need, suitability of content, user interest, and academic input. Academic librarians in the Muslim Arabic country of the United Arab Emirates face the added challenge of making judgements about the suitability of the content in view of the community in which they work. In the absence of comprehensive collection development policies librarians are at times required to make decisions based on the sometimes conflicting demands of traditional Muslim values and their own beliefs about intellectual freedom. In this study nine academic librarians were asked to consider the suitability of twelve books and to offer criteria for their decision. A range of variables was also explored to identify possible relationships between the variables and selection decisions. The variables appearing to have an effect on decisions include the gender and nationality of the student population, and the nationality and religion of the librarian.

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  • Crystal Forensics of Historical Lava Flows from Mt Ngauruhoe

    Barton, Sophie Jan (2011)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Mt Ngauruhoe is a 900 m high andesitic cone constructed over the last 2500 yr, and is the youngest cone of the Tongariro Massif. It was previously one of the most continuously active volcanoes in New Zealand, with ash eruptions having occurred every few years since written records for the volcano began in 1839. However, it has now been more than 30 yr since the last eruption. Eruptions in 1870, 1949, 1954 and 1974-1975 were accompanied by lava and block-and-ash flows. Detailed sampling of these historical lava and block-and-ash flows was conducted, including sampling from seven different lava flows erupted over the period June-September 1954 to investigate changes in magma geochemistry and crystal populations over short timescales, and to enable observed changes to be related back to known eruption dates. Mineral major and trace element chemistry highlights the importance of mixing between distinct basaltic and dacitic melts to generate the basaltic andesite whole rock compositions erupted. The basaltic end member can be identified from the presence of olivine crystals with Mg# 75-87, clinopyroxene cores with Mg# 82-92, and plagioclase cores of An₈₀₋₉₀. The dacitic melt is identified by SiO₂-rich clinopyroxene melt inclusions, clinopyroxene zoning with Mg# 68-76 and plagioclase rims of An₆₀₋₇₀. Textural evidence from complex mineral zoning and large variability in the widths of reaction rims on olivine crystals suggests that mafic recharge of the more evolved system is frequent, and modelling of Fe-Mg inter-diffusion applied to the outermost rims of the clinopyroxene crystal population indicates that such recharge events have occurred weeks to months or even shorter prior to each of the historical eruptions, and thus likely trigger the eruptions.

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  • Metagovernance and the Role of Cultural Norms in the Regulation of Foreign Direct Investment: Trans-Tasman FDI Regimes

    Mahony, Greg (2011)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Australia and New Zealand provide a unique set of comparators with which to examine similarities and differences in approaches to the regulation of foreign direct investment (FDI). By examining experience with regulation of FDI in these two states we show how they act in the governance space to enable state directed regulation and how these states differ in their approach to regulation. In particular we focus on the influence of cultural norms in shaping metagovernance responses from each of the states. Textual analysis of the treatment of investment in bi-lateral discussions associated with Closer Economic Relations (CER) demonstates that political social cultural and institutional factors are integral to modelling the challenges faced by national governments in regulating FDI.

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  • Can continuous disclosure improve the performance of State-Owned Enterprises?

    Talosaga, Talosaga; Heatley, David; Howell, Bronwyn (2011)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    In January 2010 the New Zealand Government introduced a continuous disclosure regime for State-Owned Enterprises (SOEs) modelled on the regime applying to publicly-listed companies (PLCs). The government sees continuous disclosure increasing the transparency of SOEs and that this will lead to improved financial performance by SOEs. We analyse the traditional rationales for continuous disclosure in PLCs and find that it is not axiomatic that a continuous disclosure regime designed for PLCs overlaid onto an SOE will offer the same incentives for performance improvement. The differences in owner identity and governance relationships in SOEs and the absence of a market for the trading of shares substantially weaken the performance improvement effect of the disclosure instrument in SOEs. In the absence of share trading it is not clear how a failure to disclose by SOE managers could be detected. Furthermore under the New Zealand arrangements the sanctions for SOE failure to disclose are very weak. This suggests that it is both easier for and more likely that SOE managers will withhold material information relative to their PLC counterparts. The hypothesis appears confirmed by a matched-pair comparison of disclosures by SOEs and private sector firms in the first year of the SOE continuous disclosure regime.

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  • Auckland Transport: Institutional Congestion?

    Heatley, David (2011)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Dave Heatley recently presented at the 5th Annual Regulatory Evolution Summit held in Wellington on 30 March 2011. A copy of his presentation can be downloaded.

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  • The Tyranny of Distrance Prevails: Presentation

    Howell, Bronwyn (2011)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Bronwyn Howell recently attended the International Telecommunications Society Asia-Pacific conference held in Taipei Taiwan on 26-28 June 2011. A copy of her presentation is attached.

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  • Industrial Organisation and Competition Policy Workshop

    Katz, Michael; Evans, Lew; Every-Palmer, James (2011)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Copies of slides/presentations from course held 25 and 26 January on Industrial Organisation and Competition Policy prepared for NZ Government Officials. Downloadable documents in order: Network Economics Michael Katz The Appropriate Objective of Competition Policy Michael Katz Recent Developments in Merger Law James Mellsop Risk Economies of Scale and Irreversibility in Regulation and Competition Law Lew Evans Cooperative and Regulation Lew Evans The Warehouse: Three Comments James Every-Palmer Competition and Cooperation James Every-Palmer Boundary between Antitrust and Regulation James Every-Palmer Privacy and the Ownership of Personal Information Michael Katz Asymmetric Information Michael Katz

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  • Insightful Insiders? Insider Trading and Stock Return Around Debt Covenant Violation Disclosures

    Lont, David; Griffin, Paul; McClune, Kate (2011)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This paper documents significant trading by insiders around a first-time debt covenant violation disclosure in an SEC filing and is interesting from a research and regulatory standpoint because of three considerations - delay and relative infrequency of new covenant violation disclosures lack of attention to disclosure issues by regulators and dearth of research. Importantly we find a lead relation between net insider selling in the 12 months before a debt covenant violation disclosure and investors' negative returns and net insider buying up to 12 months after disclosure and investors' positive returns. This relation is robust to the presence of other information. These results support our contention that insiders' trades around a covenant violation disclosure may benefit from an information advantage unavailable to other market participants. The aggregate return to insiders - the sum of the losses avoided from selling and the gains from buying - approaches almost two billion dollars over an eight-year study period.

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  • Smart Evaluation of Electric Utility Smart Grid Investment Proposals

    Stanford Levin (2011)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Electric companies policy makers and regulators around the world are facing calls for smart grid updates. Sometimes these upgrades make business sense and are undertaken by electric companies as has been the case with some smart grid investments in New Zealand. Frequently however the calls for upgrades come with demands for significant subsidies to pay for them as is likely to be the case for additional smart grid investments in New Zealand. In order to evaluate these subsidy requests a cost-benefit methodology must be employed that correctly measures the societal benefits of smart grid upgrades that require a public subsidy. The application of this methodology and an understanding of its implications is necessary to the evaluation of smart grid deployment.

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  • Policy Considerations for the New Zealand Natural Gas Industry

    Stanford Levin; Duncan, Alfred (2011)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Professor Stanford Levin and Alfred Duncan undertake a study of the natural gas industry in New Zealand at a time when the two industry regulators are undertaking regulatory initiatives.The Commerce Commission is in the midst of setting their default price-quality regulatory framework that will take effect in July 2012. The Gas Industry Company the industry co-regulator has just recently issued a proposal to undertake a project to determine the current need for gas transmission investment and to develop a way for any needed investment to occur.The authors are hopeful that this study will prove useful to industry participants policymakers and also to the two industry regulators.

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  • Full Circle: rail industry privatisation in New Zealand and a new theory of its fundamental conceptual weaknesses

    Clark, Ross (2011)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    The privatisation of state-owned assets a defining characteristic of the 1980s was not restricted to the United Kingdom. In New Zealand the Labour Government which took office in 1984 was committed to a policy of what was known at the time as 'corporatisation' - converting government departments and other agencies which had commercial functions into proper commercial entities and then privatising many of them. The railway operation had already been converted to a commercial structure in 1982 and it was eventually privatised in 1993. However it was how the markets in which the railway operation worked would develop that would prove to be 'a bridge too far' for the railway's privatisation. Although the network had not been split out in the sale process as it was in Great Britain the whole company eventually had to be saved from bankruptcy. It has now been repurchased completely. The purpose of this paper is to examine the situation in New Zealand and then to compare it with other industry privatisations which have worked. This paper will argue that the critical difference between rail and other formerly nationalised industries lies in its subsidy requirement - what people are prepared to pay for railway services only rarely bears any relation to what those railway services cost to provide - and further that those services are provided by an effective monopoly. It is the combination of these two aspects which proved fatal for the New Zealand rail privatisation (that is once the rail freight market went into failure) given the clear Government desire to retain the railway network at its current extent. The paper's structure is as follows. First it looks at the way that the railway in New Zealand was privatised. Second it introduces a model of industry structure as an explanatory variable for understanding why many privatisations within the transport sector and elsewhere have worked and some railway ones have not. Third it argues from that basis as to why privatisation could not have worked under these circumstances. Fourth it provides some comment on the implications of this for public policy including that in a British context.

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  • Is There a Cooperative Advantage?

    Altman, Morris (2011)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Would you willingly pay more for groceries from the local cooperative than identical brands sold by the local branch of the privately-owned chain? Conventional economic theory suggests that a rational Homo Economicus would never entertain such a proposition. However Morris Altman's survey-based research on the role that social cohesion plays in consumers' choices reveals that not only are the individuals who are members of the cooperative (and may therefore participate in other benefits) willing to pay the higher prices so too are non-members. These results speak to the potential strengths of consumer cooperatives (relative to non-coops) in competitive markets as consumers value the non-material benefits they receive from the cooperative's investments in social cohesion.

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  • Private Selection and Arbitration Neutrality

    Klement, Alon; Neeman, Zvika (2011)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This paper examines the effects that the private selection of arbitrators have over arbitrators' incentives in deciding the cases before them over the arbitrators' implied bias. These effects have important implications for the design of Arbitration rules by Arbitration and Dispute Resolution providers as well as by other organizations that rely on arbitration for the resolution of disputes among their members. We show that private selection of arbitrators might adversely affect the accuracy of arbitrators' decisions because arbitrators might want to make an incorrect decision when a correct decision would carry the inference that they are biased. We compare the accuracy of arbitrators' decisions under different arbitrator selection procedures.

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  • Economic Incentives in the Hospice Care Setting: A Comparison of For-profit and Nonprofit Providers

    Forgione, Dana; Noe, Kelly (2011)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the association of differences in economic incentives between for-profit (FP) and nonprofit (NP) hospice care providers with management performance using financial and nonfinancial metrics. This research is based on the expectations of Agency theory and applies proxies of the quality of patient care while controlling for differences in cost-efficiency. Our findings indicate that FP hospice providers (1) selectively admit patients with longer life-prognoses and billable days and hence lower average costs per day (2) employ a lower average cost/skill mix of workers and (3) have higher CEO compensation and profit. The NP providers admit more patients with the less profitable life-prognoses attributes have lower CEO compensation and reinvest their net earnings under the non-distribution constraint. While the profit incentive may be needed to attract providers into this rapidly growing and underserved market the NP providers return a lower cost per patient served from the taxpayer's perspective.

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  • Payments, Participants and Network Supply

    Wilkinson, Mike (2011)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    If New Zealand's EFTPOS networks receive stronger use than similar networks overseas because of differences in price structures what motivations lie behind the structures each has chosen? An analysis of the economic history of networks in New Zealand and a number of other developed countries provides an economic answer to this question. It indicates that it is potential competition between payment networkds for banks and other supply-side participants which promotes efficient networks. government controls that reduce this sort of competition risk harming the development of payment networks and the interests of those that use them.Starting with the introduction of Diner's Club payment card in 1949 the means of payment in the developed world have progressed well beyond the traditional instruments such as notes coins and cheques. Insights can be gained from economic analysis of new retail payment systems in Australia Canada Germany New Zealand Norway and the United Kingdom and United States. Mike uses such analysis to construct a framework to understand the incentives faced by the users of payment instruments and the payment networks that provide them. It also provices a means to assess the role of government in the evolution of retail payment systems.

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  • From Providers to PHOs: an institutional analysis of nonprofit primary health care governance in New Zealand

    Cordery, Carolyn; Howell, Bronwyn (2011)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Policy reforms to primary health care delivery in New Zealand required government-funded firms overseeing care delivery to be constituted as nonprofit entities with governance shared between consumer and producers. This paper examines the consumer and producer interests in the allocation of ownership and control of New Zealand firms delivering primary health care utilising theories of competition in the markets for ownership and control of firms. Consistent with pre-reform patterns of ownership and control provider interests appear to have exerted effective control over the formation and governance of the new entities in all but a few cases where community (consumer) control was already established. Their ability to do so is implied from the absence of a defined ownership stake via which the balance of governance control could shift as a consequence of changes to incentives facing the different stakeholding groups. It appears that the pre-existing patterns will prevail and further intervention will be required if policymakers are to achieve their underlying aims.

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  • Linking Higher-Quality Infrastructure Regulation to Tomorrow's Economic Growth

    Howell, Bronwyn (2011)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Bronwyn Howell recently presented at the 5th Annual Regulatory Evolution Summit held in Wellington on 30 March 2011.

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