524 results for Scholarly text, 2012

  • The employment information needs of people with intellectual disabilities

    Henry, Andrew (2012)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Three dimensions of Nick Moore’s (2002) model of social information needs: agents, mechanisms and form, were used to analyse the employment information needs of people with intellectual disabilities in New Zealand. Through semi-structured interviews with people with intellectual disabilities, care givers, disability professionals and supported employment providers it was found that people with intellectual disabilities have great difficulty looking for employment information and that information alone is not enough to encourage people with intellectual disabilities into pursuing employment opportunities. Previous experiences and expectations played a strong role in discouraging information seeking. Many participants were nervous about beginning to look for employment information as they had very little previous experience in doing so, and held reservations about their chances of being successful. Printed information is not very relevant and tailored or personalised information is the most effective, preferably delivered verbally, in person. Trust and authority were important aspects of information for all of the participants. Structural barriers around minimum wage exemptions and employment subsidies were mentioned as significant by the employers and supported employment agencies. A lack of promotion, due to resource constraints of these services was also sighted as a major barrier and employers believed there was a lack of awareness of the extent of the support available in workplaces. The confidence derived from achieving educational and vocational qualifications is often denied to people with intellectual disabilities through educational structures and the ways in which knowledge is tested and demonstrated. This study has shown this to be a major factor influencing the employment information seeking process of people with intellectual disabilities.

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  • Responsibly Engaged: Ideology and Utopia along the Backpacker Trail

    Bohn, Sonja (2012)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    By following the backpacker trail beyond the 'tourist bubble,' travellers invest in the ideals of freedom, engagement, and responsibility. Backpacker discourse foregrounds travellers' freedom to mobility as it constructs the world as 'tourable'; engagement is demonstrated in the search for 'authentic' connections with cultural Others, beyond the reach of globalised capitalism; responsibility is shouldered by yearning to improve the lives of these Others, through capitalist development. While backpackers frequently question the attainability of these ideals, aspiring to them reveals a desire for a world that is open, diverse, and egalitarian. My perspective is framed by Fredric Jameson's reading of the interrelated concepts of ideology and utopia. While backpacker discourse functions ideologically to reify and obscure global inequalities, to entrench free market capitalism, and to limit the imagining of alternatives, it also figures for a utopian world in which such ideology is not necessary. Using this approach, I attempt to undertake critique of backpacker ideology without invalidating its utopian content, while seeking to reveal its limits. Overall, I suggest that late-capitalism subsumes utopian desires for a better way of living by presenting itself as the solution. This leaves backpackers feeling stranded, seeking to escape the ills of capitalism, via capitalism.

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  • Adult career counselling using possible selves—A quasi-experimental field study in naturalistic settings

    Plimmer, G. (2012)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This study examined the effectiveness of an adult career development program designed to reflect the diversity and demands of career choices, the low level of comfort many have with career choices, and the limited resources available to resolve complex adult career problems. A possible selves process was used, delivered through a blend of computer and one-on-one counselling. Compared with a comparison group offered general career counselling, the program was particularly effective in raising participants’ level of comfort with career direction, particularly for those with very low scores on this dimension. Similarly, the possible selves process was effective in increasing the level to which participants were decided about their career direction. Interviews with practitioners found the computerised possible selves-based approach to be effective in engaging clients where career and personal issues were intertwined, and in helping clients find solutions to career problems.

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  • Water Performance Benchmarks for New Zealand: Understanding Water Consumption in Commercial Office Buildings

    Bint, Lee Ellen (2012)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    There is an increasing amount of literature outlining the issues underlying water shortages and restrictions to come in most regions of New Zealand. The problem is not helped by rising demands and climatic changes, as well as both a lack of measured data, and a lack of any demand-side incentives. No attempt has been made to assess how the users of commercial buildings are consuming potable water. There are no benchmarks for water performance in buildings, hindering attempts to improve water efficiency. This study investigated the water use in 93 Auckland and Wellington commercial office buildings. The data collected from both survey level water audits (on-site investigations, historic billing analysis) and full water audits (water monitoring), were used to develop market-based water performance benchmarks, and a Water Efficiency Rating Tool (WERT). This was done to understand water consumption in these buildings, and to determine the feasibility of using performance based data for the development of a water benchmarking system. The principal results were in the form of both a benchmarking index system, and the WERT. The benchmarking study found that Net Lettable Area (NLA) was the most statistically and pragmatically appropriate driver for water use. lt also found that, due to the distinct difference in tariff structures and incentives between Auckland and Wellington, different benchmarks for the two regions (Auckland 'Typical' use 0.76m³ / m² / year, and Wellington 'Typical' use 1.03m³ / m² / year) were required. The WERT calculates a building Water Use Index (WUI- m³ / m² / year) , estimates its end-use disaggregation, and provides recommendations through outlining the financial viability of implementing specific water efficiency measures. This tool utilised six design criteria to ensure target market usability: accuracy (demonstrated at ±8. 5%) ; relevance and realism; practicality; promotion of understanding and action; objectivity; and effective communication. Further recommendations included satisfying some of the many knowledge gaps present in the New Zealand water industry concerning office building water use. These included: introducing a national legislative or standard document providing guidelines on demand-side management of water; investigation into changing tariff structures to include a volumetric charge for all building types to increase individual awareness and education of water use; research into the durability of water meters; and expanding the research to include other New Zealand regions.

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  • Diverse Dimensions of the 'Digital Divide': Perspectives from New Zealand

    Howell, Bronwyn (2012)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This paper examines issues of the digital divide in each country and discusses similarities and differences in the policies adopted to ameliorate it. The paper presented here is subtitled 'a perspective from New Zealand' because it documents my own conclusions resulting from my position as an academic applying an economic lens to the issues of the digital divide. Whilst it refers to elements of the New Zealand policy response it is not intended to provide a full or comprehensive documentation of New Zealand government policy in this area. Rather the paper seeks to take a critical view of both the benefits and costs of some of the perceptions of the digital divide and the policy interventions adopted to ameliorate them. In a longitudinal context it appears that there is a large empirical literature identifying and measuring a range of 'digital divides' over many dimensions and a large number of policy instruments designed to ameliorate them but at first blush it appears that many of the divides persist and are widening rather than narrowing. This suggests that either the policies used already are either ill-targeted or largely impotent or even worse despite their good intentions have contrary effects on the indicators used to measure the existence of the divides. This paper addresses some of these issues.

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  • Supply-Based Dynamic Ramsey Pricing with Two Sectors: Avoiding Water Shortages

    Sağlam, Yiğit (2012)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    In many countries current water-pricing policies are dictated by the sole objective of breaking-even in each period. This results in large withdrawals which are not sustainable in the long-run hence not optimal. In this paper I derive the optimal dynamic water resource management policy of a benevolent government which supplies water to households and agriculture. I compare the efficiency implications of the current and the optimal pricing policies using simulations. I endogenize crop-choice decisions and estimate the changes in the crop composition with the generalized method of moments. Using data from Turkey I find that under the policy of break-even prices the average number of years before the government runs into the water shortage when it cannot meet the sectoral demands is eight years. In contrast if the government were to choose water prices optimally then water shortages would be practically nonexistent over the next century.

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  • Diverse Dimensions of the 'Digital Divide': Perspectives from New Zealand

    Howell, Bronwyn (2012)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Bronwyn Howell General Manager ISCR presented Diverse Dimensions of the 'Digital Divide': Perspectives from New Zealand at the session "Digital Divde in Asia-Pacific" at the Keio University Global COE Programme Conference on Designing Governance for Civil Society Tokyo on 5 February 2012.Click here to view the paper on which this presentation was based.

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  • Government Regulation and Market Competition in the Broadband Market in Japan

    Sugaya, Minoru (2012)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    View the presentation by Professor Minoru Sugaya, Keio University, Japan at the ISCR lunchtime seminar on 29 March 2012.

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  • Experimental Users and Demand for Next Generation Access Networks: A European Perspective

    Sadowski, Bert (2012)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Torn between State Aid regulations and Public Utility visions the Commission of the European Union (CEU) has been rather inconsistent with respect to next generation access (NGA) networks over the past ten years. As the promise of new trans-sectoral services in areas such as e-health or e-government has extensively been used as a justification for public subsidies in these networks the reality of the adoption of these services has been rather disappointing. In the literature a number of technological demand market structure and public policy explanations have been advanced to characterise the dilemma of slow adoption of these services. In this context the concept of "experimental users" is used (and empirically tested) to characterise the different expectations of users with respect to these new services. Consequences with respect to regulatory policy and government strategy are discussed.

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  • New Zealand's Electricity Lines Companies: An Ownership Analysis

    Talosaga, Talosaga; Howell, Bronwyn (2012)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    New Zealand's 30 Electricity Lines Businesses (ELBs) combined hold assets with an estimated value of over $8.8 billion (Commerce Commission 2012). The vast majority of analysis of the New Zealand electricity sector has focused on generation retailing and transmission activities. Very little formal analysis of ELBs has been undertaken. This paper aims to redress this imbalance. We trace the history and catalogue the ownership structures of ELBs. Using Hansmann's (1996) theory of enterprise ownership we analyse the economic factors underpinning the evolution of the ownership forms of New Zealand's ELBs since reforms in the 1990s with particular emphasis on its ability to explain ownership differences observed between ELBs serving urban and rural constituencies. We find that despite the reforms' bias towards private ownership co-operative and trust structures predominate in rural New Zealand. However privately-owned ELBs are much more likely to be serving urban communities. We suggest that this is likely a consequence of the smaller size of and greater homogeneity of interests amongst the communities served by rural ELBs.

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  • CEO Presence on the Compensation Committee: A Puzzle

    Boyle, Glenn; Roberts, Helen (2012)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Conventional wisdom suggests that CEO membership of the compensation committee is an open invitation to rent extraction by self-serving executives. However using data from New Zealand - where CEO compensation committee membership is relatively common - we find that annual pay increments for CEOs with this apparent advantage averaged six percentage points less than those enjoyed by other CEOs during the 1997-2005 period. After controlling for variation in firm performance the difference is a still-sizeable four percentage points. This puzzling result cannot be explained by risk-return tradeoff considerations interaction with other governance variables selection bias or variable mis-measurement.

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  • Political Partisanship and Corporate Performance

    Durnev, Art; Garfinkel, Jon; Molchanov, Sasha (2012)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    We present evidence that the political orientation of the government (left vs. right) affects corporate performance. We hypothesize that companies within labour-intensive industries polluting industries industries with high profit margins and highly leveraged industries are more sensitive to policies traditionally viewed as 'leftist'; namely those facing stringent labour and environmental laws higher taxes and interest rates. In the empirical analysis we account for the fact that 'leftist' legislation is not necessarily associated with left governments.

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  • Informed discussion: a benefit of partial privatisation of (electricity) SOEs

    Evans, Lewis (2012)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Comment submitted to the NZ Herald by Lewis Evans in response to the Editorial comment of 11 January 2012.Informed discussion: a benefit of partial privatisation of (electricity) SOEs.

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  • Is it time for daily time-of-use electricity prices?

    Lawson, Rob; Williamson, John; Thorsnes, Paul; Ragnarsson, Eirikur (2012)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    The large-scale roll-out of so-called 'smart' electricity meters that record electricity consumption at frequent intervals gives electricity retailers the opportunity to vary price over the course of a day potentially better matching price to production cost. Of interest to both retailers and policy makers is how New Zealanders might respond to pricing plans that include 'time-of-use' pricing. In this seminar I report the results of a year-long experiment in which a sample of households in suburban Auckland volunteered to experience peak/off-peak price differentials of 4 cent; 10 cent; or 20 cent; per kilowatt hour. These households also received better-than-conventional information about their electricity consumption: a simple chart in their monthly bill depicting daily peak and off-peak consumption.

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  • Comments on the 'Crafar Farms Counterfactual'

    Howell, Bronwyn (2012)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    A subsequent version of this paper was published in the New Zealand Law Journal [2012] NZLJ 108, April 2012. Also, The National Business Review published Bronwyn's update article after Justice Forrie Miller's decision on 20 April. Link: http://www.nbr.co.nz/article/unpacking-crafar-controversy-117220

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  • Ownership, Control, Agency and Residual Claims: New Insights on Co-operatives and Non-profit Organisations

    Cordery, Carolyn; Howell, Bronwyn (2012)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Carolyn Cordery presented this paper (co-authored with Bronwyn Howell) at the NZ Association for the study of Cooperatives & Mutuals conference held in Wellington 21-22 June 2012.

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  • Competition and Regulatory Implications of a Vodafone-TelstraClear Merger: First Thoughts

    Howell, Bronwyn (2012)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    If the mooted takeover of TelstraClear (TCL) by Vodafone is to go ahead it will be the most significant non-regulatory structural change in the New Zealand telecommunications marketplace since the merger of TelstraSaturn and Clear Communications in December 2001. The merger is a game-changer because it would lead to the creation of a fully vertically integrated telecommunications company providing a complete range of fixed and mobile networks (at least in the areas where TCL's cable network exists) a matter of merely months after New Zealand's incumbent integrated operator Telecom New Zealand (TCNZ) was 'required' to structurally separate its fixed line network from its retail and mobile operations. The implications for both of the separated TCNZ firms (new) Telecom and Chorus are not trivial. There are also likely to be some significant challenges arising for both regulation and the Government's new Ultrafast Broadband (UFB) network from the presence of a strong integrated multi-infrastructure provider.

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  • Structural Econometric Methods in Auctions: A Guide to the Literature

    Sağlam, Yiğit (2012)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Auction models have proved to be attractive to structural econometricians who, since the late 1980s, have made substantial progress in identifying and estimating these rich game-theoretic models of bidder behavior. We provide a guide to the literature in which we contrast the various informational structures (paradigms) commonly assumed by researchers and uncover the evolution of the eld. We highlight major contributions within each paradigm and benchmark modi cations and extensions to these core models. Lastly, we discuss special topics that have received substantial attention among auction researchers in recent years, including auctions formultiple objects, auctions with risk averse bidders, testing between common and private value paradigms, unobserved auction-speci c heterogeneity, and accounting for an unobserved number of bidders as well as endogenous entry.

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  • New Zealand's Electricity Lines Companies: An Ownership Analysis

    Talosaga, Talosaga; Howell, Bronwyn (2012)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

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  • A Critique of Wolak's Evaluation of the NZ Electricity Market: Introduction and Overview

    Hogan, Seamus; Jackson, Peter; Evans, Lewis (2012)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This paper is the first in a symposium of papers that examine the 2009 report by Frank Wolak into the New Zealand electricity market. The Wolak report concluded that there had been a cumulative total of $4.3b (NZD) of overcharging in the New Zealand wholesale market over a period of seven years. In this paper we introduce the Wolak findings in the context of the salient features of the New Zealand market and explain that this headlinefigure is highly sensitive to some (quite unrealistic) assumptions about the structure of this market. The papers that follow this introduction examine Wolak's methodology and its empirical application.

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