6,448 results for Scholarly text

  • Path dependency and the role of HR

    Plimmer, G. (2014)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Path dependency is used to assess the dynamics and evolution of workplace experiences in both the New Zealand Public Sector, and the marginalisation of the HRM function in the United Kingdom. In the New Zealand public sector a controlling management style, but weak leadership and low organisational capability came from the freedom-to-manage and accountability ethos of the new public management reforms. These current features then became entrenched through processes such as: learning effects and reward systems as a new cohort of managers rose through the ranks; managerial norms and implicit theories of human behaviours that included a disinterest in socio-technical concepts and strategic HRM. A controlling management style and weak leadership complimented other behaviours and practices, such as risk aversion, and the rise of Ministerial policy advice at the expense of other practices such as service delivery. In the case of UK HRM managers, the GFC provided an opportunity for the HRM function to escape from its traditional marginalised role. However GFC induced innovations such as the implementation of e-HR and service centres further removed the HRM function from strategic conversations and left them as contract managers. The paper ends with an outline of further planned research on how HRM can shift toward a more strategic function.

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  • How information affects attributions for ambiguous behaviours resulting from stroke

    Gallagher, Jake (2015)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Research has shown that when people see young survivors of stroke, they often misattribute the person’s symptoms to other factors (Wainwright et al., 2013). Consequently, these stroke survivors may suffer feelings of resentment towards, and from their acquaintances. They may also struggle to obtain or retain a job. This thesis examines whether these misattributions for stroke survivors’ symptoms are affected by the information people have about the stroke survivor and the rapidity of the change in their behaviours. Experiment 1 investigated if the stroke survivor’s age (72, 32 or unstated) and the level of information (no information, implied stroke or explicit stroke) for their behaviours influenced people’s attributions. Experiment 1 showed that people attributed the behavioural changes to factors other than stroke when no additional information is present, and they attributed the behaviours to stroke when stroke was explicitly described. When stroke was implied, participants rated stroke as the best explanation but only when the target person was 72. Experiment 2 manipulated the rapidity of the stroke survivor’s behavioural changes to assess the effect on attributions. Experiment 2 showed that people attributed the behaviours to stroke more if only one week had passed, and if the target person was 72, but not when he was 32. It was concluded that young stroke survivors may need to disclose their stroke in order for others to correctly attribute their behaviours, as this could improve their rehabilitation.

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  • People's Supermarket

    Ting, James (2015)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Public markets were once a very important place to a city. However with the growth of the city and heavy usage of traffic, big-box supermarkets start to find its way into the city. The supermarket revolution had overtaken the public markets identity in most urban cities. However, due to recent events known as the supermarket bully-boy tactics, brought an awareness to the public. In result, the public starting to turn away from these chain supermarkets and start to support the local produce. However, even with the support from the public, public markets still find hard to grow within the urban city. This thesis investigates how a hybrid building could be the solution for the public markets in the city from being evicted due to urban land development. This is investigated by incorporating the public market as part of the building’s design development. Besides incorporating the market into the building, the nature of the market as a public place needed to be retained. As the chosen site for this project is situated in an area between two high activity neighborhoods, the project’s design seeks to channel the vibrancy from the surrounding area through the building. The research had identified several public programs other than the market to be integrated into the project’s design. The aim is to design a vibrant urban public place, engaging with the people and building a sense of community within the inner city area. This design-led research thesis breaks-down the project’s complexity into three separate faces to be investigated. The first design phase introduces the overall design scheme and describes the programs relativity to the project. This phase carried on with the investigation and documentation of the form finding process through a series of physical modelling and images. This then led to the second phase of the research involving the market. This phase investigates the physical realms in public market design from a socio-spatial perspective and design principles for making farmer’s markets a public space. The investigation considers the circulation route defined by the promenade and the layout of the stalls. Diagrammatic analysis was conducted throughout these investigations. The outcome of these investigations will reflect on the latter decision for the overall design outcome. The research carried on to phase three where the final design outcome of the design is documented. The design process is generated through the combination of investigation outcomes gathered in phase one and two.

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  • Mountain bikers' attitudes towards mountain biking tourism destinations

    Moularde, Julie (2015)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This thesis, grounded in consumer culture theory, delves into the sociocultural dynamics involved in tourist attitude content and formation. It addresses gaps in special interest tourism, sports tourism and tourist attitudes towards destinations literatures and further knowledge of mountain biking tourism, a niche, but growing, market. Qualitative methods grounded in interpretivism were used to understand how mountain bikers purposefully traveling to mountain bike tourism destinations form attitudes towards these destinations. Twenty-five mountain bikers from Wellington who qualified as serious leisure participants and had previously travelled for the primary purpose of mountain biking were interviewed. Social influence – through social ties, interactions and subcultural involvement – plays a central role in the respondents’ travel motivations and information search process, and thus influences attitude formation, strength and content. Therefore, the respondents are grouped based on centrality of mountain biking identity and subsequent desire to align with the subculture, and differences in attitude formation processes are highlighted. The respondents hold positive attitudes towards most destinations, emphasizing the need to investigate attitude strength and degree of positivity. Four main evaluative dimensions of attitudes are detailed (adventurous, natural, social and utilitarian). It is established that attitudes towards tourism destinations are (1) a qualitative evaluation of the experience anticipated or enabled rather that a quantitative appraisal of attributes, (2) continuously adjusted from the point of naïve awareness onwards, and (3) most relevant and revealing when operationalised as holistic summary evaluations rather than interrelated components. Based on an increased understanding of attitudes towards mountain biking tourism destinations, their formation and mountain biking subculture, recommendations are drawn to better design, maintain and promote sites.

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  • Optical probes of free charge generation in organic photovoltaics

    Barker, Alexander J. (2015)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Organic photovoltaics (OPVs) show considerable promise as a source of low cost solar energy. Improving our understanding of the processes governing free charge photogeneration in OPVs may unlock the improvements in efficiency required for their widespread implementation. In particular, how do photogenerated charge pairs overcome their mutual columbic attraction, and what governs the branching between bound and free charge pairs that is observed to occur shortly after their creation? Ultrafast laser techniques such as transient absorption (TA) spectroscopy are the only tools capable of probing the time scales associated with these processes (as short as 10⁻¹⁴ seconds). Challenges include achieving sufficient sensitivity to resolve the tiny signals generated in thin films under solar-equivalent excitation densities, and distinguishing and quantifying overlapping signals due to separate phenomena. We present the development of a versatile and ultra-sensitive broadband TA spectrometer, along with a comprehensive analysis of the noise sources limiting sensitivity. Through the use of referenced shot-to-shot detection and a novel method exploiting highly chirped broadband probe pulses, we are capable of resolving changes in differential transmission < 3 × 10⁻⁶ over pump-probe delays of 10⁻¹³–10⁻⁴ seconds. By comparing the absorption due to photogenerated charges to measurements of open-circuit voltage decay in devices under transient excitation, we show that TA is able to quantify the recombination of freely extractable charge pairs over many decades of pump-probe delay. The dependence of this recombination on excitation density can reveal the relative fraction of bound and free charge pairs. We apply this technique to blends of varying efficiency and find that the measured free charge fraction is correlated with published photocharge yields for these materials. We access a regime at low temperature where thermalized charge pairs are frozen out following the primary charge separation step and recombine monomolecularly via tunneling. The dependence of tunneling rate on distance enabled us to fit recombination dynamics to distributions of recombination rates. We identified populations of charge-transfer states and well-separated charge pairs, the yield of which is strongly correlated with the yield of free charges measured via their intensity dependent recombination. We conclude that populations of free charges are established via long-range charge separation within the thermalization timescale, thus invoking early branching between free and bound charges across an energetic barrier. Subject to assumed values of the electron tunneling attenuation constant, we find critical charge separation distances of ~ 3–4nm in all materials. TA spectroscopy probes the absorption of excited states, with the signal being proportional to the product of population density and absorption cross-section of the absorbing species. We show that the dependence of signal on probe pulse intensity can decouple these parameters, and apply a numerical model to determine the time-dependent absorption cross-section of photogenerated excitons in thin films of semiconducting polymers. Collectively, this thesis presents spectroscopic tools and applications thereof that illuminate the process of free charge generation in organic photovoltaics.

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  • Creating New Zealand: Pākehā constructions of national identity in New Zealand literary anthologies

    Wild, Susan (2015)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    The desire to construct a sense of home and the need to belong are basic to human society, and to the processes of its cultural production. Since the beginning of New Zealand’s European colonial settlement, the determination to create and reflect a separate and distinctive collective identity for the country’s Pākehā population has been the primary focus of much local creative and critical literature. Most literary histories, like those of Patrick Evans (1990) and Terry Sturm (1991), have followed the narrative of progression – established initially in E.H. McCormick’s Letters and Art in New Zealand (1940) – away from colonial dependency through delineated stages from provincial and cultural nationalist phases to the achievement of a bicultural and multicultural consensus in a globalized, international context. This thesis questions the progressivist assumption which often informs that narrative, arguing instead that, while change and progress have been evident in the development of local notions of identity in the country’s writing over time, there is also a pattern of recurrent concerns about national identity that remained unresolved at the end of the last century. This complex and nuanced picture is disclosed in particular in the uncertain and shifting nature of New Zealand’s relationship with Australia, its response towards expatriates, a continuing concern with the nature of the ‘reality’ of ‘New Zealandness’, and the ambivalence of its sense of identity and place within a broader international context. New Zealand’s national anthologies of verse and short fiction produced over the twentieth century, and their reception in the critical literature that they generated, are taken in the thesis as forming a microcosmic representation of the major concerns that underlie the discourse of national identity formation in this country. I present an analysis of the canonical literary anthologies, in particular those of verse, and of a wide range of critical work focused on responses to the historical development of local literature. From this, I develop the argument that a dual, interlinked pattern, both of progress and of reversion to early concerns and uncertainties, is evident. The thesis is structured into six chapters: an introductory chapter outlines the national and international historical contexts within which the literary contestation of New Zealand identity has developed; the second outlines the contribution of influential literary anthologies to the construction of various concepts of New Zealandness; three chapters then address particular thematic concerns identified as recurring tropes within the primary and secondary literature focused on the discourse of national identity – the ‘problem’ of the expatriate writer, the search for ‘reality’ and ‘authenticity’ in the portrayal of local experience, and New Zealand’s literary response towards Australia; and the Conclusion, which summarizes the argument presented in the thesis and provides an assessment of its major findings. A Bibliography of the works cited in the text is appended at the end of the thesis.

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  • Visualising the Invisible: Displaying Building Resource-use Benchmarks in a 3D City Visualisation

    Hills, Alex Josephine (2014)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This thesis proposes a reinvention of the means of presenting statistical data about 3D urban environments. Conventional GIS use of 3D ’enhances’ hard to understand 2D maps with even harder-to-understand histograms of data. The goal is to demonstrate the means by which data on energy and water-use in buildings can be used to enhance familiar 3D interactive city environments and be made accessible to the widest possible audience. Ultimately, resource benchmarks and other related publicly available information about the built environment could be presented in this highly accessible form. All information would be database driven, so automatically updateable. From this basic platform, applications that allow people to compare their own private records with public norms are easily constructed: a world where a building owner can compare their energy records with benchmarks for similar buildings and take action to improve if necessary, or to advertise accomplishments. This study draws on data from the ‘BEES’ Building Energy End-use Study - a BRANZ research project documenting energy and water use in New Zealand commercial buildings. During the study a ‘Websearch’ survey was conducted, building a detailed picture of non-residential building stock in New Zealand with data collected on building typologies, characteristics and surroundings. A thorough research methodology was developed to ensure that high level data could be collected from 3,000 randomly selected buildings within the budget allocated for the project. The data was examined for quality, building characteristics and typology mix and a valuable layer of detail was added by inferring additional information from the basic Websearch dataset. Where sub-samples used in the BEES study were subject to refusal / survey participation rates, the level of potential bias in the mix of building typologies could be tested and allowances made. Energy and water use data collected for a random subset of the sample, could then be applied as benchmarks to the census of New Zealand commercial buildings. In order to trial the communication of the benchmark results to the widest possible audience, an automated 3D city visualisation ‘pilot’ was generated of the Wellington Central Business District and a number of graphic tools were brought together to make the information publicly accessible and as useful as possible. The overall aim was to test the feasibility of applying this technique at a national level. The research revealed three major recommendations: firstly, a national unique building identifier is required to ensure the accuracy of national building data and enable statistical results about the built environment to be accurately and reliably applied to real buildings; secondly, resource use data in 3D format is urgently required to improve the value of sustainable properties; lastly, creating a significant impact on building stock efficiency will depend upon the engagement of a wider audience. Developed further, this visualisation will enable construction professionals, building owners, developers and tenants to understand the built environment and implications of building design and typology on energy and water use.

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  • Traumatic Bonding and Intimate Partner Violence

    George, Vera (2015)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Intimate partner violence is a pervasive and highly detrimental phenomenon. One common aspect of abusive relationships is a reluctance to leave one’s partner. With this in mind, the current study explored the role of Stockholm syndrome in abusive relationships. Study 1 and 2 surveyed 508 diverse adults. Study 1 submitted the Stockholm syndrome scale to psychometric testing and confirmed a 3-factor solution for the scale. The three components are Core, justifying an abuser through cognitive distortions; Damage, ongoing psychological effects of abuse; and Love, the belief that one’s survival depends on the love of an abuser. Study 2 tested the predictive qualities of the scale and found that its components are linked to relationship violence in a predictable fashion. These links may be moderated by insecure attachment. Study 3 analysed dyadic data from 86 couples and found positive associations between levels of Core and relationship violence, both within and across partners. Implications and future directions are discussed.

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  • Politicians Gone Wild: A Comparative Analysis of Political Scandals in New Zealand, The United States and France

    Argyle, Elizabeth (2015)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    The place of political scandals in the academic literature is contentious; scandals are commonly dismissed as distractions from the ‘real issues’ in a society. This thesis challenges that notion, instead arguing that political scandals are an important phenomenon in functioning democracies. Through a comparative lens, political transgressions since the year 2000 that have occurred in three liberal democracies, New Zealand, the United States and France, have been analysed. Transgressions by political actors in these jurisdictions of a sexual, financial and power nature have been applied to previously established frameworks. Observations about the political culture of these countries have been made as a result of this analysis. Four existing theories on the significance of political scandal – the functionalist theory of scandal, the no consequence theory, the trivialisation theory and social theory – were also tested. The social theory of scandal is concluded to be the most applicable to the case studies assessed. The social theory of scandal argues that political scandals can foster cultures of debate and criticism which is important to functioning democracies; however, political scandals of a large magnitude or high frequency can damage the public’s perception of political actors and institutions. This analysis therefore serves as evidence that political scandals are not frivolous occurrences but instead are important indicators of societal values and can have important and lasting consequences. This thesis also considers political scandals in broader historical and cultural contexts, drawing attention to the pervasiveness of scandal as a topic of academic and public interest.

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  • The Photochemistry of Organic Materials for Photonic Devices

    Middleton, Ayla Penelope (2014)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Optically active organic chromophores have attracted much interest in recent years for their potential for use in photonic devices. Chromophores such as compound (1) have been found to have a very high second order nonlinear susceptibility ( β ) value of 650 × 10⁻³⁰esu in dimethyl formamide.¹ The performance of 1 in a polymer film is much lower than this due to the formation of aggregates which hinder the poling process necessary to ensure a noncentrosymmetric arrangement of the molecules in order to display second order nonlinear behaviour. The molecular aggregation behaviour of a set of second order nonlinear compounds based on compound 1 have been studied in this thesis. These compounds share the backbone shown in figure 1 with pendant groups added to the R₁ R₂ and R₃ positions, with the aim of finding substituent groups that can be added to the optically active merocyanine backbone that reduce the aggregation and increase the solubility of the compounds. This in turn will make them more suitable for use in photonics devices. It was found that a C₁₁H₂₃ alkyl chain added to the R₃ position made the largest contribution to decreasing aggregation. Bulky groups on the R₁ and R₂ positions also reduced aggregation. As a result compounds 5 and 8, with R₃ = C₁₁H₂₃ and bulky groups attached displayed the least aggregation of the compounds studied. ¹ See Figure 1 (pg. i): Merocyanine backbone with substituent positions marked.

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  • Stratigraphy, facies architecture and emplacement history of the c. 3.6 ka B.P. Ngatoro Formation on the eastern flanks of Egmont Volcano, western North Island, New Zealand

    Dixon, Benjamin John (2014)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    The Ngatoro Formation is an extensive volcaniclastic deposit distributed on the eastern lower flanks of Egmont Volcano, central North Island, New Zealand. Formally identified by Neall (1979) this deposit was initially attributed to an Egmont sourced water-supported mass flow event c. 3, 600 ¹⁴C years B.P. The Ngatoro Formation was subsequently described by Alloway (1989) as a single debris flow deposit closely associated with the deposition of the underlying Inglewood Tephra (c. 3,600 ¹⁴C yrs B.P) that had laterally transformed into a hyperconcentrated- to- flood flow deposit. Such water-supported mass flows have been well documented on volcanoes both within New Zealand (i.e. Mt Ruapehu) and elsewhere around the world (i.e. Mt Merapi, Central Java and Mt St Helens, Washington). This thesis comprises field mapping, stratigraphic descriptions, field and laboratory grain size and shape analysis, tephrochronology and palaeomagnetic analysis with the aim of refining the stratigraphy, facies architecture and emplacement history of the c. 3,600 ¹⁴C yrs B.P. Ngatoro Formation. This study has found that the Ngatoro Formation has a highly variable and complex emplacement history as evidenced by the rapid textural changes with increasing distance from the modern day Egmont summit. The Ngatoro Formation comprises two closely spaced mass flow events whose flow and emplacement characteristics have undergone both proximal to distal and axial to marginal transformations. On surfaces adjacent to the Manganui Valley on the deeply incised flanks of Egmont Volcano, the Ngatoro Formation is identified as overbank surge deposits whereas at the boundary of Egmont National Park it occurs as massive, pebble- to boulder-rich debris flow deposits. At intermediate to distal distances (17-23 km from the modern Egmont summit) the Ngatoro Formation occurs as a sequence of multiple coalescing dominantly sandy textured hyperconcentrated flow deposits. The lateral and longitudinal textural variability in the Ngatoro Formation reflects downstream transformation from gas-supported block-and-ash flows to water-supported debris flows, then subsequently to turbulent pebbly-sand dominated hyperconcentrated flows. Palaeomagnetic temperature estimates for the Ngatoro Formation at two sites (Vickers and Surrey Road Quarries, c. 10 km from the present day Egmont summit) indicate clast incorporation temperatures of c. 300°C and emplacement temperatures of c. 200°C. The elevated emplacement temperatures supported by the Ngatoro Formation’s coarse textured, monolithologic componentry suggest non-cohesive emplacement of block-and-ash flow debris generated by the sequential gravitational collapse of an effusive lava dome after the paroxysmal Inglewood eruptive event (c. 3,600 ¹⁴C yrs B.P.). The occurrence of a prominent intervening paleosol between these two events suggest that they are not part of the same eruptive phase but rather, the latter is a product of a previously unrecognised extended phase of the Inglewood eruptive event. This study recognises the potential for gravitational dome collapse, the generation of block-and-ash flows and their lateral transformation to water-support mass flows (debris, hyperconcentrated and stream flows) occurring in years to decades following from the main eruptive phase. This insight has implications with respect to the evaluation of post-eruptive hazards and risk.

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  • Discrimination on the grounds of sexual orientation: A comparison between the United Kingdom and New Zealand

    Aird, Joshua Charles Raymond (2014)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This paper compares the way in which the United Kingdom and New Zealand approach discrimination claims on the ground of sexual orientation. This paper uses the recent judgment in the case of Bull v Hall as an avenue to explore this issue contrasting it with a similar fact situation in New Zealand, the Pilgrim Planet Lodge discrimination. This paper illustrates that the majority in Bull v Hall were able to take a substantive equality approach to their reasoning. This approach is the most consistent with the principle of nondiscrimination. The paper then focuses on the legislative and process differences in the United Kingdom and New Zealand and the results they produce. Finally by looking and the advantages and disadvantages of both approaches this paper concludes that to build a human rights culture and respect the principle of non-discrimination there needs to be more availability of pubic litigation of discrimination claims.

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  • Pushing 'pause' on video evidence: An analysis of the proposed amendments to s 106 of the Evidence Act 2006

    Bennett, Zoe (2014)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This paper assesses the ramifications of the Cabinet Social Policy Committees proposals contained in the paper Amendments to the Evidence Act 2006. The Committee proposed a change to s 106 of the Evidence Act, which currently lies in favour of full disclosure of video evidence to the defence. The proposed amendments will reverse this presumption, ultimately restricting the defence’s access to the complainants video evidence. This paper will assess the validity and practicality of these proposed amendments, by assessing whether they are consistent with the New Zealand Bill of Rights Act, the equality of arms doctrine and international case law. Although the proposed amendments were made to protect vulnerable complainants, attrition rates in New Zealand show that vulnerable witnesses do not drop out of the criminal justice system just because they are fearful about their video evidence being disclosed. The attrition rates are more complex. However, this paper argues that there are still adequate safeguards in place to protect the defence’s right to a fair trial. Whilst these safeguards holdfast, any effort to protect vulnerable victims should be encouraged.

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  • The Labour Party after 75 years

    Clark, Margaret (1992)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    The 75th anniversary of the founding of the New Zealand Labour Party occurred in 1991. Needless to say the party itself was not in a notably celebratory mood, having just suffered a huge electoral defeat and all that that entailed in terms of after-the-event recriminations and soul-searching. However as academics we thought the occasion should be marked and pondered. After all there are not many local organisations which have persisted for half the length of our constitutional history, let alone one that is so full of impassioned, ideals-driven, argumentative people as the Labour Party. The following papers were presented at a day-long seminar held in the Stout Research Centre on 29 October 1991. Contributors contemplated not only the Labour Party's past triumphs and disasters, but also its future political and policy options. Party activists and officials present were as frank as more detached observers in acknowledging the Party's internal difficulties and contradictions, and the need to define a fresh vision for itself. The discussion was lively and good-natured, but alas our efforts to record it for transcription failed. It must remain only a pleasant memory for participants.

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  • Hostile borders on historical landscapes : the placeless place of Andamanese culture

    Pandya, Vishvajit (1999)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This paper is an analysis of meanings attributed to contacts between Jarwas and non-Jarwas in the Andaman Islands. Unlike other Andaman tribal groups, the Jarwas are confined to a government-designated area of 765 square kilometres of forest reserve, which is only a fraction of their former tribal land. Since early colonial occupation, government parties have sought out Jarwas on the west coast of the island they inhabit, bringing them gifts to try to establish friendly relations. On the eastern side of Jarwa territory, on the other hand, the Jarwas raid settlements and occasionally kill settlers and police who venture into their territory. The paper addresses the issue of how the contact event on the eastern side is different in Jarwa eyes from what occurs on the western side. The boundaries are given meanings by the various outsiders and the Jarwas, and these meanings are not fixed. Although contact events are in tended to establish 'friendly' relations with 'hostile' Jarwas, no true relationship of trust and understanding has yet been established. This underlines the fact that meanings are bound by cultural, political and historical contexts.

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  • A useful accessory: The use of lightweight replica ornament to manage the cultural heritage values of earthquake-prone buildings

    Smith, Moira (2015)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    In NZ, some earthquake-prone heritage buildings have, historically, been restored with lightweight replica ornament to reconstruct decorative features that have been damaged or removed over time. But restoration has traditionally been a contested approach to conservation, particularly when heritage values and authenticity are considered to be intrinsic only to original or historic built fabric. This problem leads to the central research question addressed in this dissertation: ‘Can lightweight replica ornament be used to manage the heritage value of earthquake-prone heritage buildings?’ The research draws on Critical Heritage Studies which challenges the conventional stress on the intrinsic value of tangible heritage objects, and argues that heritage value is found in the intangible cultural processes that surround things. Consequently, authenticity is seen as pluralised and dependent on the cultural concerns, and aspirations, of local stakeholder communities. Using the theoretical framework of critical heritage and material culture studies, this dissertation therefore examines a technical aspect of conservation practice by re-theorising the concept of 'restoration'. The research methodology employs an adapted model of Action Research to investigate current professional practice. After analysing the historical context of earthquake-prone heritage buildings in the first chapter, in chapter two qualitative interviews are conducted with professionals who have an interest in the management of earthquake-prone buildings. Through the analysis and discussion of this data, a new actor network model is developed which shows the wider context of the resolution of the earthquake-prone status of heritage buildings. The findings suggest that professionals believe that heritage value is intrinsic to built fabric, and that the repair of existing built fabric is generally achievable. This means that replica ornament should only be considered for situations where reparability is unfeasible, and that lightweight substitute materials should only be used where traditional materials and technologies can longer be reproduced. Within these constraints it is possible to use lightweight replica ornament where it can be justified as a contributor to cultural heritage values. Furthermore, where professionals can reconcile the varying concerns of stakeholder communities in terms of safety and heritage value then lightweight replica ornament has the potential to add meaning to buildings and to become part of the narrative of place.

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  • High Impedance Amplifiers for Non-Contact Bio-Potential Sensing

    Ryan, Brett (2013)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This research develops a non-contact bio-potential sensor which can quickly respond to input transient events, is insensitive to mechanical disturbances, and operates with a bandwidth from 0.04Hz – 20kHz, with input voltage noise spectral density of 200nV / √Hz at 1kHz. Initial investigations focused on the development of an active biasing scheme to control the sensors input impedance in response to input transient events. This scheme was found to significantly reduce the settling time of the sensor; however the input impedance was degraded, and the device was sensitive to distance fluctuations. Further research was undertaken, and a circuit developed to preserve fast settling times, whilst decreasing the sensitivity to distance fluctuations. A novel amplifier biasing network was developed using a pair of junction field effect transistors (JFETs), which actively compensates for DC and low frequency interference, whilst maintaining high impedance at signal frequencies. This biasing network significantly reduces the settling time, allowing bio-potentials to be measured quickly after sensor application, and speeding up recovery when the sensor is in saturation. Further work focused on reducing the sensitivity to mechanical disturbances even further. A positive feedback path with low phase error was introduced to reduce the effective input capacitance of the sensor. Tuning of the positive feedback loop gain was achieved with coarse and fine control potentiometers, allowing very precise gains to be achieved. The sensor was found to be insensitive to distance fluctuations of up to 0.5mm at 1Hz, and up to 2mm at 5kHz. As a complement to the non-contact sensor, an amplifier to measure differential bio-potentials was developed. This differential amplifier achieved a CMRR of greater than 100dB up to 10kHz. Precise fixed gains of 20±0:02dB, 40±0:01dB, 60±0:03dB, and 80±0:3dB were achieved, with input voltage noise density of 15nV / √Hz at 1kHz.

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  • Saudisation and Women’s Empowerment through Employment in the Health Care Sector

    Alghamdi, Fatemah (2014)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    The majority of studies concerning Saudisation policy as a solution to decrease the unemployment of nationals and reduce the reliance on expatriate. However, this study looks at Saudisation as a tool to empower Saudi women working in the health care sector. Saudi working women have been lacking opportunities of empowerment, due to challenges they face in their daily life that hinder the development and equality of those women. The thesis has been guided by the literature and qualitative evidence that suggests obstacles to women’s empowerment and development involve socially constructed norms, traditions, religion and culture that primarily favour men. The study, also, adopts feminist geography and gender perspective and focuses on the individual voices of women working in the health care sector. This research uses different empowerment frameworks of Kabeer, Rowland, Stromquist and Freire, which are relevant to women employment and empowerment. This research utilises feminist methodology in obtaining deep understanding of the reality and experience of women employed in the health care sector. Findings of this research reveal conditions that maintain disempowerment of women working in health care sector, as well as identifying the tools that might guarantee their empowerment. Findings also show those women necessities in the case of gender needs that revolve around their domestic and working responsibilities. This thesis provides some recommendations to government, policy makers, educational institutions and employers about how to contribute in empowering women and overcoming challenges that hinder their development and wellbeing. Ultimately, this study aimed to, first, contribute to the literature of women’s empowerment by exploring their employment in a Saudi context and second, to put the spotlight on Saudi women’s issues through development lens and enrich that field of study.

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  • The Political Economy of New Zealand’s Consumers Price Index

    Higgs, Corin (2015)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    The structure of New Zealand’s Consumers Price Index has changed many times over its 100 year history. As New Zealand’s most influential and consequential official statistic the CPI performs political and distributional functions that affects ‘who gets what and when’. Some observers suggest that change in the structure of the CPI is merely the consequence of technological improvement which in turn alters the conduct of policy-making and politics. This study turns that assumption on its head by demonstrating that it is politics that has altered the technology known as the CPI. Through the examination and evaluation of the changing political and economic context that the index operates within, this thesis work finds that the CPI was transformed by the very political forces it was designed to contain. This thesis argues that because the index functions as political decision-making tool that supports the setting of salaries and wages, benefit levels and interest rates, change in the form of the index is a result of struggle among interests affected by these highly political decisions. This thesis makes its case through analysis of primary sources and official documentation relating to the development of the index. The first case study tracks the origins of the first official index in 1914, devised in order to learn what it cost a ‘working’ family to meet its basic needs through its transformation into a tool that set wages and measured price change in the wider economy. This is reinforced by a study of change to the index since the 1970s, focusing on the use of the CPI in the conduct of monetary policy that resulted in a politically driven change to the measurement of household inflation. These case studies are further supported by examination of the secondary literature on price indexes, monetary policy and institutional change theory. This thesis adds to the body of knowledge on theories of institutional change by presenting evidence of the conflict that has caused political change to the technology of the CPI.

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  • Organised Functional Liquids for Photon Upconversion

    van den Kerkhof, Lia Catherine (2015)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Photon upconversion is a process by which lower energy photons are converted to higher energy photons, which can be achieved by the interaction of two triplet excited states. This process holds potential for wavelength shifting solid films in photovoltaic cells. Not all wavelengths emitted by the sun have sufficient energy to be utilized by such devices. Typical solar cells have a band gap of around 1 µm, however there is a significant amount of energy output by the sun that falls below this threshold. Upconversion could lead to more efficient use of energy by converting these lower energy wavelengths to wavelengths that could be directly absorbed by the solar panel. Upconversion has thus far been harnessed in solution, where diffusion is the limiting factor for the efficiency of the process. However, for technological applications it would be better to create thin solid films. In these films, molecules would have to be brought within the distance on which upconversion occurs, as the process would no longer be defined by diffusion. One way to achieve this would be to create liquid crystalline derivatives of upconversion emitter molecules. This would provide ordering in the system, which would enhance electronic coupling and bring molecules within the scale on which upconversion occurs. The work of this thesis has focused on the synthesis of these organised functional liquids: liquid crystals of common upconversion emitter molecules. 9,10-diphenylanthracene (DPA) and 9,10-bis(phenylethynyl)anthracene (BPEA) are popular emitter molecules, and derivatives of these molecules were synthesized. A variety of alkyl chains were attached with or without phenyl linkers. The alkyl chains would provide entropy to the system in order to induce the formation of liquid crystalline phases. The resulting phase behaviour of these derivatives was studied using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and polarised optical microscopy (POM). Eight novel derivatives of DPA and BPEA were synthesized. New information was gained as to the requirements of inducing liquid crystallinity in these dye molecules. Direct addition of chains symmetrically to the central dye molecules did not result in the formation of liquid crystalline phases. Through extension of the central core by an extra phenyl ring a liquid crystalline behaviour was observed. A synthesized derivative of DPA exhibited extreme supercooling, which is one of a few derivatives of 9,10-diphenylanthracene to exhibit a liquid state at room temperature. A derivative of BPEA was synthesized that exhibited formation of a mesophase (liquid crystal phase). These two derivatives were investigated for potential use as a material for upconversion.

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